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  • Traditional endocrinology
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The principal glands of the female and male human endocrine systems.

human endocrine system

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  • EMedecineHealth - Anatomy of the Endocrine System
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The principal glands of the female and male human endocrine systems.

human endocrine system , group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones . Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively.

Follow hormones of the endocrine system from glands to their chemical receptors on or in a cell

It is important to distinguish between an endocrine gland, which discharges hormones into the bloodstream, and an exocrine gland , which secretes substances through a duct opening in a gland onto an external or internal body surface. Salivary glands and sweat glands are examples of exocrine glands. Both saliva, secreted by the salivary glands, and sweat, secreted by the sweat glands, act on local tissues near the duct openings. In contrast, the hormones secreted by endocrine glands are carried by the circulation to exert their actions on tissues remote from the site of their secretion.

As far back as 3000 bce , the ancient Chinese were able to diagnose and provide effective treatments for some endocrinologic disorders. For example, seaweed, which is rich in iodine , was prescribed for the treatment of goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland ). Perhaps the earliest demonstration of direct endocrinologic intervention in humans was the castration of men who could then be relied upon, more or less, to safeguard the chastity of women living in harems. During the Middle Ages and later, the practice persisting well into the 19th century, prepubertal boys were sometimes castrated to preserve the purity of their treble voices. Castration established the testes (testicles) as the source of substances responsible for the development and maintenance of “maleness.”

This knowledge led to an abiding interest in restoring or enhancing male sexual powers. In the 18th century, London-based Scottish surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist John Hunter successfully transplanted the testis of a rooster into the abdomen of a hen. The transplanted organ developed a blood supply in the hen, though whether masculinization occurred was unclear. In 1849 German physiologist Arnold Adolph Berthold performed a similar experiment, except, instead of hens, he transplanted rooster testes into capons (castrated roosters). The capons subsequently regained secondary sex characteristics, demonstrating that the testes were the source of a masculinizing substance. Also in the 19th century, French neurologist and physiologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard asserted that the testes contained an invigorating, rejuvenating substance. His conclusions were based in part on observations obtained after he had injected himself with an extract of the testicle of a dog or of a guinea pig . These experiments resulted in the widespread use of organ extracts to treat endocrine conditions (organotherapy).

Male muscle, man flexing arm, bicep curl.

Modern endocrinology largely originated in the 20th century, however. Its scientific origin is rooted in the studies of French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813–78), who made the key observation that complex organisms such as humans go to great lengths to preserve the constancy of what he called the “milieu intérieur” (internal environment). Later, American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon (1871–1945) used the term homeostasis to describe this inner constancy.

The endocrine system, in association with the nervous system and the immune system , regulates the body’s internal activities and the body’s interactions with the external environment to preserve the internal environment. This control system permits the prime functions of living organisms—growth, development, and reproduction—to proceed in an orderly, stable fashion; it is exquisitely self-regulating, so that any disruption of the normal internal environment by internal or external events is resisted by powerful countermeasures. When this resistance is overcome, illness ensues.

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Essay on Hormones: Top 5 Essays | Endocrine Glands | Endocrinology

200 words essay on how endocrine glands

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  • Essay on the Effect of Hormones on Cells

Essay # 1. Meaning of Hormones:

The term hormone refers to any substance in an organism that carries a signal to generate some sort of alteration at the cellular levels. The hormones secreted by the endocrine glands represent one group of hormones that arise in one tissue, or gland and travel a considerable distance through the circulation to reach the target cell expressing cognate receptors.

Paracrine hormones arise from a cell and travel a relatively short distance to interact with their cognate receptors on other neighbouring cells. Autocrine hormones are produced by the same cell that functions as the target for that particular hormone. Hormones regulate specific target tissues in the body and not all cells. Molecular components of the cells, the receptors provide specificity to the hormone-cell interaction.

The concept of receptors originated in the twentieth century with the work of Langley (1906). Receptors may be components of the plasma membrane or they may by cytosolic or nuclear components. Receptors provide a medium through which the hormone initially interacts with the cell.

If each type of cell did not possess specific type of hormone receptors, all cells respond to the chemical messengers. If all cells respond to a single hormone, it will result in uncoordinated muscle contraction and relaxation, and uncontrolled secretion of numerous cellular products, such as enzymes and hormones.

Therefore, all cells do not possess receptors for all hormones, but only a limited number of receptor types. At normal physiological levels, each hormone interacts with its own specific cellular receptor. Receptors recognize differences in hormone structure and thus provide receptor specificity. Some hormones bind to intracellular receptors while others bind to cell surface receptors.

Essay # 2. Properties of Hormones :

The amount of hormone produced by an endocrine gland is generally very small. Therefore, its concentration in blood is very low. Target cells are very sensitive to the hormone. Some target cells respond to plasma concentration of hormone as low as 10 -12 M. As the secretion and circulation of hormones takes place relatively slow, endocrine systems are best suited for long term regulatory functions.

i. Action in Low Concentration:

Hormones act in very low concentrations. Intravenous injection of a hormone in microgram quantities often produces measurable change in the physiological parameter or character controlled by the hormone.

ii. Storage and Excretion:

Hormones are stored only in the gland in which they are produced. As they are metabolized and excreted as soon as their function is over, they do not have any cumulative action. Hormones, like epinephrine are very quick in their action and are degraded quickly. Other hormones like thyroxine, growth hormone and sex steroids are slow in their action.

iii. Multiple Secretion:

An endocrine gland can produce more than one hormone. For example, pituitary, adrenal cortex, pancreas, etc. On the other hand, glands like parathyroid produce only one hormone.

iv. Dual Control:

A physiological process may be regulated by more than one hormone. Often, these hormones oppose the actions of each other. For example, insulin decreases blood glucose level while glucagon increases it. Similarly, growth and sex are controlled by more than one hormone. One hormone accelerates a physiological process, while the other inhibits it.

v. Rate Limiting Effect:

Hormones control the rates of reaction of many physiological processes. Thyroxine increases the rate of oxygen consumption and insulin controls utilization of glucose. Even in the absence of these hormones, or removal of the thyroid and pancreas, oxygen consumption and glucose utilization do not stop or come to zero level.

vi. Inter-Relationship of Endocrine Glands:

No endocrine gland is completely independent in its action. Endocrine glands are closely interrelated and interdependent. The inter-relationship between different endocrine glands can be synergistic, complimentary, permissive and antagonistic resulting in hypo or hyperactivity of the endocrine glands. This action can be positive or negative. Hyperpituitarism leads to hyperthyroidism.

On the other hand, a reciprocal relationship is also observed. For example, anterior pituitary produces thyroid stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulates thyroid to secrete thyroxine. Thyroxine inhibits the production of TSH by the pituitary. Thus, a hormone regulates its own secretion indirectly through the other glands. This process is known as negative feedback regulation.

vii. Hormones and Vitamins:

Hormonal functions are either directly or indirectly related to vitamins. Vitamin D (Calciferol) is related to parathormone, produced by parathyroid gland, and vitamin E (Tocopherol) to gonads.

Properties of hormones can be summarized as follows:

(a) Hormones are synthesized and secreted by endocrine cells in trace quantities.

(b) Hormones circulate in the blood and reach tissues of the body.

(c) They react with specific receptor molecules present in certain target cells.

(d) Hormones act in catalytic quantities by activating specific enzymes.

(e) A single hormone produces multiple effects on a single target tissue or on several different target tissues.

Essay # 3. Classification of Hormones :

I. structural classification of hormones:.

Hormones can be placed into three molecular groups:

(i) Amines,

(ii) Steroids, and

(iii) Polypeptides and proteins.

The simplest are the proteins. They are the first to be discovered. Epinephrine has been described and its functions were recognized in the beginning of twentieth century. The largest and most complex are the polypeptides, which also include some small proteins. The peptide hormones are particularly interesting as models of molecular evolution.

The sequence of amino acid residues in a given polypeptide hormone is genetically determined. Within the different animal groups, substitutions of individual amino acids produce different analogues of the polypeptide. Some residues never undergo substitution, and are presumably necessary for function while others, which undergo substitution, are functionally neutral and serve only to place the essential residues in the positions appropriate for the activity of polypeptide hormones.

ii. Functional Classification of Hormones:

The actions of hormones on their target tissues are diverse, and cannot be easily generalized.

Three major classes of endocrine mediated effects can be recognized:

(a) Kinetic effects include pigment migration, muscle contraction and glandular secretion.

(b) Metabolic effects consist mainly of changes in the rate and balance of reactions and concentrations of tissue constituents.

(c) Morphogenic effects are concerned with growth and differentiation.

Hormones often have multiple effects, and some in fact cut across at least two of the classes mentioned above. For example, the thyroid hormones have metabolic effects on cells as well as mophogenic effects on certain tissues. This shows that hormones do not produce their end effects directly, but instead activate intermediate processes, which may differ in different tissues or cell types.

Recent advances in the mechanism of action of hormones lend support to this view. There are two major loci for hormone action. Some hormones readily penetrate the surface membranes of their target cells, and react or combine with internal cell constituents. This is characteristic of the steroids, whose lipid solubility allows them to penetrate across the membranes.

Other hormones either because of their large size or polar properties cannot readily enter the cell, and are known to interact with receptors located in the surface of the cell membranes. These receptor molecules are associated with enzymes whose activity is modulated by the hormone-receptor interaction.

Thus a single hormone can produce multiple effects. By activating different membrane bound enzymes associated with similar receptor molecules, a given hormone can produce entirely different effects in different cells or the same cell. Conversely, hormone-receptor specificities and receptor-enzyme specificities account for different channels of action of different hormones.

Table 1. Classification of hormones on the basis of effects:

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Hormones may be classified in many ways according to their action, but a convenient classification is to place them in one of the following three categories:

(i) Hormones which keep physiological parameters, such as blood sugar and calcium constant.

(ii) Hormones which control growth and sexual development.

(iii) Hormones which contribute to physiological adjustment to the changing environment.  

Essay # 4. Chemistry of Hormones:

Hormones generally fall into one of the three following chemical structures:

(I) Polypeptides and proteins,

(II) Steroids, and

(III) Derivatives of tyrosine.

i . Polypeptide and Protein Hormones:

These hormones show a great range of molecular weights, from tripeptides like thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) to growth hormone (GH) with 190 aminoacid residues and the large glycoprotein hormones such as TSH. They may comprise of a single peptide chain or may be more complex. Peptide hormones are formed as prohormones or pre-hormones. The first identified prohormone is proinsulin.

The c-peptide (connecting) is cleaved from this single-chain peptide, leaving insulin, which is a peptide, comprising of two chains A and B (Fig. 1) connected by two disulfide bonds. Peptide hormones are synthesized on the ribosomes and the refragment removed as the product passes into the cisternal space. Carbohydrate residues may be added and the hormone is transferred to the Golgi complex, where it is packed into vesicles. The hormone may then be released to the exterior by exocytosis.

Formation of Insulin from Proinsulin

ii . Steroid Hormones:

Steroid hormones are not stored in the cell like peptide hormones but are synthesized as and when required. Steroid hormones comprise three six- carbon rings and a five-carbon ring fused together (Fig. 2).

Structure of Cortisol

Methyl groups may be added at C 10 , C 13 and C 17 . All the steroids are synthesized from acetate. Further synthesis proceeds through norvalonate and squalene to cholesterol, which is the precursor of all steroid hormones.

Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone in the mitochondria, catalyzed by the enzyme cholesterol desmolase, and then to progesterone or 17-hydroxy pregnenolone in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Cortisol is formed from pregnenolone by 17-hydroxylation, and aldosterone by successive-hydroxylation and dehydrogenation. The side chain of 17-hydroxypregnenolone is cleaved to form androstenedione (Fig. 3).

Synthesis of Steriod Hormones and Zona Reticularis of Adrenal Cortex

iii . Tyrosine Derived Hormones:

Tyrosine derivatives are the monoamines adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the thyroid hormones thyroxin and triiodothyronine. Dopamine is formed from tyrosine. Subsequently, noradrenaline is formed and adrenaline by the action of phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase. Thyroid hormones are formed from two molecules of iodinated tyrosine linked through an oxygen molecule (Fig. 4).

Structure of Hormones Derived from Tyrosine

Essay # 5. Effect of Hormones on Cells:

Hormones exert their influence on almost all types of cells in the body.

The large number of effects produced by hormones can be summarized into a few general processes as follows:

(1) Hormones influence cellular synthesis and secretion of other hormones within the endocrine glands and neurons. Hormones produce their effects on the digestive tract and its products such as, enzymes, hydrochloric acid by gastric glands, and bile salts.

(2) Hormones affect the integument, its derivatives and its products. They affect mucus production, peeling, plumage, pigmentation and color change. Production and secretion of sweat, sebum and milk is also controlled by hormones.

(3) Production of pheromones and other odoriferous substances is also under the control of the hormones.

(4) Hormones regulate the overall metabolism of the body. The catabolism and anabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids is greatly influenced by hormones. The production of heat in the body and calorigenesis is also affected by hormones, so as to provide energy for growth and development of the body.

(5) Hormones control the processes of contraction, relaxation and metabolism of the muscles in the body. The properties of skeletal muscles contractile proteins are controlled by hormones. Smooth muscle properties such as, contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscle, visceral muscles, muscles of the uterine wall, oviducts, urinary bladder and blood vessels are controlled by hormones.

(6) Growth is controlled by hormones as cell proliferation is stimulated or inhibited by hormones. Early stages of development, such as cell divisions and differentiation of the fertilized egg are under the control of hormones.

(7) Hormones control the processes of excretion and osmoregulation. Excretion and reabsorption of organic and inorganic salts such as sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and bicarbonate are under hormonal control.

(8) Hormones exert permissive effect on the actions of other hormones. A hormone may enhance the action of another hormone manifold.

(9) Reproductive processes involving the development and maturation of the gonads and gametogenesis are greatly influenced by hormones.

(10) Hormones control animal behaviour. The aggressive behaviour, courtship behaviour, mating, migration, homing, nest building, parental care and sexual display are under the control of hormones. Group behaviour is controlled by pheromones.

Endocrine Glands and their Secretions

Hormonal Effects on Other Hormones :

Hormones affect cellular synthesis and secretion of other hormones within other endocrine glands and neurons. One of the best-known examples of the action of one type of hormone on others is hypothalamic hormones on the pituitary hormones.

This forms the hypothalamo-hypophyseal complex. Extracts of hypothalamus contain a number of peptides, which produce specific effects on anterior pituitary activity. These peptides were originally termed releasing or inhibiting factors but now they have been treated as hormones.

a. Thyrotrophin-Releasing Hormone:

This was the first hypophysiotrophic hormone to be obtained in pure form and characterized from crude hypothalamic extracts. Thyrotrophin releasing hormone is extraordinarily potent in promoting thyroid stimulating hormone release. In addition to its stimulation of TSH secretion, TRH promotes the secretion of prolactin and may stimulate or inhibit the release of growth hormone in some species.

b. Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone:

Leutenizing hormone releasing hormone or Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) promotes the release of leutenizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland.

c. Growth Hormone Release Inhibiting Hormone:

Investigation of the hypothalamic factors which influence pituitary growth hormone secretion has revealed the secretion of growth hormone release inhibiting hormone or somatostatin. This hormone inhibits growth hormone production from pituitary somatotrophs. Somatostatin inhibits TSH synthesis and release. It also inhibits the basal secretion of insulin and glucagon. Further, it inhibits the secretion of gastric acid, secretin, pepsin and motilin.

Control of Thyroid Activity:

The secretions of thyroid gland are closely regulated by other hormones. The rate of synthesis and release of the thyroid hormones is controlled by thyroid stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. TSH secretion is promoted by TRH from the hypothalamus but inhibited by a negative feedback by tetraiodo thyronin and triiodo thyronin on the pituitary.

In turn, TRH secretion is influenced by neural factors and by feedback actions of thyroid hormones and TSH. TSH is a glycoprotein secreted by the pituitary thyrotrophs that influences all aspects of thyroid function including the promotion of iodide uptake, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones. TRH affects the thyrotrophs after attachment to the cell membrane by activation of adenyl cyclase and promotes both synthesis and secretion of TSH.

Action of Glucocorticoids on Insulin:

Glucocorticoids exert an anti-insulin effect in peripheral tissues, effectively inhibiting glucose uptake, which explains why pancreatic diabetes is exacerbated by administration of these steroids and ameliorated by removal of the adrenals. Glucocorticoids directly oppose the action of insulin in adipose and lymphoid tissues and thereby reduce uptake of glucose.

Glucocorticoids also control fat metabolism by potentiating the lipolytic response to growth hormone or catecholamines.

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Endocrine glands and their hormones

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  • There are many endocrine glands in your body that release different hormones.
  • Many of these glands are controlled by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland (also known as the master gland) in your brain.
  • There are many medical conditions that can affect your glands and cause hormonal problems.

What is the hormonal system?

The hormonal system (also called the endocrine system) has various glands that release different hormones.

Hormones are like the body’s communication system. They take messages from one part of your body (the gland) to another part of your body (the target cell).

What are endocrine glands?

Endocrine glands release hormones into your bloodstream. Your endocrine glands influence reproduction, metabolism, growth and many other functions.

You also have exocrine glands in your body — these are glands that make and release chemicals into a duct. For example, you have exocrine glands in your digestive system .

Illustration showing the endocrine system.

The hypothalamus and pituitary gland

The hypothalamus is an area of your brain that links your brain to your hormonal system.

The hypothalamus is connected to the pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of your brain) by a stalk.

Some of the hormones released by your hypothalamus help control your pituitary gland, also known as the ‘master gland’. The pituitary gland in turn controls many of the other endocrine glands, including your:

  • thyroid gland
  • adrenal glands

The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland also make some hormones that don’t directly act on other glands in the body.

What hormones does my hypothalamus make?

Hormones made in the hypothalamus include:

  • growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
  • thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH)
  • corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH)
  • gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
  • vasopressin (also called anti-diuretic hormone)
  • somatostatin

What hormones does my pituitary gland make?

Your pituitary gland makes:

  • growth hormone (GH)
  • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
  • follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • luteinising hormone (LH)

Your pituitary gland also stores and releases some of the hormones made by your hypothalamus, including:

  • vasopressin

What are the other endocrine glands and what do they do?

The other endocrine glands are found in various places in your body. They release different hormones that have many different actions.

Endocrine gland Action Hormone(s) made

Your thyroid is a gland found in the front of your neck. Hormones made in your thyroid influence your:

Your parathyroid glands are 4 small glands in your neck that regulate calcium levels in your blood.

Your adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys. Your adrenal glands influence your:

Your pineal gland is a very small gland near the centre of your brain. It helps keep your circadian rhythm (your internal body clock).

Your pancreas is a long gland found behind your stomach, under your liver.

The pancreas is an exocrine and endocrine gland. The main endocrine function of the pancreas is to control your blood sugar levels.


Your ovaries are 2 glands found on each side of your womb.

The ovaries store and release eggs and make hormones involved in puberty and reproduction.


The testes are 2 glands found in the scrotum.

The testes make sperm and hormones involved in puberty and reproduction.

You can develop a medical condition if your endocrine glands make too much or not enough hormones.

There are many different causes of endocrine conditions, and treatment depends on the cause.

Resources and support

Hormones Australia has more information about your endocrine glands and the conditions that affect them.

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Endocrine System Essay

200 words essay on how endocrine glands

Endocrine Systems : The Endocrine System

2016 The Endocrine System The Endocrine System is an extremely important system in the body, and is much needed for homeostasis and the survival of the organism. The Endocrine System consists of many components but is made up of Endocrine glands which have no ducts and usually secrete their hormones directly into the tissue fluid. It also contains many tissues that secrete hormones. The glands of the Endocrine system are located throughout the body but are mostly central to the body. The system has many

The Endocrine System

of the pituitary gland secrete various hormones for various functions. The function of the thyroid gland is to increase the metabolic rate to speed digestion. Now that the endocrine glands of the head and neck area have been introduced, now the glands of the upper and lower torso will be introduced and overviewed. The endocrine gland located in the upper torso is the thymus gland, in the lower torso the adrenal glands, pancreas, and testis/ovaries can be found. The function of the thymus gland is

Endocrine Systems And The Endocrine System

diverse systems in the body, the endocrine system is much of the time overlooked and is easily confused with the excretory system. The endocrine system works with the nervous system in order to maintain homeostasis in the body. Independently the endocrine system is a small group of glands located throughout the body, which include the pineal, adrenal, and thymus glands. Each gland in the endocrine system produces, stores, and releases hormones so when working properly the endocrine system plays an

The Endocrine System The function of the endocrine system is to regulate the body functions by the use of hormones. The structure of the endocrine system is therefore the structure and location of all the main endocrine glands. The pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, and the sex glands (testes) are some of the more important ones, but there are several others. The glands secrete hormones directly in to the blood, which act as messengers. The nature of

Endocrine System Papers

Endocrine System Paper The endocrine system is the accumulation of organs that create hormones that direct digestion system, development and advancement, tissue capacity, sexual capacity, generation, rest, and state of mind, in addition to other things. Homeostasis is maintained by regulation of body temperature, pulse, pH, glucose centration, etc. A. How the Endocrine System interact with the Nervous, Digestive, Urinary and reproductive system? Nervous System- the Hypothalamus connects the

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The Glands of the Endocrine System 5 The Glands of the Endocrine System The endocrine system is vital in maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Each gland of the endocrine system produces and releases hormones that enter the blood stream and travels to specific target organs. It is critical for this system to function properly in order to live a full life. The endocrine systems hormones are the chemical messengers that control many systems of the body. These messengers control metabolism

Endocrine Systems : Hormones And The Endocrine System

Endocrine System:
 Hormones are chemical substances that act as messengers in the body. They are produced in endocrine glands scattered throughout the body. Together all these glands form the endocrine system.

The endocrine system is coordinated by the pituitary gland, which responds to information from the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain and is made of nervous tissue. It constantly checks the internal environment — that is, the conditions within the tissues, organs and

Functions Of The Endocrine System

Unlike plants, humans require organs and systems to produce hormones. One of the major systems we need is the endocrine system. The endocrine system is the collection of glands of an organism which secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system, which then distributes the hormones to specific organs. The main endocrine glands include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, gonads(testes, ovaries) and thymus. Each have specific

Endocrine System

What does the Endocrine System do for my body?     Among the Endocrine system is seven glands that secretes a specific hormone throughout the body for its regularity. WIth that being said the hypothalamus, in the brain, is in charge of theses secretions through the pituitary gland or hypophysis. The pituitary gland consists of the anterior portion and the posterior portion. Both of these portions have different functions and secretions of hormones. In the posterior part of the pituitary, the hormones

Endocrine System Iesha Alexander, Racquel Shannon, Jerome Crumsey & Richard Parker Dorsey School of Nursing BIO 102 Endocrine System The endocrine system is inclusive of the glands of the body and the hormones they secrete. The secretion of these hormones helps to control numerous bodily functions. Hormones are chemicals that work in correlation with your body’s systems to function properly! These hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream. Some of the systems controlled by the endocrine

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The endocrine system plays a major role in the body. The endocrine system secretes hormones that play a big role in metabolism, growth, and responds to stress. When the body endures stress the body goes through general adaption syndrome (GAS). There are three phases in GAS the first is the alarm phases or also known as the “fight or Flight” response. Resistance is the second phase of the phase that uses the glucocorticoids. Lastly comes the exhaustion phase which is also known as the rest and digest phase. In the exhaustion phase the body begins to break out of homeostasis and the bodies organs begin to fail. The Autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system work as a pair to maintain homeostasis in short term stress. The pair does this by using the “fight or flight” or the “rest and digest” response. Fight or flight response can be triggered if something terrifying occurs either mentally or physically or in the case of rest and digest phase it is the total opposite. Adrenal Fatigue solutions states that “This system activates the more tranquil functions of the body; those that help maintain a healthy, long-term balance” (Hansen, 2017). The adrenal gland triggers catecholamines such as adrenaline or non-adrenaline which the triggers either the sympathetic division or the parasympathetic division. This triggers the decision of either staying and dealing with the issue or running away. When the rest and digest division is in effect you most likely will become lazy. When your body releases the adrenalin hormone everything increases your heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. When the rest and digest is in effect it will control all of your resting conditions as well as reduce metabolic rate and helps promote digestion. A hormone is produced by an endocrine gland and then is released where it travels by blood in order for a hormone to reach its target it can take up to a few minutes to even days in order to reach its destination. A neurotransmitter is produced by a neuron and is then released threw the synaptic cleft neurotransmitters can take up to milliseconds to reach the postsynaptic membranes. As you can see neurotransmitters and hormones are different, but they have some similarities such as molecules which can act as a transmitter and a hormone the three most common hormones that can also pass as a neurotransmitter is the Adrenal gland, Thyroid gland, and Gonadal gland. An example of this is norepinephrine which is released by the adrenal gland into the blood stream as a hormone or the sympathetic nerves can release norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter. The endocrine system and Nervous system are linked. In an article “the brain structure known as the hypothalamus connects these two important communication systems” (Cherry, 2018). A scenario of when the flight or fight takes affect is if you were walking alone by yourself at night and you here a noise. Your heart will start to beat faster, and your pupils will dilate, and you might get a thought in your head that says “run”. An example of rest and digest is Thanksgiving when you just get done eating that big turkey dinner and you are so full that you just want to lay down and take a nap. Most of that is because the rest and digest phase and maybe a little because turkey has tryptophan and that can make you drowsy. In conclusion when your body is under a high amount of stress your body relies on these phases. In fact, if hormones and neurotransmitters did not help each other out who knows what could happen.

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Understanding the Endocrine System: Hormones, Glands, and Health essay

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The Endocrine System

Updated 10 March 2023

Subject Biology ,  Child Development ,  Human Body

Downloads 29

Category Health ,  Psychology ,  Science

Topic Cell ,  Development ,  Nervous System

The endocrine system is a self-regulating system made up of glands that generate hormones that control the body's metabolism, the way tissues work, how body cells excrete waste, how cells develop and grow, and how cells reproduce. The body's endocrine system reacts to biochemical stimuli by secreting hormones into the bloodstream, which are subsequently carried to the organs that need them. In contrast to the nervous system, the target organs respond very slowly and may take up to weeks to produce the desired alteration. Some of the glands making up the Endocrine system include the Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Adrenal gland, and Thymus gland, Pancreas, Parathyroids, Testes and the Ovary (Thornton, Taylor, and Mulligan 187). The primary function of the Endocrine system is to regulate body processes by the use of hormones to maintain homeostasis in the body. When homeostatic functions are working properly, it means that the body’s osmotic pressure is at the optimum level. It also means that other body systems such as the excretion system and the digestive system are functioning at their optimum level. Hormones A hormone is a chemical substance that is secreted by another cell and which, regulates the metabolism of other cells in the body. Some common examples of hormones include Insulin, Glucagon, and Thyroid hormones. Hormones exhibit a unifying characteristic in their specificity to distinct target cells in the body. Each hormone has a specific action center in the body cells. A target cell is therefore a specific cell that is particularly affected by a hormone. A target cell contains certain protein receptors on its plasma membrane thus allowing the hormone to bind on to it. The higher number of protein receptors a target organ has, the greater the effects that the hormone has on the target cell. If the number of protein receptors is low, then the effects by the hormones on the target cells will be negligible or will result in Endocrine dysfunction. Another factor influencing the target cell activation is the affinity of the protein receptors.. The affinity of the protein receptors to the hormone is crucial. A high affinity is favorable and results in the proper functioning of the hormone in the target cell whereas a low affinity means that the protein receptors are not strong enough to bind to the hormones. The concentration of the hormones also influences the proper functioning of the hormones in their target cells. In some situations, the target cells will form more protein receptors following subsequent increase in the amount of hormones secreted. This is called up-regulation. However, in some cases the exposure of the target cells to a high concentration of hormones leads to loss of receptors in the target cells. This is called down-regulation. Other hormones may also inhibit the action of specific hormones. A good example is the inhibiting action of progesterone to the production of estrogen in the uterus. Estrogen however does the opposite to the production of progesterone by stimulating more production of progesterone in the body. Lipophilic and Hydrophilic hormones Steroid hormones are lipophilic. This means that they are soluble in lipids thus they can easily penetrate the plasma membrane. The cell membrane allows the passage of steroid hormones because it is partly made of lipids. Steroid hormones are not soluble in water due to their lipid nature. They do not in blood plasma but are transported to their target cells by protein carriers. When they get to the target cells, they easily diffuse through the cell membrane and enter the cytoplasm of their target cells. The steroid hormones then move on to bind with the nucleus. Another example of a lipophilic hormone is Thyroxin. Hormones that are soluble in water but are insoluble in lipids are called Hydrophilic hormones. These hormones cannot penetrate the cell membrane of their respective target cells. They therefore adopt a mechanism commonly referred to as the ‘second messenger system.’ The hormones bind to the receptor proteins which are located outside the plasma membrane of the target cells. After binding to the receptor proteins, there is a subsequent increase in the concentration of the ‘second messengers’ located within the cytoplasm of the target cells. The hormone can therefore perform its function within the target cell but very briefly since the connection only lasts a very short time. An example of a hormone that depends on this mechanism is Epinephrine. The Pineal It is a very small endocrine gland located in the brain. It is part of the epithalamus. It is grey in color. It is also referred to as epiphysis. It consists of interstitial cells and pinealocytes. The main hormone the Pineal produces is Melatonin. Melatonin is produced mostly at night. It functions in the Central Nervous System by helping to modulate sleep patterns in human beings. The production of Melatonin is stimulated by darkness and subsequently inhibited by light. Studies have also proved that pineal hormones can also act as tumor suppressors. In rodents, it has been proven that pineal glands affect the secretion of sex hormones: Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone. The Thyroid The Thyroid gland is located in the neck. It is found below the larynx. It is also one of the largest endocrine organs. The Thyroid gland is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of the hormones Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine. These Thyroid hormones are essential throughout the life of a human being. In children, these hormones are secreted into growing cells to further stimulate growth and development. They also function in the nervou7s system by stimulating its development and proper functioning. Therefore if there is a shortage in the secretion of the Thyroid hormones in children, it leads to stunted growth and mental retardation. This results in cretinism in children. Also Iodine is quite necessary for the production of these thyroid hormones. A deficiency of iodine in the body means a subsequent decrease in the Thyroid hormones resulting in a disease called Goiter characterized by the swelling of the Thyroid gland. The Thyroid hormones work on almost all cells in the body. They function to increase the Basal Metabolic Rate of the body. They are also responsible for the regulation of food substances in the body such as carbohydrates, proteins and fat. In animals, more so amphibians, the thyroid hormones are needed to stimulate the development of the larvae into adults. The thyroid gland also regulates the level of Calcium ions in the blood by secretion of Calcitonin. Anterior Pituitary Gland The anterior pituitary gland is located in the barain. Many of the hormones produced by the Anterior pituitary gland stimulate growth in their target cells. It synthesizes and secretes the growth hormone Somatotropin which, stimulate the growth of the muscles and bones. It also produces Corticotrophin hormone which stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce corticosteroid which regulate the level of glucose in the human body. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. The Anterior pituitary gland is responsible for the secretion of Luteinizing hormone which stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum in females which brings about ovulation. In males, it is responsible for stimulating the testes to produce testosterone. Testosterone is needed for the development of secondary sexual characteristics in males and the production of sperm. It also produces the Follicle Stimulating Hormone responsible for the production of sperms in males and the development of follicles in the ovary of females. Prolactin is also secreted and it stimulates the production of milk from the mammary glands. The Melanocyte stimulating hormone stimulates the synthesis of the melanin pigment on human beings (Depleweski 365). Posterior Pituitary Gland It is located in the brain next to the hypothalamus. It functions mainly to regulate homeostatic functions in the body such as blood-sugar level and water retention thus its main target organs are the kidneys. It produces Anti diuretic hormone which works, in the kidney to regulate the amount of water leaving the body. If the body has little amount of water, ADH functions to reduce the amount of water leaving the body through urination. Consumption of alcohol inhibits the proper functioning of Anti diuretic hormone. Oxytocin is also produced by the posterior pituitary gland. It functions in the smooth muscles of the mammary gland of a female (Zouboulis 34). It stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles to release milk from the mammary glands. Oxytocin stimulates the contraction of the uterine walls of females during child birth. Parathyroid The parathyroid glands are attached to the thyroid gland in the neck region. They function mainly to regulate the Calcium ions in the body. The gland produces a hormone referred to as Parathyroid hormone. It functions to correct either over secretion of calcium ions in the body or under secretion of calcium ions in the blood. This is important because it maintains the proper functioning of organs such as the heart and body systems such as the Central Nervous System. The PTH functions in the bone cells by stimulating the osteoclasts to dissolve the calcium phosphate crystals found in the bones. It also stimulates the kidney to reabsorb calcium ions from urine. Thymus It is a ductless gland found beneath the sternum in the upper mediastinum. It produces the hormone thymosin. It is within the thymus that lymphocytes grow to maturity. The lymphocytes serve an immunological function in the body. They protect the body from infections and certain viruses. Thymosin stimulates the development of the T cells. On maturity, the T cells migrate to the lymph nodes where they serve as the body’s immunity. The thymus gland is only active until puberty. Pancreas It is located next to the stomach and is attached to the duodenum by a duct. The islets of Langerhan in the pancreas produce insulin. Insulin regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. In the case of excess glucose in the blood, insulin is secreted to stimulate the uptake of the excess glucose into the muscles for storage. It also acts in the liver by stimulating the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage. Glucagon is also produced by the pancreas in response to a deficiency of glucose in the body. It serves to stimulate the conversion of glycogen in the liver to blood glucose. It also oxidizes proteins and fats in the body to glucose. Ovary It is found in the female reproductive system and its main function is to produce ova. They secrete estrogen which is responsible for the onset of secondary sexual characteristics. They also ensure the development of the female reproductive organs. Progesterone in coordination with estrogen brings about the menstrual cycle monthly. Progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation by stimulating the healing of the endometrium after menstruation. The corpus luteum produces the hormone Relaxin which relaxes the cervix and pelvic ligaments for parturition. Testes It is found in the male reproductive system enclosed in the scrotum. It functions to produce testosterone hormone responsible for the onset of secondary sexual characteristics in males. It also controls the functioning of the reproductive organs. It enhances libido and is also key to the production of sperms by spermatogenesis. Oestradiol is also produced by the testes with the function of preventing cell death of male sex cells through apoptosis. Diabetes There are two different types of Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed in children. It is characterized by production of very little or no insulin since the body’s immune system destroys insulin producing-cells in the pancreas. Without insulin in the body cells, the cells shrink and starve. The high level of blood sugar that keeps on building up turns toxic and damages major organs such as the heart, kidney and liver. This can eventually lead to coma and death. A person suffering from Diabetes loses a considerable amount of weight due to cell starvation. It is important for the person to be injected with insulin shots at aregular basis. The person should also eat foods with a low sugar level. Type 2 Diabetes is often diagnosed in people over 30 years of age. The person manufactures insulin but the body cells are resistant to it and do not use it properly. It is called insulin resistance. The pancreas then makes more insulin to try to get the insulin into the cells but it leads to a bigger build up of glucose in the blood stream. People suffering from Diabetes 2 often suffer from high blood pressure. It mostly affects people who are obese. Its symptoms are fatigue and frequent urination. It can be treated by keeping fit and eating healthy. If not treated, it can lead to death of the person. Work Cited Depleweski. D. Rosenfield. Role of hormones in pilosebaceous unit development. June 2000. p. 363-367. Print. Thornton MJ, Taylor AH, and Mulligan K. Estrogen receptor b in the predominant estrogen receptor in human scalp skin. 2003. P. 181-190. Print. Zouboulis. C. Christos. The Human Skin as a Hormone, target and endocrine gland. Department of Dermatology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. March 2004. Print.

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Ways to Maintain a Healthy Endocrine System

Man cutting vegetables in the kitchen

The human endocrine system is a network of glands secreting hormones responsible for regulation of numerous functions such as digestion, sexual reproduction, growth and internal homeostasis. Glands constituting the endocrine system include the kidneys, thyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal, ovaries/testes and parathyroid glands. An imbalance of hormones caused by an unhealthy endocrine system can produce symptoms ranging from panic disorder, to metabolic dysregulation, to diabetes. Problems with the parathyroid gland may allow excessive calcium levels to build in the body, creating a condition called hypercalcemia, while pituitary adenomas, or tumors, emerge when the pituitary releases too much growth hormone.

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Omega 3, 6 and 9 fatty acid oils are obtained by eating fish or taking fish oil supplements. They enhance the operation of the endocrine system by facilitating the transportation of hormones throughout the body. Certain cells require hormones to maintain their efficiency in performing targeted tasks within the body, such as reproductive cells regulating menstrual and testosterone difficulties. Omega fatty acids also promote proper fluid balance and kidney functioning, which prevents water retention and possible resulting hypertension. Blood circulation benefits from fish oil as well, which assists in carrying hormones to their destinations.

Fruits and Vegetables

Eating a good balance of fruit and vegetables keeps the body healthy and relatively free of disease. As a result, the endocrine system benefits from these foods as well, since glandular hormone release is not disrupted by disorders that may be exacerbated by too much fat, sugar or salt. Kidneys are affected by the amount of toxins they are forced to filter and excrete from the body. Occasionally, they are unable to regulate accumulations of purine caused by a diet of high purine foods. Excessive purine is directly associated with the development of uric acid crystals and gouty arthritis. In addition, eating plenty of fruits and vegetables prevents the thyroid from becoming sluggish, which causes weight gain and chronic fatigue.

Garlic and Herbs

Garlic is a natural immune system enhancer and an important endocrine system nutrient. Chewing one or two garlic cloves each day may help maintain normal levels of blood sugar which assists the pancreas in generating correct amounts of insulin. It also may act as a blood thinner and cholesterol reducer as well. Certain herbs such as ginkgo and ginseng may also keep the endocrine system healthy by regulating release of hormones throughout the body. Garlic, ginseng and ginkgo are all available as supplements.

Stress and the Endocrine System

When people suffer from chronic stress, the HPA axis -- hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal -- is constantly activated, producing a stress hormone called cortisol. Maintaining excessive levels of cortisol can have extremely detrimental effects on the body. Heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, kidney failure and diabetes are all potential disorders as a result of a heightened stress response that remains unalleviated. Too much cortisol also contributes to premature osteoporosis, overly rapid inflammatory responses and increases in body fat. Reducing stress in your life is just as important as eating healthy in order to have a functional endocrine system.

  • The Natural Beat; Health Tips For The Endocrine System; October 2nd, 2010
  • University Of Maryland Medical Center: Endocrinology Health Guide
  • Better Health Channel: Hormonal (Endocrine) System
  • Zimbio.com; Low Cholesterol Foods Your Future Health Depends On Omega 3 Fish Oils; April 23rd, 2011
  • American Medical Association: Endocrine System
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Science10_Q3_Mod1_The Endocrine System Glands and Their Hormones

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CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Science Quarter 3 – Module 1: The Endocrine System: Glands and Their Hormones 10

Science – Grade 10 Alternative Delivery Mode Quarter 3 – Module 1: The Endocrine System: Glands and Their Hormones First Edition, 2020 Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Leonor Magtolis Briones Undersecretary: Diosdado M. San Antonio Printed in the Philippines by ________________________ Department of Education – Region I Office Address: Flores St., Catbangen, City of San Fernando, La Union Telefax: (072) 682-2324; (072) 607-8137 E-mail Address: [email protected] Development Team of the Module Writer: Jeffrey A. Tamayo Editors: Agnes P. Alcantara, Gilbert S. Baysic, Arlene B. Casipit, Analyn D. Tulagan Reviewers: Villamor Q. Gloria Jesusa V. Macam Rica C. Macam Jaime Campos, Jr. Gina A. Amoyen Illustrators: Queenie Joy V. Alcantara, Louella C. Zacarias Layout Artist: Kevin M. Ticman, Charles David H. Beare Management Team: Tolentino G. Aquino Arlene A. Niro Gina A. Amoyen Editha T. Giron Editha R. Pridas Arlene B. Casipit

10 Science Quarter 3 – Module 1: The Endocrine System: Glands and Their Hormones

Introductory Message This Self-Learning Module (SLM) is prepared so that you, our dear learners, can continue your studies and learn while at home. Activities, questions, directions, exercises, and discussions are carefully stated for you to understand each lesson. Each SLM is composed of different parts. Each part shall guide you step-by-step as you discover and understand the lesson prepared for you. Pre-tests are provided to measure your prior knowledge on lessons in each SLM. This will tell you if you need to proceed on completing this module or if you need to ask your facilitator or your teacher’s assistance for better understanding of the lesson. At the end of each module, you need to answer the post-test to self-check your learning. Answer keys are provided for each activity and test. We trust that you will be honest in using these. In addition to the material in the main text, Notes to the Teacher are also provided to our facilitators and parents for strategies and reminders on how they can best help you on your home-based learning. Please use this module with care. Do not put unnecessary marks on any part of this SLM. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises and tests. And read the instructions carefully before performing each task. If you have any questions in using this SLM or any difficulty in answering the tasks in this module, do not hesitate to consult your teacher or facilitator. Thank you.

1 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Our body is composed of different systems working as a whole for it to function well, one of which is endocrine system. What are the glands that involved in endocrine system? What are the hormones being secreted by such glands? How endocrine system worked in relation to other body systems? This module will help you to answer the above-mentioned questions. It has provided information and activities that will help you understand the endocrine system and the role of hormones involved in reproductive system. After going through this module, you are expected to: 1. identify the major endocrine glands in the human body; 2. explain the role of hormones involved in the female and male reproductive systems (S10LT-IIIb-34); and 3. explain the different disorders in the endocrine system. Going through this module can be a meaningful learning experience. All you need to do is make use of your time and resources efficiently. To do this, here are some tips for you: 1. Take the pretest before reading the rest of the module. 2. Take time in reading and understanding the lesson. Follow instructions carefully. Do all activities diligently. This module is designed for independent or self-paced study. It is better to be slow but sure than to hurry and miss the concepts you are supposed to learn. 3. Use a separate sheet of paper for your answers in each activity or assessment. Do not forget to write your name. Label it properly. 4. Try to recall and connect the ideas about Biology that you had in the lower years. Use the concept discussed in the lesson to explain the results of activities or performance task. You may answer in English or a combination of your vernacular and English. 5. Be honest. When doing the activities, record only what you have really observed. Take the self-assessments after each activity, but do not turn to the Answer Key page unless you are done with the entire module. 6. Do not hesitate to ask. If you need to clarify something, approach or contact your teacher or any knowledgeable person available, to help you. You may also look into other references for further information. There is a list of references at the back part of this module. 7. Take the posttest prepared at the end of the module, so you can assess how much you have learned from this module. 8. You can check your answers in the activities, self-assessments, and posttest after you finished the entire module to know how much you have gained from the lesson and the activities. What I Need to Know

2 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Directions: Read carefully each item. Write only the letter of the correct answer for each question. Use a separate sheet of paper for your answers. 1. What do you call the body system that contains a group of glands that releases hormones into the body? A. endocrine system C. reproductive system B. nervous system D. skeletal system 2. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about endocrine system? A. Endocrine system is composed of glands that secrete different types of hormones. B. Endocrine system secretes chemicals known as hormones into the bloodstream. C. Endocrine system is a collection of nerves that transmit signals to the different parts of the body. D. The endocrine hormones help control mood, growth and development, metabolism , and reproduction. 3. Which of the following is not an endocrine gland? A. adrenal gland C. penis B. pancreas D. pituitary 4. Which gland is located at the base of the brain? A. adrenal C. pituitary B. ovary D. thyroid 5. It is a gland that regulates blood sugar levels. A. ovaries C. pituitary B. pancreas D. thymus 6. What hormone is being secreted by the testes? A. testosterone C. insulin B. estrogen D. progesterone 7. Which of the following is NOT a function of the progesterone and estrogen secreted by the ovaries? A. developing secondary female sex characteristics B. regulating the menstrual cycle C. regulating blood sugar levels D. thickening the lining of the uterus What I Know

3 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 8. Which of the following organ is not part of the endocrine system? A. heart C. testes B. ovary D. thyroid gland 9. Which of the following is NOT A CORRECT pairing of the gland and its secretion? A. adrenal gland: adrenaline B. pancreas: insulin C. parathyroid gland: parathormone D. testes: progesterone 10. Which gland makes hormones that help you grow? A. adrenal C. pituitary B. thymus D. thyroid 11. Which gland is responsible for calcium regulation? A. pancreas C. pineal gland B. parathyroid glands D. thyroid gland 12.In times of emergency, what gland has an increased secretion? A. adrenal gland C. parathyroid gland B. pancreas D. testes 13. Which gland is responsible for flight or fight response? A. adrenal gland C. pituitary gland B. parathyroid gland D. thyroid gland 14.Which gland may enlarge due to an iodine deficiency? A. adrenal gland C. pituitary gland B. parathyroid gland D. thyroid gland 15. After consuming ice cream, which hormones would be expected to increase? A. glucagon C. parathyroid hormone B. insulin D. prolactin How did you find the pre-test? What was your score? If you got 15 items correctly, you may not take this module. But if your score is 14 and below, you must proceed with the module. Have fun in learning about Endocrine System! God bless you! Answer Key on page 15

4 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Lesson 1 The Endocrine System: Glands and Their Hormones Directions: Recall the different words about endocrine system during your lower years, this will help you understand the module as we go along. Given the crossword puzzle below, complete the boxes to get the correct answer and refer to the clues given. Use another sheet of paper for your answer. How many words do you remember well? You may refer back to these pages when you want to recall the definition of the listed terms. What’s In

5 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 What’s New The endocrine system is composed of glands that secrete different types of hormones that affect almost every cell, organ, and function of our body. Let us do an activity about endocrine system so that you can familiarize yourself with its parts. Directions: Identify the glands of the endocrine system. Choose your answer from the box below. Use separate sheet of paper for your answer. Figure 1. Label the Endocrine System Illustrated by: Queenie Joy V. Alcantara Ovary Pineal gland Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Pituitary gland Parathyroid gland Thyroid gland Answer Key on page 15

6 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 What is It The Endocrine System The endocrine system is composed of different glands which secrete hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, mood, and reproduction. Hormones are organic substances released by the glands of the endocrine system directly into the bloodstream. Hormones are capable of changing the physiological and metabolic behaviors of their target cells to maintain homeostasis. The major endocrine glands in the body are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. The table below shows the major endocrine glands in the body, with their respective functions, locations, and hormone secretions. Table 1. The Endocrine System: Glands and their Functions Gland Function Hormones Location Pituitary Produces hormones that stimulate growth, and controls the functions of other glands Oxytocin Growth Hormones (GH) Prolactin (PRL) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Antidiuretic hormone (AH) At the base of the brain Figure 2. Endocrine System Illustrated by: Queenie Joy V. Alcantara

7 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Thyroid Produces hormones that regulate body metabolism, and storage of calcium in bones Thyroid hormone In front of the neck and below the voice box Parathyroid Produces hormones that control the calcium levels in your body, and normalizes bone growth Parathormone In the neck Thymus Produces hormones that enable the body to produce T cells before puberty Thymosin In front of the heart Adrenal Produces hormones that affects metabolism, immune system and blood pressure, stress reaction Adrenaline and others On top of the kidneys Pancreas Produce hormones that regulate blood sugar levels Insulin, Glucagon Behind the stomach Reproductive *Testes (Males) *Ovaries (Females) Produces hormones that control maturation of sperm and development of the secondary male sexual characteristics; Produces hormones that influence development of the secondary female sexual characteristics, and maturation of the egg cells and ovulation Testosterone Estrogen, Progesterone Scrotum Pelvic area Pineal Produces a hormone that regulates the biological clock in some animals Melatonin In the brain

8 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 The Role of Hormones in Female and Male Reproductive Systems A human being depends on reproduction for continued production of species. If humans stop to reproduce, the human species would become extinct. Reproduction is a normal process controlled by hormones. These hormones keep both the male and female reproductive systems to function properly. The pituitary gland controls the functions of both the testes and ovaries. Into the male system, pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). As the FSH enters the testes, it stimulates the Sertoli cells that are responsible for nourishing the sperm cells that the testes produce to facilitate the process of sperm production. Also, LH enters the testes to stimulate the interstitial cells called the Leydig cells to make and release testosterone into the testes and the blood. The hormone testosterone is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics and stimulates the process of sperm production in the testes. In female reproductive system, the follicles produce estrogen that controls the growth and release of eggs from the ovaries. Together with it is another hormone known as progesterone which prepares uterus so that the fertilized egg can grow in it. Progesterone is also responsible for preventing muscle contraction of the uterus that can cause the egg to detach from the uterus. In addition, the hormone inhibin produced by follicle cells inhibit FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) production. FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) plays in the regulation of estrogen-progesterone levels. It affects the development of the follicles and maturation of the egg as well as the process of ovulation. (https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/hormonal-control-of human-reproduction/) Endocrine System Disorder Hormonal imbalance will occur if the organs and hormones of your body do not produce the right amount of chemicals needed which in turn may lead to some dysfunctions. The following are some examples of endocrine disorders. Osteoporosis is a disease that happens when the mineral density of the bone is reduced making it brittle and porous. Parathyroid hormone secretion is one of the possible causes of this disease. Goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. It results from the underproduction or overproduction of thyroid hormones. Gigantism is a disorder that happens during childhood when there is abnormal increase in height associated with too much secretion of growth hormones. Dwarfism is a condition wherein the production of growth hormones in the pituitary gland is insufficient resulting in short stature. https://www.biologyonline.com/dictionary/dwarfism.)

9 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 What’s More Activity 1.1 Directions: Complete the table below by listing the gland and hormone in each described scenario. Gland Hormones Scenario 1. Egg maturation 2. Extra strength during fires 3. Adam’s apple becomes bigger 4. Building up of the immune system By T-cell production 5. Consumption of sugar-rich foods Activity 1.2 Directions: The following statements are about endocrine system. Identify what is being asked by filling in the gaps with letters to complete the word at the end of every sentence. 1. This gland is located at the base of the brain and stimulates growth. (P _ T _ I _ A _Y) 2. This is a gland that secretes adrenaline hormone which affects the heart rate. (A _ R _ N _ L) 3. This refers to the group of glands that releases hormones into the body. (E _ D _ C R _ N _ S _ S T _ M) 4. These are the two hormones secreted by the ovaries. (E _ T R O _ _ N) and (P _ O G _ S T _ R _ N E) 5. It refers to the gland that regulates blood sugar level. (P _ N _ R E _ S)

10 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Activity 1.3 Directions: Match the glands in column A with the hormone secreted in column B by writing the letter of your answer. Use a separate sheet of paper for your answers. A B _____1. Pituitary a. thymosin _____2. Thyroid b. insulin _____3. Parathyroid c. estrogen _____4. Thymus d. testosterone _____5. Adrenal e. melatonin _____6. Pancreas f. parathormone _____7. Testes g. adrenaline _____8. Ovaries h. thyroxin i. growth hormone What I Have Learned Great job! You are almost done with this module. Let us summarize what you have learned from the lesson and activities. Use a separate sheet of paper and write only your answer. A. Complete the statements below. Choose your answer from the box. The (1) _______________ system consists of (2) ______________ that secrete chemicals called (3) _______________ that control various body processes. This control system usually brings about slow changes in the (4) _______________ because hormones move through the circulatory system. The major glands in the body are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, (5) _______________ and testes. Options (1-5): body endocrine glands hormones ovaries

11 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Reproductive glands of endocrine system release sex hormones to keep the male and female reproductive systems properly. The (6) _____________ of male which lie in the scrotum, secretes hormones called (7) ________________; the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones are secreted that affect many male characteristics such as development of the secondary sexual characteristics like the growth of hair in various body parts as well as (8) ______________ production. On the other hand, the (9) ________________ of the female produce estrogen and (10) _________________________. These hormones cause the development of female sexual characteristics like breast enlargement and in the regulation and maintenance of menstruation and pregnancy, respectively. Activity: My glands, My responsibility! Write a 200-word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain a healthy life. The rubric is provided for your guide. Category 4 3 2 1 Content The essay cited 5 ways that the endocrine system helped to maintain a healthy life. Explanations were provided. The essay cited 4 ways that the endocrine system helped to maintain a healthy life. Explanations were provided. The essay cited 3 ways that the endocrine system helped to maintain a healthy life. Explanations were provided. The essay cited 2 ways that the endocrine system helped to maintain a healthy life. Explanations were provided. Grammar There are no grammatical mistakes of the essay. There are 1-5 grammatical mistake of the essay. There are 6-10 grammatical mistake of the essay. There are more than 10 grammatical What I Can Do Options (6-10): testes testosterone progesterone androgens sperm ovaries

12 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 mistakes of the essay. Message The message of the output is clear and compelling. The output clearly shows some of the messages and is slightly compelling. The output indirectly shows the message and is slightly compelling. The output does not sufficiently show the message and is not compelling. Timeliness The output is submitted on or before the given due date. The output is submitted one day after the given due date. The output is submitted two days after the given due date. The output is submitted three or more days after the given due date. Multiple Choice. Choose the letter of the best answer. Write the chosen letter on a separate sheet of paper. 1. What gland is being stimulated during exercise? A. adrenal C. pituitary B. parathyroid D. thyroid 2. Which of the following glands secrete a hormone that enables the body to produce T cells? A. adrenal C. thymus B. parathyroid D. thyroid 3. The organ that makes estrogen and progesterone is the __________. A. hypothalamus C. pineal gland B. ovary D. vagina 4. Which of the following glands produce hormones that controls the calcium levels the body? A. adrenal C. pituitary B. parathyroid D. thymus 5. Which of the following glands produce hormones that controls the heart rate and breathing in times of emergency? A. adrenal C. pituitary B. pancreas D. thyroid 6. The hormones secreted by pancreas are insulin and ___________. A. adrenaline C. glucagon B. estrogen D. melatonin Assessment

13 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 7. When you are running to stay away from danger, what gland is being stimulated? A. adrenal C. pituitary B. pineal D. thyroid 8. It refers to the body's 'master gland' because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands. A. adrenal C. pituitary B. parathyroid D. thyroid 9. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about the function of the endocrine system? A. controls sexual reproduction C. maintain homeostasis B. collect sensory input from the body D. regulate growth 10.What gland is involved if a person’s blood sugar level becomes unstable? A. adrenal C. parathyroid B. pancreas D. ovary 11.The nervous system uses electrical impulses to send messages through neurons while ___________ uses hormones to send messages to the target cells through the bloodstream. A. circulatory system C. nervous system B. endocrine system D. reproductive system 12.What is the purpose of the thyroid gland? A. It releases insulin and glucagon to regulate sugar level. B. It releases thyroxin and insulin to stimulate growth. C. It releases thyroxin and calcitonin. D. It releases adrenaline to prepare the body for action. 13.What is osteoporosis? A. It is a condition characterized by imbalanced blood sugar. B. A disorder characterized by apparent lack of aging. C. A disorder characterized by impaired growth. D. A disorder in which bones become fragile and breakable. 14.What do you call a rare condition that causes abnormal growth in children due to the decrease in the production and secretion of growth hormones? A. diabetes C. gigantism B. dwarfism D. goiter 15.Which of the following shows a correct pairing of a dysfunction and the involved endocrine gland? A. diabetes: ovaries C. goiter: thyroid B. dwarfism: adrenal D. osteoporosis: pancreas How was the Assessment? What was your score? Congratulations if you got 12 to 15 items correctly. If your score is below 12, you must review the parts of the lesson that you did not understand well. You may also ask your teacher/facilitator for further explanation on these parts.

14 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Additional Activity A. Directions: Answer the following questions. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. What is endocrine system? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. What are the functions of endocrine system? Write four (4) functions. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write five (5) glands of the endocrine system and their functions. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ B. Directions: Fill in the table by providing the name of the disease that can be caused by the over secretion or under secretion of hormones by the given glands. Doing simple research to accomplish this is advised. Glands Disorder Description of the Disorder 1. Adrenal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Pancreas 4. Thyroid 5. Reproductive glands

15 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Answer Key A 1. C 2. C 3. C 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. D 9. C 10. B 11. A 12. A 13. D 14. B 15. Adrenaline 1. Insulin 2. Endocrine 3. Pituitary 4. Parathyroid 5. Ovaries 6. Testosterone 7. Thyroid 8. Estrogen 9. Thymus 10. Adrenal 11. Pineal 12. Pancreas 13. Hormones 14. Testes 15. gland Pituitary 1. gland Thyroid 2. gland Adrenal 3. s Teste 4. gland Pineal 5. land Parathyroid g 6. Pancreas 7. Ovary 8. Hormones Gland Ovary 1. Progesterone 2. Adrenaline Adrenal 3. Testosterone Testes 4. Thymosin Thymus 5. Insulin Pancreas Pituitary 1. Adrenal 2. Endocrine System 3. Estrogen, Progesterone 4. Pancreas 5. I 1. H 2. F 3. A 4. G 5. B 6. D 7. C 8. Endocrine 1. Glands 2. Hormones 3. Body 4. Ovaries 5. Testes 6. Androgen 7. Sperm 8. Ovaries 9. Progesterone 10. What I Know What’s In What’s New What’s More (Activity 1.1) What’s More (Activity 1.2) What’s More (Activity 1.3) What’s I Have Learned

16 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 D 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. B 10. B 11. C 12. D 13. B 14. C 15. (Answer may vary) A. t produces 1. The endocrine system is a collection of glands tha hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development. 2. Regulate body’s growth Makes hormones that control your moods Sends hormones into your bloodstream Helps control metabolism produce hormones that stimulates growth - 3. Pituitary produce hormones that regulates body metabolism - id Thyro produce hormones that controls calcium levels in - Parathyroid your body produce hormones that enables the body to produce - Thymus certain antibodies produce hormones that controls heart rate and - Adrenal breathing rate in times of emergency produce hormones that regulates blood sugar levels - Pancreas (Answer may vary) B. Disorder Glands Adrenal 1. gland Addison’s Disease Pituitary 2. gland Gigantism Pancreatic Pancreas 3. cancer dism Hypothyroi Thyroid 4. Reproductive 5. glands Ovarian cancer Additional Activity Assessment

17 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 References Printed Materials: Acosta, H., L. Alvarez, D. Angeles, R. Arre, MP. Carmona, A. Garcia, A. Gatpo, et al. Science - Grade 10 Learner's Material. Pasig City, Philippines: Rex Bookstore, Inc. and Department of Education, 2015. Acosta, H., L. Alvarez, D. Angeles, R. Arre, MP. Carmona, A. Garcia, A. Gatpo, et al. Science - Grade 10 Science Teacher's Guide. Pasig City, Philippines: Rex Bookstore, Inc. and Department of Education, 2015. Mariano, Jan Jason M., and Madriaga, Estrellita A., Science Links II (Biology). Manila, Philippines: Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2012. Valdoz, Melissa, Marites Aquino, Jonna Biong, and Mylene Andaya. Science Links 10. Manila, Philippines: Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2017. Electronic Sources: Biology Online. Dwarfism. Accessed March 4, 2021. https://www.biologyonline.com/dictionary/dwarfism. Catherine Burt Driver, MD. Emedicinehealth. Osteoporosis. April 17, 2020. Accessed March 7,2020. https://www.emedicinehealth.com/osteoporosis/article_em.htm Department of Education. “K to 12 Curriculum Guide Science (Grade 3 to 10).” Accessed October 2019. "https://www.deped.gov.ph/wpcontent/uploads/2019/01/Science-CG_with-tagged-sciequipment_revised.pdf. Emedicinehealth. Anatomy of the Endocrine system. June 16, 2020. Accessed February 24, 2021. https://www.emedicinehealth.com/anatomy_of_the_endocrine_system/articl e_em.htm LRDMS Portal. Science Modules. December 29, 2014. "Accessed October 13, 2019. https://lrmds.deped.gov.ph/detail/6838. Lumen Candela. Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction. “Accessed March 15, 2021”. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundlessbiology/chapter/hormonal-control-of-human-reproduction/

18 CO_Q3_Science 10_Module 1 Pearson Education. The Human Anatomy and Physiology. Accessed June 2, 2020. https://wps.pearsoned.com/bc_marieb_hap_9_oa/221/56741/14525852.c w/index.html Remedy Health Media. All Endocrine disorder. 2020. Accessed June 3, 2020. https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions The Nemours Foundation/Kidshealth. Human body series- Endocrine System. 2018. Accessed June 2, 2020. https://classroom.kidshealth.org/classroom/6to8/body/systems/endocrine .pdf Tulane University. E. Hormone- A gateway of environmental signaling. Accessed April 15, 2021. http://e.hormone.tulane.edu/learning/endocrinesystem.html World Health Organization. Obesity. 2020. Accessed June 10, 2020. https://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/

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  1. WRITE A 200 WORD ESSAY ON HOW ENDOCRINE GLANDS HAS HELPED YOU MAINTAIN

    200 words essay on how endocrine glands

  2. SOLUTION: Endocrine glands and hormones essay

    200 words essay on how endocrine glands

  3. The Human Endocrine System Glands Worksheets

    200 words essay on how endocrine glands

  4. Write essay endocrine system

    200 words essay on how endocrine glands

  5. write a 200 word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain

    200 words essay on how endocrine glands

  6. Endocrine system essay

    200 words essay on how endocrine glands

VIDEO

  1. Endocrine Glands

  2. Details study of Endocrine glands#Endocrinology#zoology#

  3. Endocrine Glands-Biology#general science #

  4. Diabetes mellitus lecture| Endocrine مرض السكرى شرح محاضرة DM

  5. Pronounce Medical Words ― Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A Syndrome

  6. 222 endocrine glands with hormones| important topic class 10th| Complete table #ncertclass10science

COMMENTS

  1. Essay on Endocrine Glands: Top 11 Essays

    Here is a compilation of essays on 'Endocrine Glands' for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on 'Endocrine Glands' especially written for school and college students. Essay on Endocrine Glands. ... Their number varies from 200, 000 to 2,000, 000. The cells of the islets can be stained intravitally with ...

  2. Endocrine system essay

    Endocrine system essay. notes on Endocrine system. Course. Human Pathophysiology (BIO2302 ) 36 Documents. Students shared 36 documents in this course. ... In addition to the major endocrine glands, there are other endocrine tissues throughout the body that produce hormones, including the pancreas, ovaries, and testes. The pancreas produces ...

  3. The endocrine system Essay

    This essay will discuss the physiology of the endocrine system, common endocrine disorders, and methods for keeping the endocrine system healthy. The endocrine system is a complex network of glands, hormones, and other chemicals that are responsible for a variety of bodily functions.

  4. Human endocrine system

    ovary. thyroid gland. adrenal gland. pituitary gland. human endocrine system, group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result ...

  5. Essay on Endocrine Glands (For Students)

    Essay on Endocrine Glands. Essay # 1. Introduction to Endocrine Glands: Endocrine means, Endo = within and Krine = to secrete. This system consists of ductless glands of the body. The ductless glands are organs which have resemblance to a gland but no ducts are attached to the glands to carry the secretions. The secretions are directly poured ...

  6. Essay on Hormones: Top 5 Essays

    Essay # 2. Properties of Hormones. : The amount of hormone produced by an endocrine gland is generally very small. Therefore, its concentration in blood is very low. Target cells are very sensitive to the hormone. Some target cells respond to plasma concentration of hormone as low as 10 -12 M.

  7. Endocrine System Essay

    Endocrine System Essay. Paper Type: Free Essay: Subject: Physiology: Wordcount: 1961 words: Published: 6th Jun 2017: Reference this Share this: Facebook. ... Hormones are chemicals that the endocrine glands excrete into intercellular spaces that then diffuse into the bloodstream. There are two types of hormones that affect how the individual ...

  8. The endocrine system in our bodies: [Essay Example], 488 words

    The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce hormones to promote the body's homeostasis. The glands that make up the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. The pituitary gland is divided into two parts which are the adenohypophysis and the ...

  9. Endocrine glands and their hormones

    Endocrine glands release hormones into your bloodstream. Your endocrine glands influence reproduction, metabolism, growth and many other functions. You also have exocrine glands in your body — these are glands that make and release chemicals into a duct. For example, you have exocrine glands in your digestive system.

  10. Endocrine System Essay

    Endocrine System Essay. The Endocrine System The function of the endocrine system is to regulate the body functions by the use of hormones. The structure of the endocrine system is therefore the structure and location of all the main endocrine glands. The pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, and the sex glands (testes) are some ...

  11. The Endocrine System

    Text preview of this essay: This page of the essay has 601 words. Download the full version above. The endocrine system plays a major role in the body. The endocrine system secretes hormones that play a big role in metabolism, growth, and responds to stress. When the body endures stress the body goes through general adaption syndrome (GAS).

  12. Great glands

    Great glands - Your endocrine system. Hank fills us in on the endocrine system - the system of glands which produce and secrete different types of hormones directly into the bloodstream to regulate the body's growth, metabolism, and sexual development & function. Created by EcoGeek.

  13. write a 200 word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain

    200-word essay. Endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream. This lets the hormones travel to cells in other parts of my body. The endocrine hormones help control my mood, growth and development, the way my organs work, metabolism , and reproduction. A healthy endocrine system is essential for my body to function efficiently.

  14. Understanding the Endocrine System: Hormones, Glands, and Health

    Views. 792. The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones. Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. They regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, and many other things. These hormones can affect an individual's ...

  15. The Endocrine System

    The endocrine system is a self-regulating system made up of glands that generate hormones that control the body's metabolism, the way tissues work, how body cells excrete waste, how cells develop and grow, and how cells reproduce. The body's endocrine system reacts to biochemical stimuli by secreting hormones into the bloodstream, which are ...

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    write a 200 word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain a healthy life,my glands my responsibility essay 200 words,how does your endocrine gla...

  17. Ways to Maintain a Healthy Endocrine System

    Glands constituting the endocrine system include the kidneys, thyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal, ovaries/testes and parathyroid glands. An imbalance of hormones caused by an unhealthy endocrine system can produce symptoms ranging from panic disorder, to metabolic dysregulation, to diabetes. Problems with the parathyroid gland may allow ...

  18. Science10_Q3_Mod1_The Endocrine System Glands and Their Hormones

    Write a 200-word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain a healthy life. The rubric is provided for your guide. Category 4 3 2 1 Content The essay cited 5 ways that the endocrine system helped to maintain a healthy life. Explanations were provided. The essay cited 4 ways that the endocrine system helped to maintain a healthy life.

  19. Activity: My glands, My responsibility! Write a 200-word essay on

    Write a 200-word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain a healthy life. The rubric is provided for your guide. (Must cite 5 ways how the endocrine system has helped you maintain a healthy life.) SCIENCE. BIOLOGY. This question was created from Science10_Q3_Mod1_The-Endocrine-System-Glands-and-Their-Hormones.pdf.

  20. write a 200 word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain

    write a 200 word essay on how endocrine glands has helped you maintain a healthy life. pa help po plsss☹️ See answers Advertisement Advertisement 113220150040 113220150040 Answer: The endocrine system is made up of glands that make hormones. Hormones are the body's chemical messengers. They carry information and instructions from one set of ...

  21. Write a 200-word essay on how endocrine glands affect the body system

    Write a 200-word essay on how endocrine glands affect the body system and how it helped maintain - 30707953. ... Answer: The endocrine system is a complex network of glands that produce and secrete hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones are released directly into the bloodstream and travel ...

  22. Write 200 word essay on how endocrine glands helped you ...

    Write 200 word essay on how endocrine glands helped you maintain a health . Answer:Endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream. This lets the hormones travel to cells in other parts of the body. The endocrine hormones help control mood, growth and development, the way our organs work, metabolism , and reproduction.