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Plurals in French: A full guide on how to form le pluriel en français

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How do we form plurals  in French? Often it’s as simple as adding an -s , just like you do in English. Words with certain endings, however, have different rules for forming their French plurals. So which French plurals end in -x , and which ones remain unchanged ? What about pluralizing compound nouns  in French?

Today we’ll cover all the different groups of French nouns to see their pluralization rules . We’ll also include any exceptions for each of the rules we see. We’ll provide several example words to demonstrate every one of the French pluralization rules, along with their English translations.

This post complements our other intermediate post on French gender rules , as well as our beginner post on the French articles . For now, let’s just dive into our post on forming the plural  of French nouns.

Scroll down to the conclusion for a quick reference table  of all the French pluralization rules .  Read on for explanations of each one.

This article is brought to you by LingoCulture, Where you can get unlimited private French classes via Zoom with native teachers for a flat monthly rate. It’s the closest thing to immersion you can get without living in a French-speaking country. Click here to learn more.

Most French nouns: -s

This is clearly the easiest rule for French plurals, since it’s so close to the default rule for pluralizing English nouns. Just add an -s  to make most French nouns plural.

  • un croissant / des croissant s
  • une baguette / des baguette s
  • un sandwich / des sandwich s
  • une limonade / des limonade s

We’re not even going to translate these French words for you, as they’re so close to their English counterparts! The important thing is to see le singulier  of each one, compared with le pluriel . So what’s the most common French pluralization rule ?

  • Pour la majorité des noms communs au singulier , nous ajoutons simplement -s  pour les avoir au pluriel . – For the majority of regular nouns in singular , we simply add -s  to have them in plural .

French nouns ending in -s, -x, -z: no change

This rule has parallels with certain English words that are unchanged between singular and plural, particularly where adding an additional pluralization would just sound comical. Think of English words like series, crossroads, headquarters, or species, which exhibit no change between their singular and plural forms .

  • un cours / des cours – a course / some courses
  • un pays / des pays – a country / some countries
  • un prix / des prix – a price, a prize / some prices, some prizes
  • un choix / des choix – a choice / some choices
  • un nez / des nez – a nose / some noses
  • un gaz / des gaz – a gas / some gasses

French nouns ending in -ou: -s

In general, we just add an -s  to words that end in -ou, so the plural form becomes -ous.

  • un bisou / des bisous  – a little kiss / some little kisses
  • un clou / des clou s  – a nail / some nails
  • un coup / des coup s  – a hit / some hits
  • un trou / des trou s  – a hole / some holes

There are a handful of very common French nouns that are exceptions  to this rule, so let’s see them all here. Rather than adding an -s to make these plurals in French, these exceptions end in -x  instead.

  • un bijou / des bijou x  – a piece of jewelry / some pieces of jewelry
  • un caillou / des caillou x  – a stone / some stones
  • un chou  / des chou x  – a cabbage / some cabbages
  • un genou / des genou x  – a knee  / some knees
  • un hibou / des hiboux  – an owl / some owls
  • un joujou / des joujou x  – a children’s toy / some children’s toys
  • un pou / des pou x  – a lice / some lice
  • un ripou / des ripou x  – a rotten cop / dirty cops (slang)

French nouns ending in -eu, -œu, -au, -eau: -x

Just like we saw with the list of exceptions to the previous rule, adding -x  to form French plurals is common for many French nouns that end in vowel sounds.

  • un feu / des feu x  – a fire / some fires
  • un jeu / des jeu x  – a game / some games
  • un vœu / des vœu x  – a wish / some wishes
  • un tuyau / des tuyau x  – a pipe / some pipes
  • un chapeau / des chapeau x  – a hat / some hats
  • un cadeau / des cadeau x  – a gift / some gifts
  • un couteau / des couteau x  – a knife / some knives
  • un bateau / des bateau x  – a boat / some boats

There are only three exceptions  to this rule: bleu ,  pneu , and landau . These simply end in -s  to become plural.

Un bleu  can describe either a bruise  or a blue thing , while when we’re talking about fromage , le bleu  refers to a family of very flavorful cheeses. Les Bleus  is the nickname for the French national team . Un landau  is a type of baby stroller  with coverings that can fold open or closed. Un pneu  is just a tire .

  • un bleu / des bleu s
  • un pneu / des pneu s
  • un landau / des landau s

French nouns ending in -al: -aux

For French nouns ending in -al, we have a variant on the -x ending, whereby we drop the -al and replace it with -aux . The resulting pronunciation of the plural ending for these nouns ends up resembling the pronunciation of the previous set of plurals we just saw.

  • un chev al  / des chev aux  – a horse / some horses
  • un journ al  / des journ aux  – a newspaper / some newspapers
  • un hôpit al / des hôpit aux – a hospital / some hospitals
  • un anim al / des anim aux – an animal / some animals

There are only a handful of exceptions  to this rule, most of which are fairly common French nouns. Let’s see all of them here, where their plurals simply end in -s .

  • un bal / des bal s  – a formal dance event like a ball or a prom / the proms
  • un carnaval / des carnaval s  – a carnival / some carnivals
  • un chacal / des chacal s  – a jackal / some jackals
  • un festival / des festival s  – a festival / some festivals
  • un récital / des récital s  – a recital / some recitals
  • un régal / des régal s  – a delight / some delights

French nouns ending in -ail: -s

The pronunciation of French words ending in -ail is different enough from those ending in -al that the default rule for their plural forms is to just add an -s .

  • un détail / des détail s  – a detail / some details
  • un chandail / des chandail s  – a sweater / some sweaters
  • un éventail / des éventail s  – a folding fan / some folding fans
  • un gouvernail / des gouvernail s  – a rudder / some rudders

In reality, not many French nouns end in -ail, so it’s just as important to be aware of the exceptions  to this general rule. These words resemble those from our previous rule, where we drop the -ail and replace it with -aux .

  • un b ail  / des b aux  – a lease / some leases
  • un cor ail  / des cor aux  – a coral / some corals
  • un ém ail  / des ém aux  – an enamel / some enamels
  • un soupir ail  / des soupir aux  – a basement window / some basement windows
  • un trav ail  / des trav aux  – a job or a gig / some jobs
  • un vant ail  / des vant aux  – a removable panel / some removable panels
  • un vitr ail  / des vitr aux – a stained-glass window / some stained-glass windows

Highly-irregular French plurals

So far, we’ve seen all the general rules for forming the plural of French nouns. Fortunately, only three words have such irregular plurals in French that we need to point them out individually. The first two are common enough that you should definitely know them.

The French word for an eye  is un œil . But the plural of un œil  is des yeux ! You probably already knew this one if you’ve studied the parts of the body in French .

The French word for the sky  is le ciel . And if we’re talking about different skies , we’ll need un ciel  in plural: des cieux .

Finally, we have an interesting French word to refer to our ancestors . In singular, un aïeul  can refer to someone anywhere in our lineage. When we refer generally to our ancestors in plural, with forebears  or forefathers as other possible translations, we use the irregular French plural of des aïeux . When we refer specifically to our grandparents , however, the plural is des aïeuls . What’s more, if we’re just talking about our grandmothers , we use the feminine form as des aïeules !

Un aïeul  is a fairly deferential term we use for our elders, so don’t worry too much about mastering the intricacies of its use. But you should definitely memorize des yeux  and des cieux  as the French plurals for un œil  and un ciel ! We’ll end this section with the list of highly-irregular French plurals.

  • un œil / des yeux – eyes
  • un ciel / des cieux – skies
  • un aïeul / des aïeux – ancestors
  • un aïeul / des aïeuls, des aïeules – grandparents

Plurals of French nouns borrowed from other languages

As a general rule, if a French noun is still clearly linked to its foreign origin, its plural form should follow its foreign pattern .

  • un paparazzo / des paparazzi
  • un curriculum vitæ / des curricula vitæ
  • un minimum / des minima

On the other hand, it’s common enough for foreign words to be adopted into the French language and eventually follow the regular French pluralization rules we’ve seen above.

Plurals of French titles

We’re listing these words in their own section since they seem to play by their own rules. These titles are nonetheless very common words in the language, so it’s important to know their plural forms in French.

The reason for their irregular pluralization is that they were originally formed from two words: an adjective and a noun. They’re always written as a single word in contemporary French, but their plural forms still reflect the necessary change in form to the original adjectives and to the nouns. See our posts on French adjectives  and on possessive adjectives  for more detail on those forms.

Here the full list of titles with irregular plural forms  in French.

  • monsieur / messieurs – Sir
  • madame / mesdames – Mrs
  • mademoiselle / mesdemoiselles – miss
  • gentilhomme / gentilshommes – gentleman
  • bonhomme / bonshommes – fellow

Plurals of French compound nouns

Before we wrap up, we should mention the special case of compound nouns  in French. These take many forms, and there are specific pluralization rules that apply to each type. We won’t go into all the excruciating details here, but we’ll at least point out the main concepts for pluralizing French compound nouns .

The big question is which individual words within the compound noun should become plural, and which keep their original form. The most important rule  is that if the compound noun is composed of multiple nouns, we pluralize the individual nouns that indicate what’s in plural, while leaving other ones in singular if they don’t reflect what’s in plural.

  • des portes-fenêtres – doors that are essentially big windows
  • des pauses-café – coffee breaks
  • des pommes de terre – potatoes

The same rule applies where the nouns are linked by prepositions.

  • des œils-de-bœuf – round dormer windows (note that we don’t write yeux-de-bœuf!)
  • des arcs-en-ciel – rainbows
  • des eaux-de-vie – brandies, traditional spirits

If the compound noun’s individual words don’t necessarily reflect what is being described in plural, they all remain unchanged in plural.

  • des tête-à-tête – face-to-face discussions
  • des pied-à-terre – temporary or second homes
  • des passe-partout – master keys, picture frame mattings

Where compound nouns include adjectives and nouns, the adjectives need to reflect the plural form. Where a compound noun includes an adverb, the adverb is always invariable. The same rules about the nouns that we saw in our previous examples still apply though!

  • des coffres-forts – safes
  • des sages-femmes – midwives
  • des petits-beurre – butter cookies

For compound nouns that contain verbs and nouns, the verbs are unchanged while the nouns follow the same rules we’ve already seen.

  • des chasse-neige – snowplows
  • des tire-bouchons – corkscrews

Don’t worry if you’re unsure of the plurals of French compound nouns. Indeed, most native speakers get them wrong a lot too! If you follow the basic rules we’ve laid out here, you’ll be ahead of a lot of native French speakers!

Conclusion: Plurals in French

Today we went deep on one of the fundamentals of the language: how to make a word plural in French . We looked at the whole spectrum of French nouns, from the regular ones  that simply take -s in plural , to nouns with various endings that need different combinations ending in -x .

For each of the standard French pluralization rules, we also saw all of their exceptions . We had a special section for the three highly-irregular French plurals : yeux , cieux , and aïeux vs aïeuls . We even went into the special cases of how to pluralize words of foreign origin , and how to make compound nouns  plural in French.

If you’ve followed along here, you’re now ready to make any French noun plural! For easy reference, we recommend sharing or bookmarking this page for easy access. To sum things up for you, we’ll leave you with an easy table of all the main French pluralization rules  we saw today!

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devoir / devoirs (de classe)

  • Thread starter rlanglands
  • Start date Dec 6, 2006
  • Dec 6, 2006

Hi all We had a problem in my class last week concerning the noun devoir. My dictionary (Collins) suggested for "homework" it was always singular. My french teacher suggested that "devoir" was an exercise and "devoirs" was homework. Who is right?  

Jejune

Homework is always plural.  

thanks jejune  

geve

Senior Member

Gutenberg

Paul, 12-year-old, living in France : J'ai des devoirs à faire pour demain. Un devoir de français, un devoir de chimie et plusieurs autres devoirs...  

geostan

rlanglands said: Hi all We had a problem in my class last week concerning the noun devoir. My dictionary (Collins) suggested for "homework" it was always singular. My french teacher suggested that "devoir" was an exercise and "devoirs" was homework. Who is right? Click to expand...

friasc

  • Nov 15, 2022

S'il s'agit d'un ensemble d'exercices et de lecture qu'un prof demande à ses élèves d'effectuer dans un délai déterminé, parlera-t-on de 'devoir' ou de 'devoirs' ? Voici [votre devoir/vos devoirs] pour la semaine/à rendre avant le X du mois de Y, etc. : lisez p 10 à 15 et faites exercices A, B et C Comme [devoir/devoirs], lisez Actes II et III de Phèdre et préparez les questions de compréhension à la p. 51 de votre cahier. Merci  

  • Nov 16, 2022
geostan said: if you were given more than one exercise in a particular subject, then the plural is appropriate. Click to expand...
friasc said: Est-ce exact ? J'aimerais bien avoir la confirmation d'un francophone. Click to expand...

Merci pour cette réponse si complète. Dans un contexte d'école de langues pour adultes ou d'un cours d'introduction destiné à des étudiants adultes, parlerait-on toujours de 'devoirs' lorsque ceux-ci consistent en une série d'exercices courts et simples comme on en fait à l'école ? Par exemple, pendant mon doctorat j'ai suivi un cours d'initiation à la lecture en allemand pour débutants destiné aux étudiants de cycles supérieurs. On y faisait surtout de petits exercices de traduction et de compréhension. C'étaient donc des devoirs ?  

trans-latour

Je voudrais ajouter mon interprétation aux excellentes informations apportée précédemment concernant le travail que les collégiens ou les lycéens doivent faire chez eux. 1) Les collégiens et les lycéens étudient plusieurs matières à la fois. Le travail qu'il doivent faire le soir (ou en fin de semaine) chez eux porte très souvent sur plusieurs matières dans lesquelles ils auront à faire souvent plusieurs exercices. C'est naturellement que leurs parents leur demanderont au cours de la soirée : "As-tu fini tes devoirs?". 2) Si, exceptionnellement, un soir, il y a un seul exercice dans une seule matière, les parents pourront indifféremment leur demander: "As-tu fini tes devoirs?" ou "As-tu fini ton devoir?" 3) Après le lycée, donc, par exemple, en faculté on ne parle plus vraiment de "devoirs" ni de "devoirs". On dira "J'ai du travail à faire"; "As-tu fini ton travail?"; "As-tu fini ce que tu avais à faire?". On pourra, aussi, être plus précis: "J'ai un cours à réviser/à relire"; "J'ai des exercices à faire"; etc.... Naturellement, ce n'est que mon avis.  

friasc said: étudiants adultes, parlerait-on toujours de 'devoirs' Click to expand...
  • Nov 17, 2022

Donc, si j'ai bien compris, si c'est un cours pour adultes, on ne dit pas 'devoirs' sauf si c'est un cours par correspondance. [...] Mais alors comment désignerait-on les exercices qu'un enseignant de cours pour adultes demande à ses élèves de faire à la maison ? 'Exercices' ? 'Travaux' ?  

  • Nov 18, 2022

En plus de tout ce qui a été, j'ajouterais que dans l'enseignement du français aux États-Unis, j'entends quasi exclusivement 'devoirs' et c'est d'ailleurs ce que j'ai toujours utilisé.  

Locape

  • Nov 24, 2022

Il est en effet possible que des profs de français à l'étranger emploient le mot devoirs même pour des adultes, alors que celui-ci n'est plus utilisé en France à cet âge-là. Sinon, c'est plus courant d'avoir des exercices à faire ou un devoir à rendre (au singulier pour une petite dissertation).  

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Your Complete Guide to The French Plural

Grammatically, French is all over the place.

Words have genders , you have to really  make an effort to master pronominal verbs  and the grammar is chock-full of exceptions.

Whether you’re working to improve your listening  or prepare for a Francophone trip , you have to keep that complex French grammar in the back of your mind.

In this post, you’ll learn how to form the French plural as well as some exceptions to the rules, such as irregular forms and words that only exist in the plural.

The Basics: Forming the Plural

Just add “s” to the noun (and change the article), how to pronounce that “s”, when things already end in “s” (or “x”), forming the plural in irregular cases, nouns and adjectives ending in “-al”, nouns and adjectives ending in “-eau,” “-au” and “-eu”, nouns ending in “-ail”, french words that only exist in the plural, french nouns that change meaning in the plural form, how to practice the french plural.

Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

Generally, the plural of French nouns and adjectives is formed by simply adding an “s” at the end. Just like in English! The definite articles le , la and l’ (the) become les   (the) in the plural. The indefinite articles un  and une (a) become des  (some)   in the plural.

Let’s take a look at some examples with French nouns:

Now let’s take a look at some examples in which French nouns are being modified by adjectives :

One more thing : An “s” must be added to both the noun and the adjective. Agreement: a fact of French life.

Spelling , and therefore pronunciation (and therefore reading aloud), can be tricky in French. For the most part, the little “s” we add at the end of nouns and adjectives is not pronounced , as is often the case with final consonants. There are, however, some exceptions in which it is pronounced.

When you see a plural adjective followed by a noun beginning with a vowel, the final “s” of the adjective is pronounced like a “z.”

  • les grand s éléphants (the big elephants)
  • les jeune s athlètes (the young athletes)

When you come across a plural noun followed by a plural adjective that begins with a vowel, you can pronounce the noun’s final “s” as though it were a “z.”

  • les chien s agiles (the agile/graceful dogs).

I know what you’re thinking. What about words that already end in “s”? Don’t worry, I’ve got you covered.

When you come across a word that ends in “s,” its plural form is the same as its singular form. How’s that for a good deal?

The adjective gros (fat, big, large) is a case in point:

One more thing:  The definite article le still becomes les. Also, don’t forget the “s” at the end of camion !

The same deal applies when dealing with a French noun or adjective ending in “x.”

One more thing: In terms of pronunciation, the “x” and “s” endings function in the same way.

You probably saw it coming: There are many cases in which just adding an “s” to nouns and adjectives is not enough to form the plural. Sometimes, you’ve got to do a bit more. Luckily, there are some general rules that apply, depending on the endings of the nouns and adjectives.

When there’s a masculine singular noun or adjective ending in “-al,” its plural form usually ends in “-aux.”

One more thing: It’s important to note that this only applies to masculine cases. To use the feminine form of an adjective ending in “-al,” the change is regular and an “e” is added in the case of the singular, as in une revue international e   (an international magazine). For the plural we add an “s” to the noun and the adjective to get des revues international es   ([some] international magazines).

Exceptions: There are some notable exceptions whereby masculine singular nouns and adjectives ending in “-al” become plural by “regular” means, which is to say, we simply add an “s” to the ending.

  • The plural of bal (ball, as in “masquerade ball,” dance) is bal s   (balls, dances).
  • The plural of festival (festival) is festival s   (festivals).
  • The plural of banal (banal, ordinary) is banal s .
  • The plural of fatal (fatal, deadly) is fatal s .
  • The plural of final (final) is final s * 

*Occasionally, you will see fin aux  (final)   used, particularly in economic and financial contexts.

One more thing:  The masculine noun mal   (ache), when used in mal de tête   (headache) becomes maux de tête   (headaches) in the plural.

The plural of singular nouns and adjectives ending in “-eau,” “-au” and “-eu” is most often formed by adding an “x” to the ending.

Exceptions: There are cases when we simply add an “s” to form the plural.

  • In the case of the adjective bleu   (blue), it becomes bleus  (blue) in the plural.
  • The masculine singular noun pneu (a tire) becomes pneus   (tires) in the plural.

Nouns that end in “-ail” in the singular generally end in “-ails” in the plural, but there are certain cases in which their endings are “-aux” in the plural.

There are several nouns in French that only exist in the plural. They just can’t be alone! Here’s a list of some exclusively plural nouns that you’re bound to come across. It’s important to note that each of these nouns still has a gender that you should know for the sake of agreement.

Some French nouns are just plain fickle! Their meanings change depending on whether they’re singular or plural. Here’s a list of some of the most common ones.

The Everything French Grammar Book: All the Rules You Need to Master Français (Everything: Language and Literature)

  • Read. This may seem like a no-brainer because books, magazines and newspapers are chock-full of plural nouns and adjectives. The key, though, is reading actively .  One thing you can do is, each time you come across the plural form of a word, convert it to the singular form and vice versa.   If you’re in the mood to cozy up with a grammar book, I recommend “The Everything French Grammar Book: All the Rules You Need to Master Français”   by Laura K. Lawless.

This language learning program immerses you in the French language with authentic videos like movie trailers and inspiring talks. All of the videos come with interactive subtitles, meaning you’ll not only be able to compare the speech to the subtitles, but also click on them for extra information. Plus, you can use FluentU’s contextual video dictionary to search for specific terms and see the plural form used in context.

  • Transcribe and transform. Dictées (dictations) are another great way to get cozy with French plural nouns and adjectives. A simple yet effective activity is to transcribe a short piece of audio from a podcast  and then transform it with the plural. Make sure to pay attention to pronouns and agreement!
  • Quiz yourself.    Flashcards , oldies but goodies, are a great way to get used to plural nouns and adjectives. Check out these  flashcards and  this  quiz for starters.

So get cozy and get to it!

The more time spent, the more mots   (words) in your head.

Before you know it, your plural game will be on point.

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plural homework in french

French translation of 'homework'

a1

Examples of 'homework' in a sentence homework

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  • homeward bound
  • homeward journey
  • homework club
  • homeworking
  • All ENGLISH words that begin with 'H'

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  • a homework assignment
  • my geography homework
  • to do one’s homework
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Plural – Free Exercise

Complete the gaps with the plural form of the nouns.

  • l’œuf →   regular plural: add - s to the singular eggs
  • le gâteau →   all nouns that end in - eau in the singular form their plural with - x cakes
  • le vélo →   regular plural: add - s to the singular bikes
  • la voiture →   regular plural: add - s to the singular cars
  • le travail →   most nouns that end in - ail in the singular form their plural with - x jobs
  • le journal →   most nouns that end - al in the singular form their plural with - x newspapers
  • le bijou →   some that end in - ou in the singular form their plural with - x jewellery
  • la maison →   regular plural: add - s to the singular houses
  • le feu →   almost all nouns that end in - eu in the singular form their plural with - x . fires
  • l’heure →   regular plural: add - s to the singular hours

Complete the gaps with the plural form of the nouns. Remember – not all nouns follow the regular plural rules.

  • le prix →   nouns that end in - s , - x or - z in the singular don’t take an additional ending in the plural prizes
  • le mois →   nouns that end in - s , - x or - z in the singular don’t take an additional ending in the plural months
  • l’œil →   for some nouns, the word stem changes in the plural eyes
  • le nez →   nouns that end in - s , - x or - z in the singular don’t take an additional ending in the plural noses
  • madame →   for some nouns, the word stem changes in the plural ladies

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A List of English Singulars That Are French Plurals

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  • Pronunciation & Conversation
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Nouns are not always singular in both French and English . Here is a list of words that are singular or uncountable, or have unmarked plurals in English but are plural or countable in French.

* These are usually but not always plural in French

** Data is the plural of datum but is commonly used as a singular noun in English

*** The plurals of these nouns are unmarked in English

**** These nouns are uncountable in English but countable in French

Adjectival Nouns in French

In addition, adjectives that are used as nouns when referring to a group of people do not have an s in English, though they do in French:

  • Advice —  Conseils
  • Ammunition —  Munitions
  • Asparagus — Asperges
  • Attic —  Combles
  • Audience —  Spectateurs, auditeurs
  • Baggage, luggage —  Bagages
  • Broccoli — Brocolis
  • Business —  Affaires
  • To cause damage — Causer des dégâts
  • Cereal —  Céréales
  • Chess —  Échecs
  • Clothing — Vêtements
  • Contact information/name and address — Coordonnées
  • Damage — Dommage(s), * dégâts
  • Darkness — Ténèbres
  • Data** — Données
  • Debris — Débris
  • Deer — Cerf(s), biche(s) ***
  • Deposit — Arrhes
  • To do research — Faire des recherches
  • Engagement — Fiançailles
  • Evidence — Preuve(s) ****
  • To feel remorse — Éprouver des remords
  • Fish — Poisson(s) ***
  • Food — Vivres , victuailles
  • Forecast — Prévisions
  • Fruit — Fruit(s) ****
  • Funeral — Funérailles, obsèques
  • Furniture — Meubles
  • Garbage, rubbish — Déchets, ordures
  • Gift (for Christmas or New Year's ) — Étrennes
  • Graffiti — Graffitis
  • Hair — Cheveux
  • Havoc — Ravages
  • Hay — Foins *
  • Herringbone — Chevrons
  • Holiday(s) (British English) — Vacances
  • Homework — Devoirs
  • Income — Revenu(s), rente(s) *
  • Information — Informations, renseignements
  • Knowledge — Connaissances *
  • Lovemaking — Ébats amoureux/sexuels
  • Math (American English) — Maths
  • Medicine — Médicaments
  • Offal — Abats
  • Pasta — Pâtes
  • Period (to have one's period) — Règles (avoir ses règles)
  • Progress — Progrès *
  • Quicksand —  Sables mouvants
  • Rubble — Décombres
  • Science — Sciences *
  • Sheep — Mouton(s) ***
  • Shrimp — Crevettes
  • Software — Logiciel(s) ****
  • Spaghetti — Spaghettis
  • Spinach —   Épinards
  • Static — Parasites
  • There's a good chance that… —  Il y a de fortes chances que...
  • Transportation — Transports
  • Vacation — Vacances
  • Vicinity — Environs
  • Volcanic smoke and gas — Fumerolles *
  • Wedding — Noces *
  • The dead — Les morts
  • The living — Les vivants
  • The poor — Les pauvres
  • The rich — Les riches
  • The sick —  Les malades
  • The young — Les jeunes

Nouns That Are Singular in French, Plural in English

Nouns are not always singular in both French and English. Here is a list of words that are singular, uncountable, or invariable in French but are plural or countable in English.

* These are usually but not always singular in French ** Many French  compound nouns  are invariable, though their English equivalents are variable.

  • News — L'actualité
  • Oats — Avoine (fem)
  • Scales — Une balance
  • Drums — La batterie
  • Boxer shorts — Un boxer-short
  • Swimming trunks — Un caleçon de bain
  • Tights — Collant(s) *
  • Contents — Le contenu, la contenance
  • Overalls, dungarees — Une cotte
  • Dentures — Un dentier
  • Epsom salts — Epsomite (fem)
  • Stairs — Un escalier
  • Fireworks — Un feu d'artifice
  • Fruit — Un fruit (piece of)
  • Skyscraper — Un gratte-ciel **
  • Gums — La gencive
  • Jeans — Un jean
  • Sweat pants — Un jogging
  • To do the dishes — Laver la vaisselle
  • (Piece of) news — Une nouvelle
  • (Loaf of) bread — Un pain
  • Pants, trousers — Un pantalon
  • Pliers — Pince(s) *
  • Wire cutters — Une pince coupante
  • Wire strippers — Une pince à dénuder
  • Tweezers — Une pince à épiler
  • Ice tongs — Une pince à glace  
  • Nail clippers — Une pince à ongles
  • Coin purse, wallet — Un porte-monnaie **
  • Pyjamas — Un pyjama
  • Shorts — un short
  • Underpants — Un slip
  • Swimming trunks — Un slip de bain
  • Bellows — Un soufflet
  • Dishes, crockery (to do the dishes) — La vaisselle (faire la vaisselle)

Some French Nouns Can Only Be Singular

In both French and English, many nouns can be singular or plural:  un homme  (one man),  deux hommes  (two men),  la chaise  (the chair),  les chaises  (the chairs). But there are quite a few French nouns that can only be singular, sometimes because the noun has a different meaning in the plural. Here are some French nouns that can only be singular:

Abstract Nouns

  • Le bonheur — Happiness
  • La chaleur — Heat, warmth
  • La charité — Charity, kindness
  • Le chaud — Heat
  • Le courage — Courage
  • La faim — Hunger
  • Le froid — Cold
  • La haine — Hatred
  • La malchance — Bad luck, misfortune
  • La mélancolie — Melancholy, gloom
  • La peur — Fear
  • La soif  — Thirst
  • La tristesse — Sadness
  • La vaillance — Courage, valor

Arts and Crafts

  • Le cinéma — Cinema, movie industry
  • La couture — Sewing
  • La danse — Dancing
  • Le dessin — Drawing
  • La peinture — Painting
  • La sculpture — Sculpting
  • Le théâtre — Theater
  • Le tissage — Weaving
  • Le tricot — Knitting
  • La droite — Right
  • L'est  (m) — East
  • La gauche — Left
  • Le nord — North
  • L'ouest  (m) — West
  • Le sud — South

Materials and Matter

  • Acier  (m) — Steel
  • Argent  (m) — Silver
  • Le bois — Wood
  • Le coton — Cotton
  • Le cuir — Leather
  • Le cuivre — Copper
  • Le fer — Iron
  • Or  (m) — Gold
  • Le papier — Paper
  • Le plastique — Plastic
  • Le plâtre — Plaster
  • La soie — Silk
  • Le verre — Glass
  • La biologie — Biology
  • La botanique — Botany
  • La chimie — Chemistry
  • La géologie — Geology
  • La linguistique — Linguistics
  • La philosophie — Philosophy
  • La physique — Physics
  • La psychologie — Psychology
  • La sociologie — Sociology

Some French Nouns Can Only Be Plural

In both French and English, many nouns can be singular or plural:  un homme  (one man),  deux hommes  (two men),  la chaise  (the chair),  les chaises  (the chairs). But there are quite a few French nouns that can only be plural, sometimes because the noun has a different meaning in the singular. Here are some French nouns that can only be plural:

  • Les abats  (m) — Offal, giblets
  • Les acariens  (m) — Dust mites
  • Les affres  (f) — Agony, throes
  • Les agissements  (m) — Schemes, intrigues
  • Les agrès  (m) — (Sports) apparatus
  • Les alentours  (m) — Neighborhood, surroundings
  • Les annales  (f) — Annals
  • Les appointements  (m) — Salary
  • Les archives  (f) — Archives
  • Les armoiries  (f) — Coat of arms
  • Les arrérages  (m) — Arrears
  • Les arrhes  (f) — Deposit
  • Les auspices  (m) — Auspices, patronage
  • Les beaux-arts  (m) — Fine arts
  • Les beaux-enfants  (m) — Children's spouses, in-laws / spouse's children, stepchildren
  • Les beaux-parents  (m) — Spouse's parents, in-laws / parents' spouses, stepparents
  • Les bestiaux  (m) — Livestock, cattle
  • Les bonnes grâces  (f) — Someone's favor, good graces
  • Les brisants  (m) — (Ocean) breakers
  • Les brisées  (f) — Someone's territory, footsteps
  • Les catacombes  (f) — Catacombs
  • Les céréales  (f) — Cereal
  • Les cheveux  (m) — Hair
  • Les comestibles  (m) — Fine foods
  • Les communaux  (m) — Common land
  • Les condoléances  (f) — Condolences
  • Les confins  (m) — Borders, fringes
  • Les coordonnées  (f) — Coordinates
  • Les déboires  (m) — Disappointments, setbacks, trials
  • Les décombres  (m) — Rubble, debris
  • Les dépens  (m) — Costs, expense
  • Les doléances  (f) — Complaints, grievances
  • Les ébats  (m) — Frolicking
  • Les entrailles  (f) — Entrails, guts
  • Les environs  (m) — Outskirts, surroundings
  • Les épousailles  (f) — Nuptials
  • Les étrennes  (f) — Fift (for Christmas or New Year's)
  • Les façons  (f) — Manners, behavior
  • Les floralies  (f) — Flower show
  • Les fonts baptismaux  (f) — Baptismal font
  • Les fiançailles  (f) — Engagement
  • Les frais  (m) — Expenses, charges
  • Les frusques (f informal) — Clothes, togs, rags
  • Les funerailles  (f) — Funeral
  • Les gens  (m) — People
  • Les grands-parents  (m) — Grandparents
  • Les honoraires  (m) — Fees
  • Les intempéries  (f) — Bad weather
  • Les latrines  (f) — Latrine
  • Les limbes  (m) — Limbo
  • Les lombes  (m) — Loins
  • Les mathématiques  (f) — Math(s)
  • Les mémoires  (m) — Memoirs
  • Les menottes  (f) — Handcuffs
  • Les mœurs  (f) — Morals, customs
  • Les munitions  (f) — Ammunition
  • Les obsèques  (f) — Funeral
  • Les ordures  (f) — Trash, rubbish
  • Les ouïes  (f) — Gills
  • Les pâtes  (f) — Pasta, noodles
  • Les pierreries  (f) — Gems, precious stones
  • Les pourparlers  (m) — Negotiations, talks
  • Les préparatifs  (m) — Preparations
  • Les proches  (m) — Close relations, next of kin
  • Les ravages  (m) — Havoc, ravages
  • Les représailles  (f) — Retaliation, reprisals
  • Les royalties  (f) — Royalties
  • Les scellés  (m) — Seals (e.g., on a door)
  • Les semailles  (f) — Sowing, seeds
  • Les sévices  (m) — Physical cruelty, abuse
  • Les ténèbres  (f) — Darkness, gloom
  • Les thermes  (m) — Thermal baths
  • Les toilettes  (f) — Lavatory, restroom
  • Les vacances  (f) — Vacation, (UK) holiday
  • Les vêpres  (f) — Vespers
  • Les victuailles  (f) — Food, victuals
  • Les vivres  (m) — Food, supplies, provisions

Nouns Meanings May Depend on Number

Some French nouns can only be singular, some can only be plural, and some have different meanings depending on whether they are singular or plural.

  • Abattis  (m) — Brushwood
  • Les abattis  (m) — Giblets, (informal) arms and legs, limbs
  • Assise  (f) — Wall support, foundation
  • Assises  (f) — Assembly, conference
  • Autorité  (f) — Authority
  • Les autorités  (f) — The authorities
  • Le barbe  — Barb
  • La barbe  — Beard
  • Les barbes  (f) — Ragged edge
  • Le bois  — Wood (in general), woodwind instrument
  • Les bois  (m) — Woodwind section
  • Le ciseau  — Chisel
  • Les ciseaux  (m) — Scissors
  • Le comble  — Height, peak; last straw (figurative)
  • Les combles  (m) — Attic
  • Le cuivre  — Copper
  • Les cuivres  (m) — Copper instruments, tools
  • La douceur  — Softness, gentleness
  • Les douceurs  (f) — Sweets, desserts; sweet talk
  • Eau  (f) — Water (in general)
  • Les eaux  (f) — River/lake/sea water, wake
  • Économie  (f) — Economics
  • Les économies  (f) — Savings
  • Écriture  (f) — Writing, (finance) entry
  • Les écritures  (f) — Accounts, books
  • La façon  — Way, manner, means
  • Le fer  — Iron
  • Les fers  (m) — Chains, fetters
  • Le guide  — Guide (book, tour)
  • La guide  — Girl scout/guide
  • Les guides  (f) — Reins
  • Humanité  (f) — Humanity, mankind
  • Les humanités  (f) — Humanities, classics
  • Le lendemain  — The next day, the period right after
  • Les lendemains  (m) — Future, prospects, consequences
  • La lunette  — Telescope
  • Les lunettes  (f) — Glasses, spectacles
  • La mémoire  — Memory
  • Le mémoire  — Memorandum, report
  • Les mémoires  (m) — Memoirs
  • La menotte  — (babytalk) Hand
  • Les menottes  (f) — Handcuffs
  • Ouïe  (f) — (sense of) Hearing
  • Les ouïes  (f) — Gills
  • Le papier  — Paper
  • Les papiers  (m) — Documentation
  • La pâte  — Pastry, dough
  • Les pâtes  (f) — Pasta, noodles
  • Le ravage  — (Literary) pillaging
  • Les ravages  (m) — Havoc, ravages
  • Le status  — Status
  • Les status  (m) — Statutes
  • La toilette  — Toilette, hygiene, act of getting ready
  • Les toilettes  (f) — Lavatory, restroom
  • La vacance  — Vacancy
  • Les vacances  (f) — Vacation, holiday

Arts and Crafts Nouns

When talking about arts and crafts, a singular noun indicates the activity itself, while both the singular and plural refer to the product.

  • Le cinéma  — Cinema, movie industry
  • Le(s) cinéma(s)  — Cinema(s), movie theater(s)
  • La couture  — Sewing
  • La (les) couture(s)  — Seam(s)
  • La danse  — Dancing
  • La (les) danse(s)  — Dance(s)
  • Le dessin  — The act of drawing
  • Le(s) dessin(s)  — Drawing(s)
  • La peinture  — The act of painting
  • La (les) peinture(s)  — Painting(s)
  • La sculpture  — The act of sculpting
  • La (les) sculpture(s)  — Sculpture(s)
  • Le théâtre  — Theater arts
  • Le(s) théâtre(s)  — Theaters(s)
  • Le tricot  — The act of knitting
  • Le(s) tricot(s)  — Sweater(s), jumper(s)

Nouns Referring to Languages

Languages  are always singular (and always,  au fait , masculine). When the name of a language is capitalized, both the singular and plural indicate people of that nationality.

  • Anglais  (m) — English language
  • Un Anglais, des Anglais  — An Englishman, English people
  • Arabe  (m) — Arabic language
  • Un Arabe, des Arabes  — An Arab, Arabs
  • Le français  — French language
  • Un Français, des Français  — A Frenchman, French people
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  • French Articles and Nouns

How to Make Nouns Plural in French [+13 Examples]

  • Sam Denishin
  • October 23, 2020

How to Make French Nouns That End in Ou Plural

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In this grammar lesson you will learn how to make nouns plural in French .

In this lesson you will learn about:

  • how to make most nouns plural
  • how to make nouns that end in -s -x, and -z plural
  • how to make nouns that end in -al plural
  • how to make nouns that end in -eu -au, and -eau plural
  • how plural nouns are used in sentences
  • how you can quiz yourself on how to make nouns plural in French
  • how to practice with flashcards for how to make nouns plural in French
  • how and why you should use the courses of Language Atlas to learn French

Please refer to the French A1 Curriculum to get a better overview of French grammar, if you are curious about this fits in French A1 .

By the end of the lesson you will know all about how to make nouns plural in French!

Table of Contents

How to make most nouns plural.

To make most nouns plural, simply add -s at the end.

J’ai un chat et ma sœur a trois chat s . I have a cat and my sister has three cats .
Mon frère a une maison , mais j’ai trois maison s . My brother has one house , but I have 3 houses .
Ils ont un enfant et j’ai deux enfant s . They have one child and I have 2 children .

Please note that you don’t pronounce the plural -s.

How to Make Nouns that End in -s -x, and -z Plural

If a noun ends with -s, -x, or -z, then you don’t need to do anything to make it plural. These nouns remain the same in the plural form.

Mon bra s est musclé, mais leurs bra s sont fins. My arm is muscular, but their arms are thin.
L’animal a une noi x , mais il a besoin de deux noi x . The animal has one nut , but he needs two nuts .
Mon ne z est gros, mais leurs ne z sont petits. My nose is big, but their noses are small.

How to Make Nouns that End in -al Plural

To make nouns plural that end in -al, simply change the -al to -aux.

Avez-vous un anim al de compagnie ? J’adore les anim aux de compagnie. Do you have a pet ? I love pets .
J’ai un chev al ici et deux chev aux là. I have one horse here and two horses there.
Vous avez un journ al pour moi ? – Non, mais vous pouvez acheter des journ aux au magasin là-bas. Do you have a newspaper for me? – No, but you can buy newspapers at the store over there.

Most French nouns that end in -al can be pluralized like this, but there are a few exceptions.

These exceptions take an s in the plural form.

How to Make Nouns that End in -eu -au, and -eau Plural

To make nouns plural that end in -eu, -au, or -eau, simply add an -x.

Il a les chev eux bruns. He has brown hair .
J’ai un tuy au ici et les autres tuy aux sont avec Eloïse. I have one pipe here and the other pipes are with Eloise.
Un jour, je voudrais vivre dans ce chât eau , ou dans un de ces autres chât eaux . One day, I would like to live in this castle , or one of those other castles .
Pauline, tu vas acheter un gât eau ? – Non, je voudrais acheter trois gât eaux . Pauline, are you going to buy one cake ? – No I would like to buy three cakes .

Most French nouns that end in -eu, -au, or -eau can be pluralized like this, but there are a few exceptions.

Example Sentences on How to Make Nouns Plural in French

The final section of this lesson on how to make nouns plural in French is about seeing them in action.

This is valuable because you can improve your understanding on how to make nouns plural in French through examples.

This section contains all of the previous sentences, neatly organised in one place.

Quiz Yourself on How to Make Nouns Plural in French

At the end of every lesson you can do a small quiz.

You will see the sentences of the previous chapter. It is up to you to give the correct answer.

You will either need to fill in the blanks, choose the correct multiple choice option, or both.

Once you are done the correct answer will be shown.

You can redo the quiz on how to make nouns plural in French as many times as you want!

J’ai un chat et ma sœur a trois . [I have a cat and my sister has three cats.]

Mon frère a une maison, mais j’ai trois . [My brother has one house, but I have 3 houses.]

Mon bras est musclé, mais leurs sont fins. [My arm is muscular, but their arms are thin.]

Mon nez est gros, mais leurs sont petits. [My nose is big, but their noses are small.]

J’ai un tuyau ici et les autres sont avec Eloïse. [I have one pipe here and the other pipes are with Eloise.]

Pauline, tu vas acheter un gâteau ? – Non, je voudrais acheter deux . [Pauline, are you going to buy one cake? – No I would like to buy two cakes.]

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How to Practice With Flashcards for This Lesson

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It is the best way to memorize what you learn, you can personalize your progression because it adapts to your actions, and all flashcards have audio to improve your hearing and pronunciation.

Please read our article on how to learn a new language for more information on flashcards and the best way to learn a new language.

There are two ways to practice with Flashcards for this lesson.

  • The Flashcards in our Courses

Anki is a free software with which you can create and practice flashcards.

After you have downloaded Anki for free, you can get our French A1 Anki Deck .

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All the flashcards have text, images, explanations, and audio.

You can also use our courses that have flashcards integrated alongside lessons with audio, quizzes and much more!

However, I am sure you are wondering, what are your courses, and why should I take them?

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Using my experience and by doing research I created Language Atlas, a platform where people can learn French and Spanish in the most effective and efficient way.

I created free lessons and quizzes so that there would always be a easy and accessible way for people to learn or brush up on their language skills.

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plural homework in french

How do you make French nouns plural? - Easy Learning Grammar French

  • Most French nouns form their plural by adding an -s to their singular form.
  • If the singular noun ends in -s, -x or -z , no further -s is added in the plural.
  • If the singular noun ends in -al or -ail , the plural usually ends in -aux .
  • nouns ending in -eau
  • most nouns ending in -eu
  • a FEW nouns ending in -ou (MOST nouns ending in -ou add -s as usual)

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French Nouns, Gender & Plural

Nouns, gender & plural, gender (masculine & feminine).

Nouns in French are either masculine or feminine; for some reason (bread) is masculine in French; (spoon) is feminine, so the best thing to do is to memorize words with their gender by adding the indefinite or definite articles to them, for example the word bread should be memorized as “le pain” and not only as “pain”. The good news is that some words may give you a clue about their gender, especially their ending, for example: 

Nouns ending in: -eau, -eaux, -age -ment are usually masculine,

Nouns ending in -e, -ure, -ence, -ance, -té, and -ette, -ion (especially -sion, tion ) are usually feminine.

Nouns referring to a sex, for example “une femme / a woman” is obviously feminine …

That doesn’t means that this is a rule you should follow, for example nouns ending in “-e” are not always feminine.

Now to make the feminine out of the masculine you need to follow these simple steps:

Many French nouns form their feminine by adding an “ e ” to the end of the masculine. Student (masculine) = étudiant, Student (feminine) = étudiant e .

Nouns already ending in an “ e ” in the masculine don’t change in the feminine. Other nouns change their - eur ending to - euse for the feminine, for example: a seller = un vendeur (masucline), une vendeu se (feminine).

To form the plural in French most nouns simply add an extra “ s ” {a friend = un ami, friends = des ami s }

Nouns ending in -eu, -eau and -au usually form the plural by adding an exta “ x ”, {the cake = le gât eau , cakes = les gât eaux } Nouns ending in -al usually form the plural with -aux : {animal = un anim al , animals = des anim aux } Nouns already ending in -s, -x, or -z in their masculine form do not change in the plural: {the nose = le ne z , noses = les ne z }

Nouns ending in -an, -en and -on take an extra “ ne ” in the singular feminine. Dog (male) = chien, Dog (female) = chien ne .

And “ nes ” in the plural feminine: Dogs (male) = chiens, Dogs (female) = chien nes .

Some French Nouns

Conjunctions and negation, comparatives and superlatives, prepositions, french test (pdf), how-to's.

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Some plural English nouns are singular in French and vice versa

plural homework in french

In French, collective nouns can be singular or plural.

Learn about French collective nouns

Singular where plural in english (collective nouns).

La famille  est  heureuse The family is/are happy

La police  va  arrêter le criminel. The police are going to arrest the criminal.

In English, what we call collective nouns (e.g. family, team, police, company, ...) can be followed by a verb  either in singular or plural form , depending on whether we consider the group as a single unit (singular), or as the individuals forming the group (plural).

However, these collective nouns are  always followed by singular  in French. 

Plural where singular in English

Je vais en  vacances  en juillet I'm going on holiday in July

Elle a  les cheveux  blonds She has blonde hair

Note that words such as '' holiday '' ( vacances ) and '' hair '' ( cheveux ) are  always plural  in French. The adjectives or verbs following them are also in plural form.

Case of toilette(s)

Où sont les toilettes s’il vous plaît ? Where is the toilet/restroom please?

Je fais ma toilette tous les matins. I have a wash every morning. I wash myself every morning.

Note that toilettes is always used in the plural to mean " the toilet/restroom ". La toilette (singular) in French means "a (personal) wash".

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Learn more about these related French grammar topics

Examples and resources, plural where singular in english, singular where plural in english.

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French Plural

plural homework in french

In grammar, the word  plural  denotes a quantity of more than one (in contrast to  singular , which denotes a quantity of one). For example:

  • deux livres, cent livres, beaucoup de livres  - two books, one hundred books, many books ( livres is plural, it is a plural noun)
  • trois montres, des montres, plusieurs montres - three watches, some watches, several watches ( montres is a plural noun)
  • Nous parlons.  - We speak.   ( Nous  is a plural pronoun and  parlont  is a plural verb.)
  • Ces femmes ont pris nos magazines.  - Those women took our magazines.   ( Ces  is a plural demonstrative adjective, ont pris  is a plural verb and nos  is a plural possessive adjective.  Femmes  and  magazines  are plural nouns.)
  • Tous mes rêves sont bons.  - All my dreams are good. ( Tous, mes  and bons  are plural adjectives and sont is a plural verb.  Rêves  is a plural noun.)

Lessons with more detail on Pluriel

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Être (to be) Conjugation – Verb Tables

Être (to be) Conjugation – Verb Tables

Être is one of the single most important and common French verbs in the entire language. The meaning of être is “to be”. The conjugation of être in the present tense is: Je suis (I am), Tu es (you are, familiar), Il, elle, on est (He, she, one is), Nous sommes (We are), Vous êtes (You are) and Ils, elles sont (They are). This post covers conjugations of être in 12 verb tenses with example sentences. Keep reading.

Être (to be) verb tables

Être (to be) conjugation

Être is an irregular verb . This means that when conjugated, its endings are different from regular verbs in the -re group. In addition, être is used as an auxiliary verb in addition to avoir in the passé composé for intransitive and reflexive verbs .

Être conjugation table

Être (to be) Conjugation – Verb Tables

The following section contains the conjugation tables of être in all the major tenses with example sentences.

Present tense (present indicative)

The following table shows the verb être conjugated in the present tense ( le présent de l’indicatif ).

Être conjugation French

Compound past (passé composé)

The passé composé is a past tense that’s used to describe past actions which occurred at a specific moment in time.

The French passé composé equates to the simple past or the present perfect in English.

Être is formed in the passé composé by combing avoir in the present tense with the past participle été . Hence, “J’ai été” translates to “I was” or “I had been”.

Passive voice with the past participle of être

The past participle of être, “été” is also used to form a past tense of the French passive voice . Here are some example sentences:

  • Le bâtiment a été construit en 1981. The building was built in 1981.
  • L’histoire a été écrite par un grand écrivain. The story was written by a great author.

Simple past (passé simple)

The passé simple is a literary past tense that equates grammatically to the passé composé.

While not necessary to memorize perfectly, it is a good idea to recognize the third-person singular and plural forms: Il/elle fut translates to “He/she was” and Ils/elles furent translates to “they were”.

Imperfect indicative ( imparfait )

The imperfect indicative ( imparfait ) tense is to describe past events who do not have a precise start and stop time.

For the verb être, the imperfect is formed by adding the appropriate ending to the stem “ét”. Thus, “J’étais” translates to both “I was” and “I used to be”.

Pluperfect ( plus-que-parfait )

The French pluperfect ( plus-que-parfait ) is a tense that’s used to express anteriority (one event occurring before another).

For the verb être, it is formed by combining avoir in the imperfect with the past participle été . Hence. “J’avais été” translates to “I had been”.

je vais être

Near future ( futur proche )

The near future tense ( futur proche ) is used to describe future events which suggest a high level of certainty.

For the verb être, the future tense is formed by combining the present tense of aller (to go) with the infinitive. Hence, “Je vais être” means “I’m going to be”.

Simple future ( futur simple )

The futur simple , also simply called the “ French future tense “, is used to describe future events. The events this tense describes are usually a bit less certain that those of the previous near future tense.

To form the futur simple for the verb être, add the appropriate ending to the stem, “-ser”. Hence, “Je serai” means “I will be”.

je serai

Past future ( futur antérieur )

The past future tense ( futur antérieur ) is used to describe events that will have occurred in the future.

For the verb être , this tense is formed by combining the simple future of avoir (to have) as an auxiliary verb with the past participle of être . Hence, “J’aurai été” translates to “I will have been”.

Conditional mood ( présent du conditionnel )

The French conditional tense is used to describe hypothetical situations. This the “would” tense.

For the verb être, it is formed by attaching the appropriate ending to the stem “-ser”. Hence, “Je serais” translates to “I would be”.

Present subjunctive ( subjonctif )

The French subjunctive mood ( le subjonctif ) is used to express wishes, emotions and doubts. In the first-person singular form “que je sois” translates to “that I be”.

Imperative ( impératif )

The imperative mood ( impératif ) is used to express both positive and negative commands. For the negation , ne…pas gets wrapped around the verb.

Positive commands

Negative commands.

The French gerund is a combination of the preposition “en” and the present participle. The present participle of être is “ étant “.

The gerund of être is “en étant” , which translates to “while being”.

  • J’ai trouvé mon premier boulet en étant un étudiant en Asie. I found my first job while being a student in Asia.

The present participle “étant” as a second usage. When placed before the past participle of one of the verbs which uses être as an auxiliary verb in the passé composé, it means “having”. For example:

  • Étant arrivé à l’heure, j’ai pu diner avec la famille. Having arrived on time, I was able to have dinner with the family.

Auxiliary verb in passé composé for intransitive and reflexive verbs

The verb être is used as an auxiliary (helping) verb to for the passé composé for both intransitive verbs (verbs where the subject and object are the same) and reflexive verbs.

How to use Être

State of being.

The first usage of être is to express states of being. To form these sentences use the following grammatical construction:  Je suis + adjective . 

Here are some examples:

  • Je suis heureux / heureuse.  I am happy.
  • Je suis fatigué(e).  I am tired.

plural homework in french

The second most common usage of être is to describe location.

  • Je suis en France.  I’m in France.
  • Je suis en Angleterre.  I’m in England.
  • Je suis aux États-Unis.  I’m in the United States.
  • Il est dans le salon.  He’s in the living room.
  • Nous sommes dans la cuisine.  We’re in the kitchen.
  • Elle est dans la salle de bains.  She’s in the bathroom.

This page covers geographical prepositions for places and countries , which can be confusing.

The verb être is also used in the idiomatic expression  être d’accord avec , which means to agree.

  • Je suis d’accord avec vous.  I agree with you.
  • Je ne suis pas d’accord avec vous.  I don’t agree with you.
  • Êtes-vous d’accord avec moi?  Do you agree with me?

Auxiliary verb for passé composé

Être is used as an auxiliary verb used in the passé composé for verbs of movement as well as pronominal (reflexive) verbs.

  • Je suis allé(e) en France.   I went to France.
  • Nous sommes restés à la maison.  We stayed home.
  • Elle s’est levée à 8h00.  She got up at eight o’clock.

Present progressive indicative ( en train de )

The grammatical construction   être en train de + infinitive is used to describe being in the middle of doing something.

  • Je suis en train de travailler.  I am working.
  • Je suis en train d’étudier ces verbes.  I’m learning these verbs.
  • Je suis en train de laver la voiture.  I’m washing the car.

To describe ownership or possession of an object you can use the following: être à + name of person or stress pronoun  (moi, toi, lui, elle etc).

  • Le stylo est à moi.   The pen is mine or belongs to me.
  • La voiture est à elle.  The car is hers or belongs to her.
  • La maison est à eux.  The house is theirs.

Punctuality

Being on time, early or late. You can also use être to describe punctuality. This lesson covers how to tell time in French .

  • Je suis à l’heure.   I’m on time.
  • Je suis en avance.  I’m early.
  • Je suis en retard.  I’m late.

Pronounce the forms of “être” like an expert! In addition to mastering the basic conjugations, it’s of vital importance to know know how to pronounce the various forms of être and how to use them in “real” modern conversation. This is were Camille at Frenchtoday.com comes in. In this post on être , Camille covers the pronunciation “être” in great detail, offering 450 audio samples in all the main tenses.

Discover more:

  • Parler (to speak) conjugation charts
  • manger (to eat) conjugation charts
  • Aller (to go) conjugation charts
  • Faire (to make, do) conjugation charts
  • Avoir (to have) conjugation charts
  • Direct and indirect object pronouns
  • Pouvoir (can, to be able to) conjugation charts
  • Aimer (to like, to love) conjugation charts
  • Savoir (to know)

plural homework in french

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David Issokson

David Issokson is a lifelong language enthusiast. His head is swimming with words and sounds as he speaks over six languages. Of all the languages he speaks, he's the most passionate about French! David has helped hundreds of students to improve their French in his private online lessons. When procrastinating working on his site, FrenchLearner.com, David enjoys his time skiing and hiking in Teton Valley, Idaho.

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COMMENTS

  1. Plurals in French: A full guide on how to form le pluriel en français

    Most French nouns: -s. This is clearly the easiest rule for French plurals, since it's so close to the default rule for pluralizing English nouns. Just add an -s to make most French nouns plural. un croissant / des croissant s. une baguette / des baguette s. un sandwich / des sandwich s. une limonade / des limonade s.

  2. HOMEWORK in French

    HOMEWORK translate: devoirs [masculine, plural], devoirs (à la maison). Learn more in the Cambridge English-French Dictionary.

  3. Homework

    It is singular. My homework is singular. It names. the collective tasks I have to do. Bienvenido mr_Croft! Note: Some dictionaries describe this noun as "uncountable". There are many threads here about uncountable nouns. You may find them by using the forum Search feature, or by looking up the word "uncountable" in the WordReference English ...

  4. devoir / devoirs (de classe)

    Both the singular and plural could translate homework. The choice would depend on the context. If you were referring to the sum of the exercises you were given in all your subjects, or if you were given more than one exercise in a particular subject, then the plural is appropriate. ... [French teacher] For homework, I want you to do exercise 4 ...

  5. Your Complete Guide to The French Plural

    Just add "s" to the noun (and change the article) Generally, the plural of French nouns and adjectives is formed by simply adding an "s" at the end. Just like in English! The definite articles le , la and l' (the) become les (the) in the plural. The indefinite articles un and une (a) become des (some) in the plural.

  6. Le pluriel: plural nouns in French grammar

    Example: un genou - des genou x. a knee - knees. nouns that end in - al. The ending - al becomes - aux in the plural. The exceptions to this are: le bal, le cal, le carnaval, le chacal, le festival, le régal. dance, callus, carnival, jackal, festival, treat. , whose plurals are formed by adding an -s. Examples:

  7. French translation of 'homework'

    French Translation of "HOMEWORK" | The official Collins English-French Dictionary online. Over 100,000 French translations of English words and phrases.

  8. homework

    Anglais. Français. do homework vtr + n. (do after-hours schoolwork) faire ses devoirs loc v. The children have to do homework before they can go out to play. Les enfants doivent faire leurs devoirs avant de pouvoir aller jouer dehors. do your homework v expr.

  9. Plural French Nouns

    1. These nouns have unmarked plurals, meaning the same word is used for both singular (the deer is) and plural (the deer are). 2. These are usually plural in French, but are occasionally used in the singular (lesson coming soon). 3. In fact, "data" is plural ("datum" is the singular noun), but many English speakers use it as if it's singular. 4.

  10. Nouns and their plural in French

    Comment former le pluriel des noms. As far as nouns are concerned, the rules for the formation of the plural in French are few and simple. Rules for forming the plural : nouns ending by " eu ", " au " or " eau " : add a final " x ". nouns ending in " al " : change it to " aux ". nouns already ends by an " s ", a ...

  11. Plural

    Complete the gaps with the plural form of the nouns. Remember - not all nouns follow the regular plural rules. le prix → nouns that end in -s, -x or -z in the singular don't take an additional ending in the plural prizes; le mois → nouns that end in -s, -x or -z in the singular don't take an additional ending in the plural months; l'œil → for some nouns, the word stem changes in ...

  12. A List of English Singulars That Are French Plurals

    But there are quite a few French nouns that can only be plural, sometimes because the noun has a different meaning in the singular. Here are some French nouns that can only be plural: Les abats (m) — Offal, giblets. Les acariens (m) — Dust mites. Les affres (f) — Agony, throes. Les agissements (m) — Schemes, intrigues.

  13. How to Make Nouns Plural in French [+13 Examples]

    To make most nouns plural, simply add -s at the end. J'ai un chat et ma sœur a trois chats. I have a cat and my sister has three cats. Mon frère a une maison, mais j'ai trois maisons. My brother has one house, but I have 3 houses. Ils ont un enfant et j'ai deux enfants.

  14. How do you make French nouns plural?

    Most French nouns form their plural by adding an -s to their singular form. If the singular noun ends in -s, -x or -z, no further -s is added in the plural. Remember that the plural of un œil (an eye) is des yeux (eyes). The following nouns add an -x instead of an -s in the plural:

  15. DEVOIRS

    DEVOIRS translate: homework. Learn more in the Cambridge French-English Dictionary.

  16. French Nouns, Gender & Plural

    Plural. To form the plural in French most nouns simply add an extra " s " {a friend = un ami, friends = des ami s } Nouns ending in -eu, -eau and -au usually form the plural by adding an exta " x ", {the cake = le gât eau, cakes = les gât eaux } Nouns ending in -al usually form the plural with -aux: {animal = un anim al, animals = des ...

  17. Nouns

    In English, what we call collective nouns (e.g. family, team, police, company, ...) can be followed by a verb either in singular or plural form, depending on whether we consider the group as a single unit (singular), or as the individuals forming the group (plural). However, these collective nouns are always followed by singular in French.

  18. Pluriel: Number. How to use Pluriel in French

    French Plural. In grammar, the word plural denotes a quantity of more than one (in contrast to singular, which denotes a quantity of one). For example: The terms singular and plural are values of the grammatical category of number. Number affects nouns (as we have already seen above), pronouns, adjectives and verbs.

  19. When Nouns Are Plural in French But Singular in ...

    Learn when French Nouns are Plural in French but Singular in English. For example, if we take a closer look at "Les cheveux", in French, cheveux is always plural (unless we are talking about one hair). But in English, "hair" is singular. In this post, we are going to learn 26 words with different number in French and in English.

  20. How to say homework in French

    What's the French word for homework? Here's a list of translations. French Translation. devoirs. More French words for homework. le devoir à la maison noun. housework. le devoir de la maison noun.

  21. Grammar Checker for French

    French. Écrivez ou collez votre texte ici pour le faire vérifier en continue. Les erreurs seront soulignés de différentes couleurs : les erreurs d'orthografe en rouge et les erreurs grammaticaux en jaune. Les problèmes de style, comme par exemple les pléonasmes, seront marqués en bleu dans vos textes.

  22. Être (to be) Conjugation

    Être is one of the single most important and common French verbs in the entire language. The meaning of être is "to be".The conjugation of être in the present tense is: Je suis (I am), Tu es (you are, familiar), Il, elle, on est (He, she, one is), Nous sommes (We are), Vous êtes (You are) and Ils, elles sont (They are). This post covers conjugations of être in 12 verb tenses with ...

  23. What is the plural of homework?

    The noun homework can be countable or uncountable. In more general, commonly used, contexts, the plural form will also be homework . However, in more specific contexts, the plural form can also be homeworks e.g. in reference to various types of homeworks or a collection of homeworks. Find more words!

  24. The Conditional in French: Discussing Hypotheticals With le

    What is le conditionnel (the conditional tense) in French?. The conditional in French can refer to a verb tense or a verb mood. In many languages, verb tenses express when an action occurs, but verb moods express a specific intent or attitude for the action. In the case of French moods in grammar (les modes), le conditionnel denotes situations that would only occur given the right conditions.