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In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Teacher Evaluation and Teacher Effectiveness

Introduction, purposes of teacher evaluation.

  • International Policy and Research Reports
  • US Policy and Research Reports
  • Textbooks on Teacher Effectiveness and Teacher Evaluation
  • Early Models of Teacher Evaluation
  • Contemporary Models of Teacher Evaluation
  • Measuring Teacher Effectiveness
  • Value-Added Models in Teacher Evaluation
  • Teacher Observation in Teacher Evaluation
  • Impacts of Teacher Evaluation on Teacher Quality

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Teacher Evaluation and Teacher Effectiveness by James H. Stronge , Leslie W. Grant , Xianxuan Xu LAST REVIEWED: 28 July 2021 LAST MODIFIED: 28 July 2021 DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0138

Teacher evaluation has evolved over time from focusing on the moral values of a teacher in the early 1900s to standards-based evaluation models of today that seek to include measures of student academic progress. Often, teacher evaluation systems seek to serve two needs: accountability and improvement. Changes in teacher evaluation have been influenced by political winds as well as a desire to create systems that are fair and balanced. This article begins with an overview of the purposes of teacher evaluation. Next, often-cited international and US policy and research reports as well as foundational textbooks related to teacher effectiveness and teacher evaluation are highlighted. The article then provides an overview of early models of teacher evaluation focused on the roles and responsibilities of a teacher and the evolution to contemporary models of teacher evaluation with a focus on a standards-based and/or outcomes-based approach to evaluation. The next section highlights seminal works that emerged in measuring teacher effectiveness as well as value-added models to support an outcomes-based approach by including student academic progress as part of evaluation. Including student outcomes has been the topic of intense discussion as policymakers and researchers debate the validity of the use of student test scores in terms of value-added modeling and other growth models. Researchers do not agree on the stability of such models and whether they do differentiate between effective and less effective teachers. Research will continue to inform and enrich this debate and discussion. Teacher observation remains a critical part of the evaluation process and the article provides a historical overview of common practices and challenges of teacher observation. Finally, works that illuminate impacts of teacher evaluation are provided, including texts and reports related to teacher growth and development, teacher retention, and teacher compensation.

Teacher evaluation that is intended to be productive and actionable must address either teacher growth and support, the quality of teacher performance, or both. In essence, teacher evaluation can and should consider purposes for helping teachers improve their performance as well as providing accountable for their work. While other teacher evaluation purposes are identified periodically (e.g., school improvement), the most commonly accepted purposes for teacher evaluation are: (1) supporting teacher personal and professional growth that leads to improved and sustained quality performance, and (2) documenting results of teaching practices for reporting and accountability. There is considerable discussion and little agreement in the extant literature regarding whether both purposes can and should be achieved within the same performance evaluation system. One point of agreement is that regardless of the purpose— teacher professional growth or teacher accountability—the intended purpose(s) of teacher evaluation must be actionable if evaluation is to a worthwhile endeavor. Earlier publications— Peterson 2000 , Gordon 2006 , and Stronge 2006 —posit the rationale for a connection among evaluation of teacher performance, teacher growth and development, and school improvement. A case for using evaluation for the purpose of accountability, or teacher dismissal, more specifically, is made in Chait 2010 . A case for using evaluation for the purposes of teacher development is described in Donaldson and Peske 2010 . Crowe 2010 argues that the first evaluation of a teacher occurs in her teacher education program and that we should have a strong accountability system for teacher education programs to make sure the graduates have the knowledge and skills to be effective with students. Huber and Skedsmo 2016 frames the primary purposes of teacher evaluation as formative (teacher growth and support) and summative (teacher accountability). A report from the National Council on Teacher Quality, Gerber 2019 advocates for teacher evaluation designs that help teachers improve their practice and support distribution of teacher quality equitably across schools.

Chait, Robin. 2010. Removing chronically ineffective teachers: Barriers and opportunities . Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

Chait recognizes that teachers have a tremendous impact on student achievement and that teachers vary greatly in their effectiveness. This report focuses on one critical piece in the human capital systems in school—the dismissal of chronically ineffective teachers. The challenges in removing teachers who are persistently ineffective and fail to improve even with intensive support over time are described.

Crowe, Edward. 2010. Measuring what matters: A stronger accountability model for teacher education . Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

Crowe extends the argument of accountability and teacher evaluation into the sector of teacher preparation. He maintains that teacher education programs should serve as a real quality control and use empirically based indicators to measure the extent to which graduates help their students learn.

Donaldson, Morgaen L., and Heather G. Peske. 2010. Supporting effective teaching through teacher evaluation: A study of teacher evaluation in five charter schools . Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

This text reports findings from a study of teacher evaluation practices in five charter schools. The authors find that a rigorous teacher evaluation system can influence teachers’ instructional capabilities in a positive way.

Gerber, Nicole. 2019. Teacher evaluation that’s meaningful . Washington, DC: National Council on Teacher Quality.

This report provides a short review of teacher evaluation trends and practices in the United States that directly or indirectly are related to making the purposes of teacher evaluation meaningful. Included in the review are findings related to teacher evaluation rating categories, frequency of evaluations, use of observations, evaluation components, and student growth measures.

Gordon, Stephen P. 2006. Teacher evaluation and professional development. In Evaluating teaching: A guide to current thinking and best practice . 2d ed. Edited by James H. Stronge, 268–290. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

DOI: 10.4135/9781412990202.d105

Gordon makes a case for the alignment among teacher evaluation, professional development, and school improvement goals—with all aspects moving toward the same common denominator of improving student learning.

Huber, Stephan G., and Guri Skedsmo. 2016. Teacher evaluation—accountability and improving teaching practices. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability 28:105–109.

DOI: 10.1007/s11092-016-9241-1

This journal article discusses the importance of both teacher growth and teacher accountability as important purposes for teacher evaluation. The authors frame their review and arguments in terms of formative (ongoing growth orientation) and summative (accountability orientation) purposes of teacher evaluation.

Peterson, Kenneth D. 2000. Teacher evaluation: A comprehensive guide to new directions and practices . 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

This book recognizes that the evaluation of teachers is a complex activity. It provides an examination of the many purposes of teacher evaluation. The purposes include to protect children, provide feedback to teachers regarding the quality of their practice, reassure audiences who are stakeholders in quality teaching, make personnel decisions, inform teacher educators, and shape future practice.

Stronge, James H. 2006. Teacher evaluation and school improvement: Improving the educational landscape. In Evaluating teaching: A guide to current thinking and best practice . 2d ed. Edited by James H. Stronge, 1–23. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

DOI: 10.4135/9781412990202.d4

In this book chapter, Stronge suggests that a conceptually sound and properly implemented evaluation system for teachers is a vital component of successful reform efforts. The chapter discusses key features of effective teacher evaluation systems and offers one model for designing a quality teacher evaluation system for school improvement and teacher growth.

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Research consistently shows that teaching is the single most important school-based factor in a student’s academic growth. As such, the topic of effective teaching is at the forefront of CEPR’s research, which includes large national projects, like the National Center for Teacher Effectiveness, and program evaluations, like that of the Boston Teacher Residency. It is CEPR’s goal to have such analyses inform policy decisions and aid in drawing implications for reform.

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While research has generated substantial information regarding the characteristics of effective mathematics teachers and classrooms, scholars have rarely tested multiple aspects of teachers or teaching within a single study. Without testing multiple variables simultaneously, it is difficult to identify specific aspects of mathematics teachers and teaching that may be particularly impactful on student learning, and to understand the degree to which these characteristics are related to one another. This plenary draws on data from a three-year study measuring multiple components of teacher and teaching quality to investigate these issues.

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Did video technology improve the classroom observation process?

The Best Foot Forward Project investigated whether video technology can make the classroom observation process easier to implement, less costly, and more valid and reliable. In a randomized controlled trial, the study team put cameras in the hands of teachers and allowed them to select their best lessons for evaluation. Researchers aimed to learn whether digital video made the observation process more acceptable to teachers and administrators.... Read more about Best Foot Forward Project

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How do we measure the specialized content knowledge required to teacher mathematics?

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Mathematical Quality of Instruction (MQI)

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Education Decision Makers Need More Timely, Actionable Data

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Let’s Rewind

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Motivation is the key to success in educational institutions, and it empowers a teacher to work with an affection that contributes to the accomplishment of hierarchical objectives. Yet, what drives school teachers to be pleased or motivated to achieve exceptional performance? This contemplation must be considered thoroughly in different regions with different predictors. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors influencing teachers’ motivation and evaluate the influence of motivation on teachers’ job performance in private schools in Mirpurkhas, Pakistan. We use quantitative statistics and a partial least-squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM analysis) design; the data was collected through a survey questionnaire. We found that motivation significantly influences teachers’ job performance. The study revealed that self-determined and non-self-determined motivation and factors influencing teachers’ motivation significantly impact teachers’ job performance. The administration must formulate teachers’ motivational policies and practices to meet their needs. Furthermore, school administrations should provide adequate resources like bonuses, rewards, good communication, moral support, emotional support, and an increment in salaries to ensure quality learning and yield high performance from their teaching staff to improve the relevant education system.

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Some of the country’s leading educational institutions have recently established teaching excellence centers, focusing on supporting and improving learning materials to produce optimal teaching strategies and processes. Consequently, quality education is becoming a more critical concern in the educational world in recent years. This research adopts the self-determination theory (SDT) put forward by Ryan and Deci ( 2000b ) as a model that can be implemented in the motivation and performance of teachers in Pakistani schools. SDT can be more emphasized with its factors named self-determined and non-self-determined motivation. It is important to note that SDT distinguishes between regulated and independent motivation. A school with good motivation strategies can ensure harmony, prosperity, and increased student enrollment. Correspondingly, the teacher’s positive behavior related to teaching increases their level of understanding and interest, eventually improving their job performance. According to Hanus and Fox ( 2015 ), motivation is a process that drives individuals to move toward accomplishing a goal. It is the key to success for every educational institution and empowers a teacher to work with an affection that contributes to accomplishing hierarchical objectives. They recommended incentivizing teachers to motivate them to achieve the most outstanding results. According to Inayatullah and Jehangir ( 2012 ), head teachers’ unfavorable work environment and inadequate leadership abilities were to blame for the low motivation of teachers. According to Nawaz and Yasin ( 2015 ), factors including a weak appraisal system, small class sizes, a shortage of staff rooms, and a lack of educational resources all impact how motivated secondary school teachers are. Lack of professional development opportunities and job security further affect teachers’ intrinsic motivation (Sajid et al., 2018 ).

Being a developing nation, Pakistan has made significant efforts in recent years to expand the general education system and school education. The School Education and Literacy Department is in charge of overseeing school education in Pakistan’s Sindh province. There is evidence that the instructors in Sindh province generally lack intrinsic motivation, negatively impacting teacher performance and student learning (F. Shaikh, 2012 ). Recent reports show Sindh province’s school system is inferior (Saleem, 2020 ). The teaching profession evolved into a launching pad for young people.

It should be noted that internal administration and leadership largely determine the nature of the school environment. The school principal or controller of education, acting as the Chief Executive, must understand and acknowledge that people can produce results. Therefore, understanding the employees’ motivation is central to each organization (Onen and Maicibi, 2004 ). It is necessary to understand their factors to train high-quality teachers, acting as a motivational tool. Based on several studies, employees can be motivated in two ways, internal and external, derived from different distinctive forms of rewards. Internal motivation drives oneself for self-satisfaction, also known as self-determined motivation. According to Collie and Martin ( 2017 ), teacher motivation can be defined as the primary motive for teachers’ engagement in teaching, which might vary in how self-determined they are (Ryan and Deci, 2000a ).

In contrast, external motivation exists when a person is influenced to receive monetary compensation and achievement, known as non-self-determined motivation. Motivating individuals in an organization is essential because it can encourage people’s behavior and actions regarding perceived goals. As believed by Panda and Mohanty ( 2003 ), it is generally accepted that teachers’ job performance plays a significant role in terms of the educational learning of students and their academic performance. In the present economic world, where competitiveness is at its peak, employers have realized that teachers’ job performance plays a vital role in schools’ move toward success. Also, various kinds of employee-related decisions, including job promotion, rotation, job enrichment, and job security, can be measured at all organizational levels regarding performance (Tan Mullins, 2020 ). Despite the significance of motivation in excellent education in an era of profound transition toward the more learning-oriented approach, empirical research on the motivational components of teachers has gotten very little attention. However, the researchers discovered a favorable association between instructors’ motivation and job performance and a statistically significant relationship between their motivation and performance (Akhtar et al., 2017 ). An investigation into the educational system in Pakistan also looked at the connection between employee performance and the efficiency of training, and intrinsic motivation. The sample used here included staff from both private and public schools, and it revealed that employee behavior varied depending on their demographics and work environment. However, more research is still needed (Shahzadi et al., 2014 ). In schools, teachers lack motivation, and as a result, they are less prepared, directly influencing students and the educational structure. In Sindh, Pakistan, few studies have been conducted on teacher recognition in private-sector schools. As a result, the primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of teachers’ motivation on teachers’ job performance to assist in the attainment of educational excellence in private schools. In the past, studies have been done in different sectors of Pakistan and other regions. Still, in Mirpurkhas city of Pakistan, there seems to be a research gap concerning the educational sector because this study is not performed before since there is no high competition has been seen. Hence, teachers get little attention, so their performance might be compromised. This study will fill this gap by identifying factors that motivate teachers and influence teachers’ job performance and how they can be effectively implemented to increase teachers’ job performance in the Mirpurkhas City of Pakistan and can increase the quality of education.

From this perspective, this research endeavors to recognize the influence of motivation on teachers’ job performance in Pakistan, keeping in mind the end goal to address issues emerging from motivational methodologies in educational settings. The research model and hypotheses were examined using data from the Mirpurkhas, Sindh, Pakistan private schools, based on a literature review from earlier related studies. Therefore, this study aims to answer three research questions: (1) How does self-determined motivation contribute to teachers’ job performance at private schools? (2) How does non-self-determined motivation affects teachers’ job performance at private schools? And (3) To what extent do factors influencing teachers’ motivation impact the teachers’ job performance in private schools? To answer these questions, the quantitative method is used in this study. A questionnaire has been adopted to gather relevant information that can be utilized to assess the influence of motivation on teachers’ job performance. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the impact of motivation on teachers’ job performance and factors affecting teachers’ motivation to restore the situation. The study will be meaningful to educational policy formulators and other participants who will be able to incorporate the motivational factors and their effect on job performance in Pakistan. Implanting the best possible human resources practices relating to the dilemma of teachers’ motivation, stipulating reforms in educational policies for addressing evolving matters in the arena.

Literature review

The literature review explains the research process. The first step in empirically examining the planned research was identifying the factors. Various resources were reviewed for this goal to find motivation and job performance elements. Pakistan gained independence in 1947, and its entire educational system was designed to develop a class of people who intended to work for the bureaucracy to maintain the country’s old socioeconomic structure. The colonial powers established the socioeconomic framework to exploit the subcontinent’s inhabitants. Pakistan has made considerable progress toward the goal of universal primary education. Still, significant inequalities in learning levels continue between public and private schools and between rural and urban areas. The diversity in teaching quality between educational institutions is one of the primary causes of these inequities. Among the many issues is a shortage of skilled teachers, particularly topic specialists, inequality in the distribution of teachers throughout schools, school personnel, low teacher accountability, and inadequate training opportunities and incentive systems. In Pakistan, a lack of chances and incentives for professional development and career advancement has made teaching an unappealing career choice. High teacher turnover and a lengthy replacement process worsen teacher deployment issues in schools with low status, low wages, and insufficient working conditions. To remove gaps in pupil-teacher ratios and diminish multi-grade teaching, a more regular spatial pattern of teachers is required throughout school levels and schools at each level. Schools in major urban areas frequently have excess teachers, whereas schools in socioeconomically poor areas have teacher shortages.

The primary purpose of the examination was to discover a structure and several often expressed elements. Despite the substantial research on motivational dynamics on teacher effectiveness, several areas remain unexplored, opening up various study possibilities. Self-determined, non-self-determined, and factors affecting teachers’ motivation are possible important terms that reflect teachers’ desire to learn and incorporate new information. According to de Jesus and Lens ( 2005 ), teacher motivation is critical for educational managers and leaders since it impacts student motivation. The teacher’s performance will be at its highest level in carrying out their responsibilities if motivation is maintained (Brandmiller et al., 2020 ). The way a person reacts to their environment at work determines their basis. Whether partially or concurrently, work motivation has a good and significant impact on teachers’ performance (Rofifah et al., 2021 ).

It is believed that intrinsically motivated teachers concentrate on the benefits of activities directly related to teaching, emphasizing the intrinsic satisfaction they derive from their work. On the other hand, Extrinsically driven teachers are more likely to seek out other perks such as time off, income, and other extrinsic rewards associated with their profession. The impact of intrinsic motivation on teacher job performance was discovered in Mary’s ( 2010 ) research. The findings revealed a significant positive association between intrinsic motivation and teachers’ job performance, implying that as intrinsic motivation rises, so does teachers’ job performance. While S.H. Shaikh et al. ( 2019 ) in research paper found that all external factors positively and significantly impact employees. This survey provides extensive information on the importance of external factors in illuminating employees’ job performance. Obilade ( 1999 ) concluded that a teacher’s work performance may be defined as the tasks and obligations a teacher fulfils at a given time to achieve objectives and goals in the educational system (Aktar et al., 2012 ) conducted studies on the impact of rewards on employees’ performance in Bangladesh. The findings revealed a positive relationship between rewards and employees’ performance and showed a highly positive significance in the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Furthermore, Tasya and Gilang ( 2020 ) conducted a study, and the results showed that motivation significantly impacts employee performance. Moreover, Nurun Nabi et al. ( 2017 ) found that if employees are positively motivated, their effectiveness and efficiency can be significantly improved to accomplish organizational goals. Other studies conducted by Nurun Nabi et al. ( 2017 ), Robescu and Iancu ( 2016 ), and Somsa-ard ( 2016 ) have recognized the rationale of work motivation on employees’ performance. However, they are limited in scope as they consist of a single organization and accumulate results based on a small sample size and descriptive statistics. The demands for satisfying motivating requirements have not been met, and most teachers tend to feel less motivated by motivational phenomena (Rodrigo and Palacios, 2021 ). This is a result of the education administration system’s ineffective implementation, particularly concerning the education administration system’s prioritization of the quality of human resources, specifically for teachers, who still do not meet the requirements to support initiatives to enhance performance and the level of education (Kudasheva et al., 2015 ).

According to the literature review, researchers have focused on a few factors. However, there is still a need to include other factors, such as self-determined motivation, non-self-determined motivation, and factors influencing teachers’ motivation. Therefore, the proposed research will fill this gap and examine how these factors influence teachers’ job performance in private schools.

Motivation and teachers’ job performance

Modern technological advancement and economic policies have redesigned teachers’ and students’ roles in Pakistan’s educational sector. Educational institutions face significant problems regarding theories, practices, methods, and concepts. Motivation is perhaps the essential element that the educational sector considers to enhance learning. Teachers’ needs must be carefully considered for a country to achieve high-quality standards (Ofojebe and Ezugoh, 2010 ). The future of our education system rests in the hands of teachers, who have to learn and determine the quality of the instruction given to learners. A teacher who is driven at work will therefore make every effort to finish the responsibilities assigned to him by his superiors. A highly motivated teacher will attempt to accomplish his goals and complete the task in the interim. Competence, motivation, and the learning environment either directly or indirectly have a favorable and significant impact on teacher performance and antecedent relationship variables on educational quality. Including how well instructors perform and how that affects the standard of education (Mulang, 2021 ). Maslow stated (Sutrisno and Sunarsi, 2019 ) that the motivation is to create the driving force behind the stimulation of work to collaborate, work effectively, and integrate into their job satisfaction efforts.

However, Matsson and Dahlqvist ( 2013 ) assert that motivation is an essential tool for improving and retaining employee performance in the organization. According to Herzberg and others ( 1968 ), motivational factors are related to the capacity of the job, such as job challenges, responsibilities, achievements, remembrance, promotion, responsibility, and growth. These factors affect personal motivation, performance, or satisfaction (Ott, 1989 ). According to Aworemi et al. ( 2011 ), when employees are interested and happy in their work, they are motivated and perform well. The well-known psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan proposed the theory of self-determination in 1985. They revolutionized a motivation theory that posits that individuals tend to become influenced by achievement and growth needs. SDT connects individual motivation, personality (Ryan and Deci, 2000b ), and optimal function (Ryan and Deci, 2000b ). It proposes two essential kinds of motivation, namely self-determined motivation and non-self-determined motivation, which tend to have strong forces that build ourselves and how we behave (Deci and Ryan, 2004 ).

Description of potential variables

Self-determined motivation (sdm).

Self-determined motivation is an essential element of SDT given by Ryan and Deci ( 2000 ) that explores individual motivation and personality concerned with how individuals act regarding the social environment. Intrinsic motivation prevails in work and brings individuals personal satisfaction, such as spending preference, empowerment, trust, autonomy, and recognition (Benati and Coccia, 2018 ). Self-determined motivation (SDM) incorporates intrinsic motivation. It drives the idea of intrinsic motivation, which highlights how an individual responds in different situations and assists in developing one’s cognitive capabilities and identified regulation (IDEN). Which is concerned with carrying out an activity because people tend to recognize its meaning and worth and consider it its act, while the integrated principle (INTEG) is one in which individuals recognize the value of the activity to such an extent that it becomes part of their self. It involves various factors based on the assumption that teachers actively acclimate themselves for personal growth and competence, enabling them to perform tasks with greater interest and pleasure.

Non-self-determined motivation (NSDM)

Non-self-determined motivation is a component of SDT (Ryan and Deci, 2000b ), which undermines the concept of individuals’ extrinsic motivation. It expounds that individuals behave to obtain something from outside or due to coercive pressures (Emeka et al., 2015 ). They suggested that outside factors tend to increase the motivation of employees, which eventually improves job performance positively, concerning an increase in productivity. A teacher is said to be non-self-determined and motivated when he performs to earn money, achieve, or meet the expectations of others. Non-self-determined motivation (NSDM) includes Amotivation (AMO), which is placed at number one. Individuals either have no willingness to act or take passive or submissive action. Following external regulation (ER) is to perform the activities with the expectation of obtaining external rewards. Next is introjected regulation (INTRO); the behavior is modified by self-worth conditions such as modesty or self-esteem. Teachers engaging in tasks or activities external to them and putting them into action for achieving some reward or instrumental reason are referred to as non-self-determined motivation.

Factors influencing teachers’ motivation (FITM)

Teachers’ motivation plays a significant role in advancing teaching and learning excellence.

Diverse motivational variables influence teachers’ job performance and can help them stay employed for a long time, such as a fair promotion system, strong leadership practices, and a reward system. Training and development are concerned with providing training opportunities to improve skills. At the same time, situational work factors refer to a good working environment and good educational policies to motivate teachers and improve their job performance. Toth et al. ( 2000 ) argued that the administration must establish an environment where teachers feel highly motivated and valuable.

Hypothesis development and conceptual framework

Based on past studies, the following hypotheses are proposed in this study

H1: Self-Determined motivation has a relationship with teachers’ job performance.

H2: Non-self-determined motivation has an impact on teachers’ job performance.

H3: Factors influencing teachers’ motivation impact teachers’ job performance.

Research methodology

Research design, sampling size, and data.

The study aimed to unveil the influence of motivation on teachers’ job performance at private schools; the reason for choosing private schools was the massive competition among the private schools in Mirpurkhas city, as it will be easy for policymakers to implement the recommendations. The study adopted primarily quantitative research methodology by descriptive-correlation type. The study has adopted a survey questionnaire as a primary data collection technique by keeping the research objectives in view. Additionally, secondary data was acquired from books, the internet, reports, and journals. Figure 1 , depicts the conceptual framework.

figure 1

Conceptual Framework.

When selecting tools for research in the study, the researcher made sure that the chosen instruments were suitable by considering the literacy level and accessibility of the target respondents. Data was collected from the Mirpurkhas City of, Pakistan, and private school teachers in the region were targeted in this research. The estimated known population of 52 schools consisted of 606 teachers. The researcher selected 37 registered private schools based on random sampling. According to the PLS-SEM sample size rule of thumb with 0.8 statistical significance, the minimum sample size was 153. To produce more accurate results, the researcher disseminated 433 questionnaires in the 37 schools, of which 405 filled questionnaires were received. The questionnaire was written in English, which teachers easily understand per their qualifications. The researcher provided a questionnaire to respondents and gave them adequate time to complete the questionnaire. The purpose was to help the respondents by clarifying the questions and overcoming the difficulty in items to acquire a reasonable response rate. The questionnaire is divided into two sections; the first section incorporates respondents’ demographic information (e.g., age, gender, marital status, and qualification). At the same time, the second section included variables that consisted of 35 items segregated into four different components, including self-determined motivation, non-self-determined motivation, factors influencing teachers’ motivation, and job performance. Table 1 depicts the demographic information of respondents.

Measurement of variables

This study incorporated four variables, whereas the indicators and scales used in this study are adopted with slight modifications from previous literature as they are ingrained in their corresponding arena. Seven Point Likert Scale has been used to collect the responses (ranging from 1 representing “strongly disagree” to 7 representing “strongly agree”) to measure the items of a particular research variable. Seven-point Likert scales are more valid, easy to use, and representative of respondents’ actual opinions. Considering these advantages, 7-point questions are the ideal choice for surveys like those used in different fields of study, particularly in comparison with higher-order items. Lewis ( 1993 ) discovered that 7-point scales had a stronger relationship with t -test findings. The questionnaire is composed of a total of 35 questions and is divided into different sections. The scale and instrument of the questionnaire on motivation, which contains 14 items that comprise self-determined motivation and non-self-determined motivation, were adapted from Blais inventory of work motivation (BIWM) given by Tremblay et al. ( 2009 ) with slight modification and omnibus survey of Canadian Forces (CF). The factors influencing teachers’ motivation consist of 12 items adopted from other studies (Nyakundi, 2012 ). At the same time, the job performance contained nine items and was adapted from the psychometric scale (Gerbing and Anderson, 1988 ).

Data analysis and results

The study was endorsed by applying a quantitative analysis method in which empirical values are mathematically presented and manipulated to identify and explain the occurrence reflected by those observations (Babbie, 2004 ). The researcher applied statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for presentation, summary, and reporting to calculate descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression. Further confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used for the path analysis through structural equation model (SEM) and FIMIX-PLS analysis using Smart PLS to accomplish research objectives.

Descriptive statistics and correlation

Table 2 demonstrates the descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation of all four variables with each other. As the correlation table shows all the positive values, the results indicate all independent variables have a positive relationship with the dependent variable. The dependent variable job performance is positively associated with self-determined motivation ( r  = 0.374, p  < 0.01) and follows a strong relationship with non-self-determined motivation ( r  = 0.622, p  < 0.01) and a significant relationship with factors influencing teachers’ motivation ( r  = 0.424, p  < 0.01). Correlation values are not >0.80, indicating that no multicollinearity exists. While mean values lie in the range of 5.86–6.05, which shows that mean values are more significant than mean values, and standard deviation lies between 0.81 and 0.77, which is an indication of low standard deviation and means that responses do not deviate from the mean and they are close to mean.

Structural equation model

According to Hoyle ( 1995 ), structural equation modeling (SEM) is considered a comprehensive statistical modeling tool to examine multivariate data related to problematic relationships between variables. According to Gerbing and Anderson ( 1988 ), the confirmatory factor analysis is to understand the path analysis of the structural model and check the measurement model. According to Wold et al. ( 2006 ), the structural model incorporates a PLS algorithm, and the measurement model consists of PLS bootstrapping. The PLS algorithm determines the validity and reliability of data. It generates the factor loading of all the variables to determine the relationship between variables, while PLS bootstrapping is considered a nonparametric process proposed by Efron and Tibshirani ( 1997 ) and Hinkin ( 1998 ). It is used for statistical testing the significance of different SEM results such as R square values, t -statistics, beta and path coefficients and p -values.

Reliability and validity analysis

This study is supported by applying different analysis methods to test reliability and validity, such as reliability and validity analysis and discriminant validity. The output illustrated in Table 3 shows the reliability test of all the variables. However, Cronbach’s alpha value >0.8, shown in Fig. 2 , also reflects the excellent acceptance of the data and ensures internal consistency in the responses (Bland and Altman, 1997 ). Cronbach alpha’s value lies between 0.834 and 0.910, more significant than the threshold value suggested by Hinkin ( 1998 ) and reveals excellent data consistency. The rho_A and composite reliability values are between 0.868 and 0.915, which is higher than the reference value recommended by Nunnally ( 1994 ). According to Hair et al. ( 2014 ), the value of AVE should be >0.5, which shows the existence of convergent validity among the data, and it also indicates that at least 50% of the variance was acquired by the constructs as suggested by Bagozzi and Yi ( 1988 ) and Chin, others ( 1998 ). Hence all four variables possess more than their threshold values and provide excellent data validity. Table 4 illustrates the discriminant validity. According to Carmines and Zeller ( 1979 ), Discriminant validity can be described as a single construct that differs from other model constructs. The Heterotrait–Monotrait (HTMT) ratio was used to calculate discriminant validity. According to research, the HTMT ratio, which has two different cutoff values of 0.85 or 0.90 for interpreting the ratio, is a superior option to test discriminant validity than the frequently employed Fornell–Larcker criterion (Henseler et al., 2016 ). All values were significantly lower than this tolerance threshold, which we used as a cutoff value of 0.85 to establish the discriminant validity of our results (see Table 4 ). In light of this, the measuring model showed acceptable convergent validity, reliability, and discriminant validity.

figure 2

Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

The results of the exploratory factor analysis are referred to as the measurement model for all latent variables, followed by factor loading for all variables, as depicted in Fig. 2 , which is accomplished using smart PLS. The study consists of four variables, SDM, NSDM, FITM, and JP, including 34 items. According to Hair et al. ( 2014 ), things having factor loading below 0.50 should be removed from the model. By considering this measurement level, all the items have more than 0.50 loading except one item.

The figure shows the coefficient of determination R Square for the dependent variable job performance is 0.463, which means that all the other independent variables, such as SDM, NSDM, and FITM, explain 46.3% of job performance variance is linked with motivation and can be predicted from them. While NSDM with 49.7% variation in JP, FITM with 21.8% variation in JP, and SDM with 13.2% variation in JP. Therefore, the results indicate that the hypothetical path relationship between SDM, NSDM, and FITM with JP is statistically significant. Moreover, the effect size suggested by Cohen ( 1988 ) is as follows: 0.02–0.12, weak; 0.13–0.25, moderate; and 0.26 and above, substantial. Results in Table 5 show that NSDM and FITM have significant effect sizes, whereas NSDM has a small effect size. Furthermore, bootstrapping of all four variables was performed on the smart PLS. Bootstrapping is done to generate T -values and test the study’s hypothesis along with the confidence interval for all the indicators of the constructs. Following the results exhibited, the T -value of SDM is 3.225 > 1.96, and the p -value of <0.05 reveals positive and significant results and validates H1, while the T -value of NSDM is 8.745 > 1.96 with significant p -value and shows the significant relationship and supports H2. Moreover, FITM has an immense influence on teachers’ job performance, with a T -value of 4.348 > 1.96 and a significant p -value as per our assumption, thus validating H3. Hence, all results show the positive and strong relationship of JP with SDM, NSDM, and FITM and reveal that motivation exceptionally contributes to improving teachers’ job performance concerning developing interest at work, job security, job satisfaction, rewards, performance appraisal and training and development and therefore improving the overall educational system.

FIMIX-PLS analysis

Hahn et al. ( 2002 ) created the FIMIX-PLS methodology to measure the heterogeneity of a predetermined number of segments following the validation of the measurement and structural models. The FIMIX-PLS procedure (Mikalef et al., 2020 ; Sarstedt et al., 2022 ) has been employed by multiple researchers to distinguish groups. It makes it possible to recognize unobserved heterogeneity and classify groups that can then be used for multigroup analysis. Drawing on the idea of mixture regression, FIMIX-PLS has been developed as a solution to simultaneously estimate group-specific path coefficients and determine each individual’s segment membership (Ringle et al., 2009 ; Sarstedt et al., 2016 ). This method is the only one to provide researchers with the ability to determine how many segments should be extracted from the data, making it a critical tool in the process (Sarstedt et al., 2017 ). Each observation is given towards the Segment with the highest probability by the multi-stage method called FIMIX-PLS, which shows undetected heterogeneity.

Since the total number of segments is initially unknown, the first step is to determine the ideal number by following the G power method, the required number of the sample at the 5% significance level (Cohen, 1992 ). By dividing the sample size by 55, we have 405/55 405/55, which equals a maximum of 7.36 segments (~7).

The absence of heterogeneity is required to combat incorrect interpretation (Becker et al., 2013 ; Jedidi et al., 1997 ). We simultaneously confirm the unobserved heterogeneity due to Hypothesis 3. With the use of PLS-SEM, there are numerous ways to find unobserved heterogeneity. The best strategy, according to Hair et al. ( 2017 ); Sarstedt et al. ( 2011 ), is FIMIX-PLS (Hahn et al., 2002 ; Hair et al., 2021 ; Matthews et al., 2016 ) calculated in Tables 6 and 7 . It is necessary to stay away from the local best solution (Sarstedt et al., 2011 ). Results for segment sizes ranging from one to seven were computed using FIMIX-PLS.

Initially, the FIMIX-PLS algorithm is performed with a one-segment model for increasing segments. There is a requirement for a two-segment solution even if BIC, AIC, AIC3, and CAIC have a sufficient number of over-segmentation propensity (Sarstedt et al., 2011 ). The normed entropy (en) criterion demonstrates the best outcome with two segments (0.515). PLS-SEM results for the large and small segments are noticeably different. Segment 1 has a substantially more significant correlation (0.752) between non-self-determined motivation and job performance than segment 2. (0.302). Compared to segment 1, the association between factors affecting teachers’ motivation and job performance was substantially stronger (0.18) in section 2 (0.138). Segment 2 (0.183) has a stronger correlation between self-determination motivation and job performance than Segment 1. (0.108). Total effect results demonstrate that non-self-determined motivation is less significant with job performance in Segment 2 (0.752) than in Segment 1. Factors influencing teachers’ motivation have a higher impact on job performance (0.18) in segment 2 than in segment 1 (0.138).

This research’s primary objective is to highlight the influence of motivation on teachers’ job performance at private schools. The present study collected the data through a survey questionnaire using a random sampling technique from Mirpurkhas City, Pakistan, private school. After reviewing the extent of related literature, three research hypotheses have been formulated to support the study hence identifying and analyzing the influence of motivation on teachers’ job performance in private schools. This research is one of the rare research conducted in this region that includes different predictors regarding motivation. This study explores the contribution of self-determined motivation, the influence of non-self-determined motivation, and factors affecting teachers’ motivation on teachers’ job performance. The results of research hypothesis one revealed that self-determined motivation significantly impacts teachers’ job performance with significant results. It concludes that teachers perform well when satisfied and feel pleasure. This study aligns with the SDT, which states that meeting one’s psychological needs optimizes performance (Ryan and Deci, 2000b ). Self-determined motivation increases employee motivation and encourages positive results such as well-being, commitment, and engagement. The researcher revealed that self-determined work motivation predicts job outcomes (Lam and Gurland, 2008 ). In the teachers’ daily performance, the significance of motivation cannot be overlooked, particularly when one is honored for getting rewards for the work performed and feeling contentment on the job. It is generally well-known that any form of individual will be enhanced by increasing motivation. It is valuable to consider that motivation plays an essential role in teachers’ daily performance in private schools.

The findings of research hypothesis two showed that non-self-determined motivation has a significant relationship with teachers’ job performance. It presents that once teachers are externally motivated in terms of job security, rewards and compensation for their performance become high. The results are relevant to the previous study conducted by Khwaja et al. ( 2018 ) discovered that all external factors positively and significantly influence employees. Hence, it is evident that any form of performance is an outcome of encouragement received from the organization, which eventually improves their performance and increases productivity.

The results of research hypothesis three disclosed that factors influencing teachers’ motivation significantly impact job performance. It showed that factors that motivate teachers are a fair promotion system, adequate resources, a good working environment, incentives, high employee salaries, supervision practices, training and development, good organizational guidelines, and performance appraisal. Here the findings of the study agreed with the study conducted by Forson et al. ( 2021 ), who concluded that motivational factors such as Employee compensation, job design, performance management and atmosphere are significant predictors of teachers’ job performance at schools. Moreover, the study found that training and development significantly influence teachers’ job performance; these findings are similar to the results presented by Asim ( 2013 ), which showed that training contributes significantly to increasing employees’ job performance. The study observed that job satisfaction is essential in improving teachers’ performance. These findings are similar to the results examined by Bishay ( 1996 ) in that teachers tend to be more satisfied when their higher needs, such as self-esteem and recognition, are fulfilled. Uche et al. ( 2011 ), looked into the link between motivational factors and a teacher’s job performance, and the results revealed a significant association between motivating factors and teacher job performance. These researchers concluded that teachers who are motivated to perform better. This study aligns with these studies and reveals that motivational factors greatly influence teachers’ job performance. Therefore, the administration should enable the overall staff to conceptualize problems that affect the school and discover permanent solutions. Once everyone is engaged in developing the solution, they can be motivated to actively participate in resolving such problems, which will eventually promote teamwork and lead to a rise in productivity.

Conclusion and recommendation

This research mainly investigates the influence of motivation on teachers’ job performance. It examines the factors that hugely influence teachers’ motivation. The hypothesis was tested using 405 responses from private schools in Pakistan. The results of this study support the hypothesis and demonstrate that self-determined motivation, non-self-determined motivation, and factors affecting teachers’ motivation play a vital role in teachers’ job performance since all predictors are significant in job performance. Employees can be motivated by participation and accomplishment when their values are integrated with the organizational goals (Lau and Roopnarain, 2014 ). The findings prove that the factors that motivate teachers are a fair promotion system, adequate resources, an excellent working environment, incentives, income, job security, pleasure at work, training, and development, good organizational guidelines, and performance appraisal. This study also has some limitations. This study was limited to the Mirpurkhas City of Pakistan; hence, the researcher suggested that the same research should be carried out in different regions of Pakistan or abroad to investigate the impact of motivation on teachers’ job performance. The study was limited to private schools; hence future research will include public schools too for further exploration of the topic to draw better results and compare both sectors. The study will assist school administrators in identifying the factors that can undermine teachers’ motivation and determine whether or not factors already in place support teachers’ motivation. In terms of offering educational materials, minimizing administrative duties, and offering emotional support, this study will assist principals in helping teachers in various ways. They can give teachers options concerning how they want to structure their work to reduce workload, provide teachers with options. Like how they want to organize and interact with the educational curriculum, give teachers constructive criticism about how they teach and how they might support their students’ autonomy, and provide teachers with step-by-step instructions and a way to monitor their growth as teachers.

Further research can consolidate the different techniques of samplings since this research has adopted random sampling, and we encourage future researchers to examine additional variables that influence teachers’ job performance. The influence of gender can be studied as a moderator while determining the impact of motivation on teachers’ job performance. It will benefit educational policy and decision-makers to incorporate the policies for motivational factors to achieve desired outcomes.

Policy implications

The results generated from the study will have a practical implementation in the administration of private schools, educational policy constructer, Ministry of Education, government officials, academicians, teachers’ associations, and other researchers to seek a pertinent framework to intensify positive determinants while addressing deficiencies. The study will also be meaningful to educational policy formulators and other participants who will be able to incorporate the motivational factors and their effect on job performance in Pakistan. Moreover, the factors prevailing in high performance and the reasons behind low performance will guide management decision-making. The results obtained from this study will facilitate the development of effective administration policy and tactics that will contribute to achieving the institutional objectives and thus strengthen the overall education system. This study may increase the teacher’s performance by motivating factors to improve the instructional framework. The study could be helpful since it could help people understand the significance of motivation and how it affects private school instructors’ productivity and effectiveness. The study’s motivational components could improve the instructional structure and teacher performance. The nature of the current investigation makes it crucial. The present study paradigm has received less attention in Asian contexts, particularly in Pakistan’s Mirpurkhas region. Academicians and other researchers may use the findings to conduct additional research on the best practical strategy for boosting teachers’ motivation. The Ministry of Education will use the findings to improve teacher incentive strategies. Moreover, the study’s findings will help department heads and principals identify elements that irritate teachers and enforce conformity where it is necessary.

Data availability

The authors made the data available in the supplementary files.

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Teacher Evaluation: An Issue Overview

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Teacher evaluations matter a lot—both to teachers and to those holding them accountable. But how can schools measure the performance of all teachers fairly? And what should they do with the results?

In general, teacher evaluation refers to the formal process a school uses to review and rate teachers’ performance and effectiveness in the classroom. Ideally, the findings from these evaluations are used to provide feedback to teachers and guide their professional development.

While governed by state laws, teacher-evaluation systems are generally designed and operated at the district level, and they vary widely in their details and requirements. Traditionally, teacher evaluation systems relied heavily on classroom observations conducted by principals or other school administrators, sometimes with the help of rubrics or checklists. Samples of students’ work, teachers’ records and lesson plans, and other relevant factors were also often taken into account.

But many evaluation systems have undergone significant changes in recent years. Indeed, by the end of the 2000s, teacher evaluation, long an ignored and obscure policy element, had become one of the most prominent and contentious topics in K-12 education.

That surprise reversal can be attributed to at least four factors: a wave of new research on teacher quality, philanthropic interest in boosting teacher effectiveness, efforts by advocacy groups and policymakers to revamp state laws on evaluation, and political pressure to dismiss poorly performing teachers.

All that momentum aside, the results of recent changes to teacher-evaluation systems are, as yet, difficult to quantify. Most of the new data show that a great majority of teachers score just as highly on the new evaluations as they did on the previous ones, and it is unclear whether the reforms have systematically—or broadly—led to teachers to receiving better feedback that is translating to better teaching.

Why has teacher-performance evaluation become such a central education issue?

Beginning in the 1990s and through the 2000s, analyses of year-to-year student-test data consistently showed that some teachers helped their students learn significantly more than did other teachers. One widely cited paper , by Stanford University economist Eric A. Hanushek, estimated that the top-performing teachers helped students gain more than a grade’s worth of learning; students taught by the worst achieved just half a year of learning.

Advocacy groups argued that current quality-control systems for teachers were ineffectual. In an influential 2009 report , TNTP (formerly the New Teacher Project), found that more than 99 percent of teachers in the 12 districts it studied were ranked satisfactory on evaluations and that the firing of tenured teachers almost never occurred. The analysis suggested that most of the reviews were perfunctory, and did not distinguish between skilled and low-performing teachers.

For some advocates, such findings opened an opportunity to strengthen the profession. Revamping teacher evaluation, they argued, would help to give teachers better information on strengths and weaknesses and help districts tailor ongoing supports. Some policymakers, though, focused more closely on the prospect of identifying and removing bad teachers quickly and efficiently.

Federal intervention gave muscle to the focus on teacher evaluations. Using $4.3 billion provided through the 2009 American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, the U.S. Department of Education began the Race to the Top competition, offering grants to states that agreed to make certain policy changes. Among the prescribed changes was the requirement to develop and implement new teacher-evaluation systems that differentiated among at least three levels of performance and took student achievement into account.

Major philanthropies also helped to fuel activity around teacher evaluation. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, for instance, spent some $700 million on teacher-quality initiatives alone , much of it on attempts to set up improved teacher-evaluation systems in a handful of school districts.

Prodded by those incentives, states rushed to rewrite laws governing teacher evaluation.

By 2013, 28 states had moved to require teachers to be evaluated annually, up from 15 in 2009, and 41 states required consideration of student-achievement data, up from 15 in 2009, according to one tally . (Because teacher evaluation remains a state and local priority, all of the policies are drafted at those levels. District collective bargaining agreements can add additional nuances. Consequently, what constitutes, say, a “proficient” teacher in one state may not be the same as in other states, or in the district next door, for that matter.)

As legislators overhauled the systems, some states also took steps to connect the new evaluation systems to other policies, including teacher compensation, promotion, and dismissal.

A 2010 Colorado law, for instance, permits schools to return tenured teachers who receive several poor evaluations to probationary status. Florida’s law requires districts to pay more to teachers who score well on the state’s new evaluations. Rhode Island prohibits a student from being instructed for two consecutive years by a teacher deemed “ineffective.” In other states, evaluation results can be used as evidence for dismissing a tenured teacher for poor performance.

How do the new teacher-evaluation systems work?

The new evaluation systems are far more complex than previously used checklists. They consist of several components, each scored individually. Most of them heavily weigh periodic observations of teachers keyed to teaching standards, such as the well-known Framework for Teaching developed by consultant Charlotte Danielson. Districts and states differ in how frequently they require teachers to be observed, whether the observations must be announced beforehand, and who conducts them.

Policymakers also sought more objective measures in the system because of concerns that personal relationships made it more difficult for principals to grade them accurately. The inclusion of student test scores was a requirement under the federal initiatives, for example.

The most sophisticated approach uses a statistical technique known as a value-added model, which attempts to filter out sources of bias in the test-score growth so as to arrive at an estimate of how much each teacher contributed to student learning. Critics of the approach point to studies showing that the estimates are, in the words of one U.S. Department of Education publication , “subject to a considerable degree of random error.” (States without the capacity to use value-added have adopted simpler—and potentially even more problematic—growth measures.)

States and districts use a predetermined weighting formula to compile results from the components and arrive at a teacher’s final score. Many states initially based half of each teacher’s review on student achievement, but some have scaled back that proportion since.

How have teachers’ unions responded to new evaluations?

By 2011, the governing bodies of both the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers had issued new policy statements on teacher evaluation. In general, the teachers’ unions highlighted the potential of better evaluations to provide valuable feedback on teachers’ skills. But they remain wary about connecting the systems to teacher pay and tenure, and adamantly oppose the inclusion of students’ standardized-test scores in the systems.

In this 2014 photo, Nimra Mian and other 7th graders at Marshall Simonds Middle School in Burlington, Mass., field test a common-core exam. New teacher evaluations were rolled out alongside the Common Core State Standards and related exams, leaving teachers concerned about how the harder tests will affect their performance evaluations in the future.

In challenging the use of value-added models as part of evaluation systems, the teachers’ unions cite concerns about the volatility of test scores in the systems, the fact that some teachers have far more students with special needs or challenging home circumstances than others, and the potential for teachers facing performance pressure to warp instruction in unproductive ways, such as via “test prep.”

They also argue that it is unfair for teachers in nontested subjects to be judged by the scores of students they don’t even teach, as some states’ evaluation systems require. Concerns over the use of test scores in evaluations have fueled more than a dozen lawsuits targeting the new evaluation systems.

The pressure to use students’ standardized-test scores has also contributed to a recent wave of anti-testing sentiment, including the “opt out” movement. And indeed, standardized testing appears to have become more frequent as a result of evaluation pressures. Because only about 15 percent to 30 percent of teachers instruct in grades and subjects in which standardized-test-score data are available , some states and districts have devised or added additional tests.

The new evaluations were also rolled out alongside the Common Core State Standards and related exams, leaving teachers concerned about how the harder tests will affect their performance evaluations in the future. As a result of such concerns, some states, with federal approval, have pushed back the dates for attaching consequences to the reviews.

Is there evidence that new teacher-evaluation strategies are working?

The teachers’ unions also frequently view teacher evaluation as part of a concurrent trend of outright attacks on educators livelihood. Lawmakers, mainly Republicans, have made progress in scaling back collective bargaining rights, “fair share” fee arrangements, and automatic deduction of dues from members’ paychecks. But Democrats, typically champions of labor priorities, have been among the supporters of the new teacher-evaluation systems.

For all the energy spent on putting the new systems into place, the dividends paid by the them aren’t yet clear. A few studies do show some preliminary evidence that teachers who receive high-quality feedback subsequently go on to boost student performance. One study on the District of Columbia’s IMPACT teacher-evaluation system found that teachers on the cusp of dismissal, or of receiving a bonus, generally went on to pull up their evaluation scores the following year.

Many of the states’ new systems continue to be in a process of testing and refinement, with their scoring mechanisms facing challenges both from those who think they are too lenient or incompletely implemented and from those who feel they are unfair or counterproductive. For that reason, teacher evaluation is likely remain a contentious and central topic in K-12 education.

Terms to Know

Collective Bargaining: The process by which a district and a union representing teachers arrive at a contract spelling out work hours and conditions, salary, benefits, and processes for handling grievances. Often, contracts also set out details on professional development and other school initiatives, or supplement state law governing teachers. Contracts are legally binding.

“Last In, First Out” (LIFO): Many states and districts use seniority in making layoff decisions, despite pressure from some advocacy groups to base those decisions on performance, instead. Often, this process is referred to as “last in, first out.”

Teacher Observations: Most teacher-evaluation systems require teachers to be observed several times. State and local policies determine such details as the length of the observations, the mix of formal and informal visits, whether they must be accompanied by pre- or post-observation conferences, and who conducts them. Though generally principals and administrators are responsible for teacher evaluation, some districts include other teachers and even independent consultants or “validators.”

Teacher Tenure: When a teacher has completed his or her state’s probationary period successfully, he or she receives career status, sometimes known as tenure. (Most states have probationary periods of three years.) In general, tenured teachers can be fired only for a reason listed in state law. Districts must prove that they have met this standard during a due-process hearing. Due-process procedures typically differ based on whether the charges deal with misconduct or poor performance.

Value-Added Model (VAM): In the context of teacher evaluation, value-added modeling is a statistical method of analyzing growth in student-test scores to estimate how much a teacher has contributed to student-achievement growth. In general, VAMs factor in the gains the student was expected to make based on past performance, and in some cases, control for elements such as peer characteristics and background, including poverty level and family education.

Teacher-Evaluation Research and Resources

  • “The Widget Effect,” by Daniel Weisberg, Susan Sexton, Jennifer Mulhern, and David Keeling. This report from advocacy group TNTP documents uniformly high teacher-evaluation results and a very low number of teachers being dismissed for performance in the 12 districts studied. ( View an Education Week summary. )
  • “Measures of Effective Teaching,” project led by Thomas J. Kane. The study commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation examines the technical properties of several different gauges of teaching quality, including their ability to predict students’ test scores. ( View an Education Week summary of the final reports. )
  • “Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and Student Performance Based on Student Test-Score Gains,” by Peter Z. Schochet and Hanley S. Chiang. This federally financed study examines error rates in value- added measures of teacher effectiveness, concluding that misclassifications could be as high as 25 percent to 35 percent depending on the number of years of data used.

Education Week Resources “Tenn. Teachers’ Union Takes Evaluation Fight Into the Courtroom,” by Stephen Sawchuk. Tennessee’s teacher union is among those that have sued over the details of teacher evaluation. March 2014. “Teachers’ Ratings Still High, Despite New Measures,” by Stephen Sawchuk. Many revamped teacher-evaluation systems continue to show most teachers getting high marks. February 2013. “D.C. Teachers Improved After Overhaul of Evaluations, Pay,” by Stephen Sawchuk. Research indicates that teachers on the cusp of a poor evaluation or a pay bonus improved their performance. October 2013. “Contract Yields New Teacher-Evaluation System,” by Stephen Sawchuk. Labor and management came together in New Haven, Conn., to construct and implement a new teacher-evaluation system. November 2011. “New Teacher-Evaluation Systems Face Obstacles,” by Stephen Sawchuk. In 2009, there were few good working models on which to base reforms to teacher evaluation. December 2009.

How to Cite This Article Sawchuk, S. (2015, September 3). Teacher Evaluation: An Issue Overview. Education Week. Retrieved Month Day, Year from https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/teacher-evaluation-an-issue-overview/2015/09

Stacey Decker, Deputy Managing Editor for Digital contributed to this article.

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2024 Methods Workshop recap

Dr. Holmes Finch headlines the annual event.

Washington State University’s Learning Performance Research Center (LPRC) hosted its 10th annual Methods Workshop June 3-4, 2024, with both an in-person and online option.

research on teachers performance

Themed as “Examining Heterogeneity with Mixture Models”, the workshop focused on mixture modeling with an emphasis on application.

The workshop presenter this year was Holmes Finch, the George and Frances Ball Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology at Ball State University. Prior to going to Ball State in 2003, Finch managed the Statistical Consulting Laboratory at the University of South Carolina.

research on teachers performance

Like previous years’ guest presenters, Finch brings a wealth of expertise and experience to the event. This includes having published more than 200 articles, books, chapters, and software, making contributions to both applied and methodological literatures in measurement, statistics, and beyond.


The workshop, as set by the LPRC, included:

  • Latent class analysis for categorical observed variables and its counterpart for continuous observed variables, latent profile analysis.
  • Comparing and contrasting these mixture modeling approaches to cluster analysis, another method for finding groups in data.
  • Latent transition analysis, which is designed for finding mixtures in longitudinal data.
  • Considering mixture models that identify population subgroups based on model parameters from regression analyses and factor analysis. In this, participants were provided with computer code to carry out these analyses using R and Mplus, as well as the example datasets.

research on teachers performance


Thanks to funding from the Berry Family Distinguished Professorship fund, the Learning and Performance Research Center, and the College of Education’s Educational Psychology program, registration for this workshop — including course materials and in-person refreshments — was provided for the participants at no cost.

In the news…

The following includes past news coverage of the Methods Workshop:

  • May 04, 2021. May 12: Annual Methods Workshop to feature Tenko Raykov
  • April 05, 2019. May 9-10: Methods Workshop back for seventh time
  • May 10, 2016. May 11-12: Statistical measurement, analysis workshop hosted
  • July 07, 2014. July 21-24: Pilot workshop about STEM teaching with a twist

Exploring how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted teacher expectations in schools

  • Published: 22 May 2024

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Expectations are beliefs that someone should or will achieve something. Expectations influence performance—positive expectations improve outcomes, whereas negative expectations worsen them. This interaction is well known in the context of education and academic performance; however, we do not know how teacher expectations changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a descriptive qualitative approach to explore the impact of the COVID-19 public health measures on expectations in schools. Specifically, to what extent did teacher expectations for students and themselves change during this unprecedented period. In addition, to what extent did teachers’ perceptions of what administrators expectated from them change during this same period. Twelve teachers were purposefully sampled across Canada and interviewed in the spring of 2021. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results generally indicated that expectations for students and for teachers (i.e., themselves) changed. Students were still expected to do their best and teachers still generally had high expectations for themselves, but their expectations were tempered depending on each group’s needs. For example, if students showed significant behavioural or emotional needs, academic expectations were reduced. Administrators made some efforts to be supportive and realistic during this time; however, many participants felt it was not enough and found their administrator’s expectations were unrealistically high. Furthermore, participants described greater difficulty developing relationships with students during the pandemic, which also impacted how much teachers could expect of them. The findings contribute to the literature by providing suggestions for future research and proposing an expanded version of a conceptual model for expectations in schools. More importantly, the findings can inform school leaders on how to best support teachers, and how teachers can support and advocate for themselves, during high-stress situations or extreme circumstances such as a pandemic.

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The first author would like to acknowledge the financial support that was provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada through the Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canada Graduate Scholarship - Doctoral program.

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Flanagan, A.M., Cormier, D.C., Daniels, L.M. et al. Exploring how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted teacher expectations in schools. Soc Psychol Educ (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-024-09924-0

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  • B.A. Environmental Science
  • M.S. Wildlife Conservation and community engagement
  • Ph.D. Education

VU Amsterdam ranks third amongst research universities in SustainaBul 2024

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam finished fourth this year, placing it third-highest amongst research universities in the Netherlands. Our best practice 'VU fossil free' was nominated in the category ‘Impact on society, systemic change, originality, transferability and student participation’.

The SustainaBul is the annual sustainability ranking between Dutch higher education institutions, organised by Studenten voor Morgen (Students for Tomorrow). Participating educational institutions are assessed using a questionnaire and best practices divided into the themes: sustainability in research, education and operational management. VU Amsterdam was awarded the most points within the research theme.

Best practice nomination for 'VU fossil free'

VU fossil free , the decision that VU Amsterdam will no longer enter into research partnerships with companies in the fossil fuel industry (unless strict criteria are met) was nominated as best practice in the category ‘Impact on society, systemic change, originality, transferability and student participation’.

10 years participation in SustainaBul by VU Amsterdam

During the more than ten years that VU Amsterdam has participated in this ranking, we have consistently secured a place in the top 5. In doing so, we have achieved our objective set out in the Strategic Plan of ranking amongst the top 5 higher education institutes in the Netherlands. Furthermore, there has been a noticeable expansion of sustainability initiatives across higher education institutions in recent years. This development endorses the increasing focus on enhancing green practices in education and with it, it also underlines the importance of collaboration for a sustainable future.

VU Amsterdam’s sustainability ambition

Sustainability is one of the priority areas of VU Amsterdam and its advancement therefore drives much of our decision-making. This is only possible due to our commitment as the VU Amsterdam community to embracing and promoting sustainability. Various initiatives are now in place:  

  • The Sustainability Office VU focuses on shaping and executing the VU sustainability strategy.
  • Within the Amsterdam Sustainability Institute, scientists and researchers from across VU Amsterdam work on sustainability issues.
  • There is a Sustainable Campus Plan and Energy Master Plan, which outline our path towards achieving a gas-free campus by 2040.
  • Green Office VU is the sustainability platform for and by students.

Accelerating initiatives

Sustainability Office VU was established in 2023. The Sustainability Team ensures the acceleration of sustainability projects and initiatives across the university (education, research, valorisation, operations and activating the community). Do you have a good idea? Or would you like to contribute to a more sustainable university yourself? Then contact [email protected] .

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