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World War I

Causes and Effects of World War I

View historical footage and photographs surrounding Gavrilo Princip's assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

world war 1 caused essay

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World War I

By: History.com Editors

Updated: May 10, 2024 | Original: October 29, 2009

"I Have a Rendevous with Death."FRANCE - CIRCA 1916: German troops advancing from their trenches. (Photo by Buyenlarge/Getty Images)

World War I, also known as the Great War, started in 1914 after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. His murder catapulted into a war across Europe that lasted until 1918. During the four-year conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central Powers) fought against Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Canada, Japan and the United States (the Allied Powers). Thanks to new military technologies and the horrors of trench warfare, World War I saw unprecedented levels of carnage and destruction. By the time the war was over and the Allied Powers had won, more than 16 million people—soldiers and civilians alike—were dead.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Tensions had been brewing throughout Europe—especially in the troubled Balkan region of southeast Europe—for years before World War I actually broke out.

A number of alliances involving European powers, the Ottoman Empire , Russia and other parties had existed for years, but political instability in the Balkans (particularly Bosnia, Serbia and Herzegovina) threatened to destroy these agreements.

The spark that ignited World War I was struck in Sarajevo, Bosnia, where Archduke Franz Ferdinand —heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire—was shot to death along with his wife, Sophie, by the Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914. Princip and other nationalists were struggling to end Austro-Hungarian rule over Bosnia and Herzegovina.

world war 1 caused essay

The Great War

Watch The Great War . Available to stream now.

The assassination of Franz Ferdinand set off a rapidly escalating chain of events: Austria-Hungary , like many countries around the world, blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the question of Serbian nationalism once and for all.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Because mighty Russia supported Serbia, Austria-Hungary waited to declare war until its leaders received assurance from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II that Germany would support their cause. Austro-Hungarian leaders feared that a Russian intervention would involve Russia’s ally, France, and possibly Great Britain as well.

On July 5, Kaiser Wilhelm secretly pledged his support, giving Austria-Hungary a so-called carte blanche, or “blank check” assurance of Germany’s backing in the case of war. The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary then sent an ultimatum to Serbia, with such harsh terms as to make it almost impossible to accept.

World War I Begins

Convinced that Austria-Hungary was readying for war, the Serbian government ordered the Serbian army to mobilize and appealed to Russia for assistance. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe’s great powers quickly collapsed.

Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and World War I had begun.

The Western Front

According to an aggressive military strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan (named for its mastermind, German Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen ), Germany began fighting World War I on two fronts, invading France through neutral Belgium in the west and confronting Russia in the east.

On August 4, 1914, German troops crossed the border into Belgium. In the first battle of World War I, the Germans assaulted the heavily fortified city of Liege , using the most powerful weapons in their arsenal—enormous siege cannons—to capture the city by August 15. The Germans left death and destruction in their wake as they advanced through Belgium toward France, shooting civilians and executing a Belgian priest they had accused of inciting civilian resistance. 

First Battle of the Marne

In the First Battle of the Marne , fought from September 6-9, 1914, French and British forces confronted the invading German army, which had by then penetrated deep into northeastern France, within 30 miles of Paris. The Allied troops checked the German advance and mounted a successful counterattack, driving the Germans back to the north of the Aisne River.

The defeat meant the end of German plans for a quick victory in France. Both sides dug into trenches , and the Western Front was the setting for a hellish war of attrition that would last more than three years.

Particularly long and costly battles in this campaign were fought at Verdun (February-December 1916) and the Battle of the Somme (July-November 1916). German and French troops suffered close to a million casualties in the Battle of Verdun alone.

world war 1 caused essay

HISTORY Vault: World War I Documentaries

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World War I Books and Art

The bloodshed on the battlefields of the Western Front, and the difficulties its soldiers had for years after the fighting had ended, inspired such works of art as “ All Quiet on the Western Front ” by Erich Maria Remarque and “ In Flanders Fields ” by Canadian doctor Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae . In the latter poem, McCrae writes from the perspective of the fallen soldiers:

Published in 1915, the poem inspired the use of the poppy as a symbol of remembrance.

Visual artists like Otto Dix of Germany and British painters Wyndham Lewis, Paul Nash and David Bomberg used their firsthand experience as soldiers in World War I to create their art, capturing the anguish of trench warfare and exploring the themes of technology, violence and landscapes decimated by war.

The Eastern Front

On the Eastern Front of World War I, Russian forces invaded the German-held regions of East Prussia and Poland but were stopped short by German and Austrian forces at the Battle of Tannenberg in late August 1914.

Despite that victory, Russia’s assault forced Germany to move two corps from the Western Front to the Eastern, contributing to the German loss in the Battle of the Marne.

Combined with the fierce Allied resistance in France, the ability of Russia’s huge war machine to mobilize relatively quickly in the east ensured a longer, more grueling conflict instead of the quick victory Germany had hoped to win under the Schlieffen Plan .

Russian Revolution

From 1914 to 1916, Russia’s army mounted several offensives on World War I’s Eastern Front but was unable to break through German lines.

Defeat on the battlefield, combined with economic instability and the scarcity of food and other essentials, led to mounting discontent among the bulk of Russia’s population, especially the poverty-stricken workers and peasants. This increased hostility was directed toward the imperial regime of Czar Nicholas II and his unpopular German-born wife, Alexandra.

Russia’s simmering instability exploded in the Russian Revolution of 1917, spearheaded by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks , which ended czarist rule and brought a halt to Russian participation in World War I.

Russia reached an armistice with the Central Powers in early December 1917, freeing German troops to face the remaining Allies on the Western Front.

America Enters World War I

At the outbreak of fighting in 1914, the United States remained on the sidelines of World War I, adopting the policy of neutrality favored by President Woodrow Wilson while continuing to engage in commerce and shipping with European countries on both sides of the conflict.

Neutrality, however, it was increasingly difficult to maintain in the face of Germany’s unchecked submarine aggression against neutral ships, including those carrying passengers. In 1915, Germany declared the waters surrounding the British Isles to be a war zone, and German U-boats sunk several commercial and passenger vessels, including some U.S. ships.

Widespread protest over the sinking by U-boat of the British ocean liner Lusitania —traveling from New York to Liverpool, England with hundreds of American passengers onboard—in May 1915 helped turn the tide of American public opinion against Germany. In February 1917, Congress passed a $250 million arms appropriations bill intended to make the United States ready for war.

Germany sunk four more U.S. merchant ships the following month, and on April 2 Woodrow Wilson appeared before Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany.

Gallipoli Campaign

With World War I having effectively settled into a stalemate in Europe, the Allies attempted to score a victory against the Ottoman Empire, which entered the conflict on the side of the Central Powers in late 1914.

After a failed attack on the Dardanelles (the strait linking the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean Sea), Allied forces led by Britain launched a large-scale land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula in April 1915. The invasion also proved a dismal failure, and in January 1916 Allied forces staged a full retreat from the shores of the peninsula after suffering 250,000 casualties.

Did you know? The young Winston Churchill, then first lord of the British Admiralty, resigned his command after the failed Gallipoli campaign in 1916, accepting a commission with an infantry battalion in France.

British-led forces also combated the Ottoman Turks in Egypt and Mesopotamia , while in northern Italy, Austrian and Italian troops faced off in a series of 12 battles along the Isonzo River, located at the border between the two nations.

Battle of the Isonzo

The First Battle of the Isonzo took place in the late spring of 1915, soon after Italy’s entrance into the war on the Allied side. In the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, also known as the Battle of Caporetto (October 1917), German reinforcements helped Austria-Hungary win a decisive victory.

After Caporetto, Italy’s allies jumped in to offer increased assistance. British and French—and later, American—troops arrived in the region, and the Allies began to take back the Italian Front.

World War I at Sea

In the years before World War I, the superiority of Britain’s Royal Navy was unchallenged by any other nation’s fleet, but the Imperial German Navy had made substantial strides in closing the gap between the two naval powers. Germany’s strength on the high seas was also aided by its lethal fleet of U-boat submarines.

After the Battle of Dogger Bank in January 1915, in which the British mounted a surprise attack on German ships in the North Sea, the German navy chose not to confront Britain’s mighty Royal Navy in a major battle for more than a year, preferring to rest the bulk of its naval strategy on its U-boats.

The biggest naval engagement of World War I, the Battle of Jutland (May 1916) left British naval superiority on the North Sea intact, and Germany would make no further attempts to break an Allied naval blockade for the remainder of the war.

World War I Planes

World War I was the first major conflict to harness the power of planes. Though not as impactful as the British Royal Navy or Germany’s U-boats, the use of planes in World War I presaged their later, pivotal role in military conflicts around the globe.

At the dawn of World War I, aviation was a relatively new field; the Wright brothers took their first sustained flight just eleven years before, in 1903. Aircraft were initially used primarily for reconnaissance missions. During the First Battle of the Marne, information passed from pilots allowed the allies to exploit weak spots in the German lines, helping the Allies to push Germany out of France.

The first machine guns were successfully mounted on planes in June of 1912 in the United States, but were imperfect; if timed incorrectly, a bullet could easily destroy the propeller of the plane it came from. The Morane-Saulnier L, a French plane, provided a solution: The propeller was armored with deflector wedges that prevented bullets from hitting it. The Morane-Saulnier Type L was used by the French, the British Royal Flying Corps (part of the Army), the British Royal Navy Air Service and the Imperial Russian Air Service. The British Bristol Type 22 was another popular model used for both reconnaissance work and as a fighter plane.

Dutch inventor Anthony Fokker improved upon the French deflector system in 1915. His “interrupter” synchronized the firing of the guns with the plane’s propeller to avoid collisions. Though his most popular plane during WWI was the single-seat Fokker Eindecker, Fokker created over 40 kinds of airplanes for the Germans.

The Allies debuted the Handley-Page HP O/400, the first two-engine bomber, in 1915. As aerial technology progressed, long-range heavy bombers like Germany’s Gotha G.V. (first introduced in 1917) were used to strike cities like London. Their speed and maneuverability proved to be far deadlier than Germany’s earlier Zeppelin raids.

By the war’s end, the Allies were producing five times more aircraft than the Germans. On April 1, 1918, the British created the Royal Air Force, or RAF, the first air force to be a separate military branch independent from the navy or army. 

Second Battle of the Marne

With Germany able to build up its strength on the Western Front after the armistice with Russia, Allied troops struggled to hold off another German offensive until promised reinforcements from the United States were able to arrive.

On July 15, 1918, German troops launched what would become the last German offensive of the war, attacking French forces (joined by 85,000 American troops as well as some of the British Expeditionary Force) in the Second Battle of the Marne . The Allies successfully pushed back the German offensive and launched their own counteroffensive just three days later.

After suffering massive casualties, Germany was forced to call off a planned offensive further north, in the Flanders region stretching between France and Belgium, which was envisioned as Germany’s best hope of victory.

The Second Battle of the Marne turned the tide of war decisively towards the Allies, who were able to regain much of France and Belgium in the months that followed.

The Harlem Hellfighters and Other All-Black Regiments

By the time World War I began, there were four all-Black regiments in the U.S. military: the 24th and 25th Infantry and the 9th and 10th Cavalry. All four regiments comprised of celebrated soldiers who fought in the Spanish-American War and American-Indian Wars , and served in the American territories. But they were not deployed for overseas combat in World War I. 

Blacks serving alongside white soldiers on the front lines in Europe was inconceivable to the U.S. military. Instead, the first African American troops sent overseas served in segregated labor battalions, restricted to menial roles in the Army and Navy, and shutout of the Marines, entirely. Their duties mostly included unloading ships, transporting materials from train depots, bases and ports, digging trenches, cooking and maintenance, removing barbed wire and inoperable equipment, and burying soldiers.

Facing criticism from the Black community and civil rights organizations for its quotas and treatment of African American soldiers in the war effort, the military formed two Black combat units in 1917, the 92nd and 93rd Divisions . Trained separately and inadequately in the United States, the divisions fared differently in the war. The 92nd faced criticism for their performance in the Meuse-Argonne campaign in September 1918. The 93rd Division, however, had more success. 

With dwindling armies, France asked America for reinforcements, and General John Pershing , commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, sent regiments in the 93 Division to over, since France had experience fighting alongside Black soldiers from their Senegalese French Colonial army. The 93 Division’s 369 regiment, nicknamed the Harlem Hellfighters , fought so gallantly, with a total of 191 days on the front lines, longer than any AEF regiment, that France awarded them the Croix de Guerre for their heroism. More than 350,000 African American soldiers would serve in World War I in various capacities.

Toward Armistice

By the fall of 1918, the Central Powers were unraveling on all fronts.

Despite the Turkish victory at Gallipoli, later defeats by invading forces and an Arab revolt that destroyed the Ottoman economy and devastated its land, and the Turks signed a treaty with the Allies in late October 1918.

Austria-Hungary, dissolving from within due to growing nationalist movements among its diverse population, reached an armistice on November 4. Facing dwindling resources on the battlefield, discontent on the homefront and the surrender of its allies, Germany was finally forced to seek an armistice on November 11, 1918, ending World War I.

Treaty of Versailles

At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Allied leaders stated their desire to build a post-war world that would safeguard itself against future conflicts of such a devastating scale.

Some hopeful participants had even begun calling World War I “the War to End All Wars.” But the Treaty of Versailles , signed on June 28, 1919, would not achieve that lofty goal.

Saddled with war guilt, heavy reparations and denied entrance into the League of Nations , Germany felt tricked into signing the treaty, having believed any peace would be a “peace without victory,” as put forward by President Wilson in his famous Fourteen Points speech of January 1918.

As the years passed, hatred of the Versailles treaty and its authors settled into a smoldering resentment in Germany that would, two decades later, be counted among the causes of World War II .

World War I Casualties

World War I took the lives of more than 9 million soldiers; 21 million more were wounded. Civilian casualties numbered close to 10 million. The two nations most affected were Germany and France, each of which sent some 80 percent of their male populations between the ages of 15 and 49 into battle.

The political disruption surrounding World War I also contributed to the fall of four venerable imperial dynasties: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Turkey.

Legacy of World War I

World War I brought about massive social upheaval, as millions of women entered the workforce to replace men who went to war and those who never came back. The first global war also helped to spread one of the world’s deadliest global pandemics, the Spanish flu epidemic of 1918, which killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people.

World War I has also been referred to as “the first modern war.” Many of the technologies now associated with military conflict—machine guns, tanks , aerial combat and radio communications—were introduced on a massive scale during World War I.

The severe effects that chemical weapons such as mustard gas and phosgene had on soldiers and civilians during World War I galvanized public and military attitudes against their continued use. The Geneva Convention agreements, signed in 1925, restricted the use of chemical and biological agents in warfare and remain in effect today.

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5 Key Causes of World War I

Illustration by Hugo Lin. ThoughtCo.

  • M.A., History, University of Florida
  • B.A., History, University of Florida

World War I, known as the "war to end all wars," occurred between July 1914 and November 11, 1918. By the end of the war, over 17 million people had been killed, including over 100,000 American troops. The causes of the war are infinitely more complicated than a simple timeline of events, and they are still debated and discussed to this day.

However, the list below provides an overview of the most frequently cited events that led to war. These include a combination of mutual defense alliances, imperialistic rivalries, the rise of militarism, fervent nationalism, and the immediate catalyst—the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Watch Now: 5 Causes of World War I

Mutual defense alliances.

Countries throughout the world have always made mutual defense agreements with their neighbors, treaties that could pull them into battle. These treaties meant that if one country was attacked, the allied countries were bound to defend them. Before World War 1 began, the following alliances existed:

  • Russia and Serbia
  • Germany and Austria-Hungary
  • France and Russia
  • Britain, France, and Belgium
  • Japan and Britain

When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got involved to defend Serbia. Germany, seeing that Russia was mobilizing, declared war on Russia. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France by marching through Belgium pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war to support its British allies. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the Allies (Britain, France, Russia, etc.).

Imperialism

Imperialism  is when a country increases its power and wealth by bringing additional territories under its control, usually without outright colonizing or resettling them. Before World War I, several European countries had made competing imperialistic claims in Africa and parts of Asia, making them points of contention. Because of the raw materials these areas could provide, tensions around which country had the right to exploit these areas ran high. The increasing competition and desire for greater empires led to an increase in confrontation that helped push the world into World War I.

As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun, primarily over the number of each country's warships, and the increasing size of their armies—countries began training more and more of their young men to be prepared for battle. The warships themselves increased in size, number of guns, speed, method of propulsion, and quality armor, beginning in 1906 with Britain's HMS Dreadnought . Dreadnought   was soon out-classed as the Royal Navy and Kaiserliche Marine quickly expanded their ranks with increasingly modern and powerful warships. 

By 1914 , Germany had nearly 100 warships and 2 million trained soldiers. Great Britain and Germany both greatly increased their navies during this time. Further, in Germany and Russia particularly, the military establishment began to have a greater influence on public policy. This increase in militarism helped push the countries involved into war.

Nationalism

Much of the origin of the war was based on the desire of the Slavic peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina to no longer be part of Austria-Hungary but instead be part of Serbia. This specific essentially nationalistic and ethnic revolt led directly to the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand , which was the event that tipped the scales to war.

But more generally, nationalism in many of the countries throughout Europe contributed not only to the beginning but to the extension of the war across Europe and into Asia. As each country tried to prove its dominance and power, the war became more complicated and prolonged.

Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

The immediate cause of World War I that made the aforementioned items come into play (alliances, imperialism, militarism, and nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian-nationalist terrorist group called the Black Hand sent groups to assassinate the Archduke. Their first attempt failed when a driver avoided a grenade thrown at their car. However, later that day a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip shot the Archduke and his wife while they were driving through Sarajevo, Bosnia, which was part of Austria-Hungary. They died of their wounds.

The assassination was in protest of Austria-Hungary having control of this region: Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. The assassination of Ferdinand led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to mobilize to defend its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances.

The War to End All Wars

World War I saw a change in warfare, from the hand-to-hand style of older wars to the inclusion of weapons that used technology and removed the individual from close combat. The war had extremely high casualties over 17 million dead and 20 million injured. The face of warfare would never be the same again.

In 1914, British author H.G. Wells published his book "The War That Will End War," discussing the change in warfare and coining the phrase that would eventually become synonymous with World War I.

  • The Balkans
  • Timeline of World War II From 1939 to 1945
  • Causes of World War I and the Rise of Germany
  • The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 1914
  • World War I Timeline From 1914 to 1919
  • Biography of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria
  • The Causes and War Aims of World War One
  • World War I Timeline: 1914, The War Begins
  • World War I Introduction and Overview
  • The Major Alliances of World War I
  • World War 1: A Short Timeline Pre-1914
  • World War I: Opening Campaigns
  • The First Battle of the Marne
  • The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson's Plan for Peace
  • Key Historical Figures of World War I

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world war 1 caused essay

Historical Context: The Global Effect of World War I

By steven mintz.

A recent list of the hundred most important news stories of the twentieth century ranked the onset of World War I eighth. This is a great error. Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was in one way or another a result of World War I, including the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, World War II, the Holocaust, and the development of the atomic bomb. The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also be traced, at least indirectly, to the First World War.

World War I killed more people--more than 9 million soldiers, sailors, and flyers and another 5 million civilians--involved more countries--28--and cost more money--$186 billion in direct costs and another $151 billion in indirect costs--than any previous war in history. It was the first war to use airplanes, tanks, long range artillery, submarines, and poison gas. It left at least 7 million men permanently disabled.

World War I probably had more far-reaching consequences than any other proceeding war. Politically, it resulted in the downfall of four monarchies--in Russia in 1917, in Austria-Hungary and Germany in 1918, and in Turkey in 1922. It contributed to the Bolshevik rise to power in Russia in 1917 and the triumph of fascism in Italy in 1922. It ignited colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia.

Economically, the war severely disrupted the European economies and allowed the United States to become the world's leading creditor and industrial power. The war also brought vast social consequences, including the mass murder of Armenians in Turkey and an influenza epidemic that killed over 25 million people worldwide.

Few events better reveal the utter unpredictability of the future. At the dawn of the 20th century, most Europeans looked forward to a future of peace and prosperity. Europe had not fought a major war for 100 years. But a belief in human progress was shattered by World War I, a war few wanted or expected. At any point during the five weeks leading up to the outbreak of fighting the conflict might have been averted. World War I was a product of miscalculation, misunderstanding, and miscommunication.

No one expected a war of the magnitude or duration of World War I. At first the armies relied on outdated methods of communication, such as carrier pigeons. The great powers mobilized more than a million horses. But by the time the conflict was over, tanks, submarines, airplane-dropped bombs, machine guns, and poison gas had transformed the nature of modern warfare. In 1918, the Germans fired shells containing both tear gas and lethal chlorine. The tear gas forced the British to remove their gas masks; the chlorine then scarred their faces and killed them.

In a single day at the Battle of the Somme in 1916, 100,000 British troops plodded across no man's land into steady machine-gun fire from German trenches a few yards away. Some 60,000 were killed or wounded. At the end of the battle, 419,654 British men were killed, missing, or wounded.Four years of war killed a million troops from the British Empire, 1.5 million troops from the Hapsburg Empire, 1.7 million French troops, 1.7 million Russians, and 2 million German troops. The war left a legacy of bitterness that contributed to World War II twenty-one years later.

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World War 1 Essay | Essay on World War 1 for Students and Children in English

February 14, 2024 by Prasanna

World War 1 Essay: World War 1 was started in July 1914 and officially ended on November 11, 1918. Conflicts emerged among the most powerful forces in the modern world with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Germany and the Ottoman Empire (and briefly Italy) on one side, and Britain, France, Russia, and later the United States on the other side during the war.

The war took the lives of some 20 million people and the world’s great empires fell. Czarist Russia turned into reinstated as the communist Soviet Union. Imperial Germany turned into reinstated as the Weimar Republic and lost some parts of its territory in the East and West.

You can also find more  Essay Writing  articles on events, persons, sports, technology and many more.

Long and Short Essays on World War 1 for Students and Kids in English

We are providing students with essay samples on a long essay of 500 words and a short of 150 words on the topic of World War 1 for reference.

Long Essay on World War 1 Essay 500 Words in English

Long Essay on World War 1 Essay is usually given to classes 7, 8, 9, and 10.

World War 1 started with a European conflict and gradually it developed into a World War. Militarism, nationalism, imperialism, and alliances increased the tensions among the European countries. The first reason, militarism, is known as the trend toward developing military resources, both for national defense and the protection of colonial interests.

Militarism indicated a rise in military disbursement and it extended to military and naval forces. It put more impact on the military men upon the policies of the civilian government. As a solution to problems militarism had a preference for force. This was one of the main reasons for the First World War. The second reason is there were too many alliances that frequently clashed with each other. Every country was pawning to safeguard others, creating intertwining mutual protection schemes.

They made alliances in secret, and they created a lot of mistrust and intuition among the European powers. Their general intuition stopped their diplomats to find a proper solution to many of the crises leading to war. Imperialism was the third reason for the First World War. As some areas of the world were left to colonize, nations were competing for subsisting colonies, and they were looking for enlarging their borders with adjacent countries. The fourth cause was nationalism. Nationalism is frequently insinuated to as identification with one’s own country and support for the country. Nationalism contains a strong recognition of a group of personnel with a political entity.

The support of individuals for their own country can become of one’s nation can become hatred of other nations. These were just some of the basic reasons for the war. Many people think that the instant reason for the war was because of the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the successor to Austria-Hungary’s throne. Archduke Ferdinand was fired and murdered due to what was thought to be a political conspiracy. The Austro-Hungarian Empire suddenly doubted Serbian conspiracy in the assassination and looked to frame a response that would both punish Serbia, and make the world respect Austria-Hungary’s prestige and determination.

You can now access more Essay Writing on this topic and many more.

The Great War lasted four years. The war was finally over after four years and it took the lives of many people. On the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, a cease-fire went into effect for all fighters. Though the war has been finished, the effects, are still seen perceptible in the world today.

In the aftermath of World War 1, the political, cultural, and social order of the world was drastically changed in many places, even outside the areas directly involved in the war. Old nations were removed, new nations were formed, international organizations set up, and many new and old ideas took a stronghold in people’s minds.

As Europe fell in debt from war investment, inflation beset the continent. In addition to this, the buoyancy of previous decades was relinquished and a discouraging, gloomy outlook on life was adopted after people had experienced the ferocity of warfare and the effects of the war were brutal.

Short Essay on World War 1 Essay 150 Words in English

Short Essay on World War 1 Essay is usually given to classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

The War took the lives of approximately 20 million people and put a break in the economic development of several nations. The war happened between two parties consisting of more than one hundred nations. Though all of them did not send armed forces to the battlefield, they were a hoard of commodities and human resources and provided moral support to their companions. It continued for 4 long years from 1914 to 1918. Indian soldiers also took part in World War 1 as a colony of Britain from Africa and West Asia.

India had an aspiration that they might win independence. World War 1 war laid down the economy of the world. It led to food shortage, an outbreak of a pandemic, scarcity of vital items, etc. At the end of 1918, the war came to an end. The Allied Powers won the war. Both parties signed the Peace Treaty called an armistice.

10 Lines on World War 1 Essay in English

1. The First World War was instigated in 1914 by Serbia. 2. The cause of the war was a competition between countries to acquire weapons and build military powers. 3. In 1914, Serbia aroused anger by assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir of Austria-Hungary throne. 4. The Allied Powers, and the Central Powers fought against each other. 5. The Central Powers include countries, such as Germany, Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Turkey. 6. The Allied Powers consisted of Serbia, Russia, The United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, and Belgium. 7. India, as a British colony, supported Britain. 8. The German adopted a militaristic Schlieffen approach. 9. World War 1 was fought from trenches, so it is also called the Trench War. 10. The War ended in 1918 after both allies signed an armistice.

FAQ’s on World War 1 Essay

Question 1. List the names of the two allies of the First World War 1914-1918.

Answer: The Allied Powers and the Central Powers.

Question 2. Who declared the First World War?

Answer: Austria-Hungary.

Question 3. Name the countries of Allied Powers.

Answer: Britain, Japan, France, Italy, Russia, the USA.

Question 4.  Why did the First World War end?

Answer: The First World War ended in November 1918 when both allies signed the Peace Treaty known as an armistice.

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165 World War 1 Topics for Essays with Examples

Looking for good World War 1 topics to write about? This area of study is exciting, controversial, and worth analysing!

  • 🔝 Top 10 WW1 Topics to Write about
  • 📝 WW1 Essay: How to Write
  • 🏆 Best WW1 Essay Topics & Examples

💡 Good Essay Topics on WW1

  • 🔎 Interesting Topics to Write about WW1
  • ⭐ WW1 Research Topics
  • 📃 Simple & Easy WW1 Essay Titles
  • ❓ WW1 Essay Questions

In your WW1 essay, you might want to focus on the causes of the conflict, its participants, or answer the question of who started the First World War. In this article, we’ve gathered 139 WW1 ideas that you can use in any project, presentation, or even debate. There are also great World War 1 essay examples to inspire you even more.

🔝 Top 10 World War 1 Topics to Write about

  • Causes of World War I
  • Political and military alliances before the WWI
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand as the starting point of WW1
  • Naval warfare of World War I
  • Ottoman Empire in World War 1
  • The role of technology in World War 1
  • The use of chemical weapons in WWI
  • The most cruel war crimes of WW1
  • Armenian genocide as a part of World War 1
  • The effects and consequences of WW1

📝 World War 1 Essay: How to Write

With over 60 million people mobilized and involving countries all around the world, any World War 1 Essay is bound to touch upon a wide variety of topics.

The mechanics behind the start of the war, its process, and results all interconnect, which may make the subject seem hard to understand and harder to outline.

However, navigating your way around World War 1 essay questions is only a matter of taking note of a few cornerstone historical processes.

Before You Start Your Outline

Do some research on your assigned issue. The more books and journals you peruse, the more aware of your subject you will be. You will not use all of them, but you will form an understanding of which titles your essay needs.

As you continue your research, start compiling your bibliography, which will be the backbone of your essay’s credibility. World War 1 is a highly historiographical event, and you will be sure to find a wide variety of literature on it on the internet.

Write down some essential terms and think about how they relate to your essay. Imperialism, nationalism, the Versailles treaty are good starter examples of omnipresent processes and results of World War 1. Doing so may help you give your essay a new, previously explored perspective.

Structuring your Thoughts into an Essay Outline

After you have finished with your sources and key terms, think about how you can split your main theme into subtopics.

Even if your essay is a single page, doing so will allow you to divide your ideas evenly between paragraphs. If it is on the longer side, think about including subheadings in your work.

This action gives your essay a more rigid structure that is easy to read. Additionally, now is the time to think about your essay’s title. World War 1 essay titles should reflect your stance as the writer and hint at the conclusion that you will draw.

You may feel like your outlined subheadings are overlapping, making your essay seem messy. In this case, find and read a World War 1 essay sample. Plagiarism is a severe academic offense, but getting inspired by someone else’s work, while giving credit, is not.

Beginning to Write

You should try to start your essay with something that attracts the attention of your readers. This World War 1 essay hook can be a fact or an intriguing explanation of a process central to your topic. Then, in this paragraph:

  • Give your readers a brief overview of the events that are relevant to your essay;
  • Hint at your intent, explain your methods and make your point of view clear;
  • Make sure your readers are aware of what problems you will touch upon;
  • Create a working thesis statement that will be your guideline throughout your work.

Each paragraph you include should link back to your thesis statement. Always be sure to ask yourself when writing:

  • Does this further my argument?
  • Can my facts be used against me? How can I fix that?
  • Is there a different perspective on this issue?
  • Could I remove this without hurting the quality of my essay?
  • Is my structure reflective of the problem it is covering? What can I do better?

Remember that a good structure reflects the amount of effort you put into your work. Need a sample to get inspired? Head over to IvyPanda!

🏆 Best World War 1 Essay Topics & Examples

  • First World War: Causes and Effects This later led to the entry of countries allied to Serbia into the war so as to protect their partners. In conclusion, the First World War led to the loss of many lives.
  • American Dream After World War I People lost vision of what this dream was supposed to mean and it became a dream, not of the vestal and industrious, but of the corrupt coterie, hence corrupting the dream itself.
  • Positive and Negative Effects of WW1 on Canada: Essay Nonetheless, the war led to great negative impacts such as loss of lives, economic downtrend, and the generation of tensions involving the Francophones and Anglophones who disagreed after the emergence of the notion of conscription.
  • Effects of the Industrial Revolution in Relation to World War I During the last period of the 19th century all the way to the early 20th century, Europe and America experienced revolutions in communication, transportation and weapons which were very crucial particularly in the manner in […]
  • Total War of World War I The paper will demonstrate that the First World War was a total war since it bore most the hallmark characteristics of the total war including unlimited warfare, prioritization of armament efforts, involvement of the civilian […]
  • Causes of WWI and WWII: Comparing and Contrasting In the following paper, Kenneth Waltz’s levels of analysis will be used for the comparison and contrast of causes of WWI and WWII. The second similarity refers to the distribution of power and the division […]
  • The Causes and Effects of World War I To this end, the Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War and the Enforcement of Penalties met in Paris in 1919. It is impossible to name a single reason for the initiation […]
  • World War I Technology Although the question of the origins of the Great War is highly debated, and although this war is considered by many as the beginning of a new stage in history and the real starting point […]
  • Ernest Hemingway’s Personality and His Reflections on WWI The events of World War I and Hemmingway’s personal experiences seemed to have an impact on his writings as he sought to establish himself alongside great writers in the Lost Generation, thus portraying his sensitivity.
  • The Role of Canada in World War I The beginning of the war was marked by great losses in the field and in the economy of the state. By the war’s end, Canada had shown itself as a great power, which allowed the […]
  • Aboriginal Soldiers in the World War I and II Additionally, the paper will argue that the role and experiences of Aboriginal soldiers and the manner in which they have been overshadowed by other significant events in Australian history.
  • The Aftermath of World War I for Germany In spite of the fact that Germany was one of the most powerful European states before the war’s start in 1914, World War I led to the political, economic, and social decline in the country […]
  • World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) William Anthony Hay claims that according to McMeekin, a tutor of international relations, “The war’s real catalyst lay in Russia’s ambition to supplant the waning Ottoman Empire in the Near East and to control the […]
  • Trucial States’ History From World War I to the 1960s During the decline of the pearling industry, the British were highly vigilant to sustain the existing regional trend of alienation amongst leaders and the people.
  • Pozieres Battle in World War I on Western Front The battle for the village of Pozieres was one of the deadliest and most remarkable for the Australian troops which took part in the First World War.
  • Federal Government Expansion During World War I The period between 1914 and 1918 was marked by the increased role of the federal government in the United States and the dramatic expansion of its bureaucracies.
  • The Book “The First World War” by John Keegan However, the emergence of the bill of the right to people’s life across the globe is owed to the occurrence of the First and the Second World War.
  • Effects of World War I on the Development of Modern Art For the artists and most of the people in Europe, the time that preceded the World War I, the actual war period and the aftermath of the was presented a period of profound disillusionment 13.
  • Events Leading Up to WWI This move also contributed to the start of the conflict and eventually to the war. This decision was vehemently opposed by the Slavs, which saw Russia come to the aid of Serbia while on the […]
  • The Progressive Movement and the American Entry Into World War I The motivations of the progressive movement were complex and varied, but they all sought to improve the lives of the people of the United States.
  • World War I as the Catastrophe of the 20th Century There were increased cataclysms in Europe over time; for instance, the war laid a foundation for the rise of Hitler and increased the influence of the Nazism ideology.
  • World War I: American Policy of Neutrality Even though the people of America were shocked and firmly against involvement in the war, the US president thought of the crisis as a turning point that could significantly change America’s place in the world.
  • Economic Causes of World War I As of 1860, the American South was generating 75% of the world’s cotton due to the institution of slavery on the part of its wealthy farmers.
  • America’s Progressive Era and World War I This paper will outline the events leading to America’s entrance into the war, the obstacles faced by the U.S.military, and the role of American women and minorities.
  • The Entry of the United States Into World War I The United States is believed to have entered the war after sinking the American liner Lusitania by a German submarine in 1915. Due to the competent actions of President W.
  • Role the United States of America in the World War I The main result of the battle was the victory of the Entente and the collapse of the four largest empires: the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and German.
  • Impact of World War I on the American Army Some of the major strategies include the use of airplanes in the field of battle, employing armored vehicles, and electronic communication.
  • America’s Involvement in World War I The issues that led to America’s involvement in this were the German’s resumption of unexpected submarine attacks and the Zimmerman telegram.
  • The United States Priorities Following World War I Gentile, Linick, and Shurkin single out four important periods in the evolution of the US army: Constitutional moorings and the 19th century, the Spanish-American War to Total War, and the Korean War to Total Force […]
  • Biggest Influence on the US Involvement in World War I Although a combination of factors including trade alliances and the interception of the Zimmerman note encouraged the decision to join the fray, Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare was the biggest reason for the US involvement.
  • Nationalism in Europe Before WWI This movement was the result of effective propaganda and an aggressive policy aimed at the redistribution of territories and the seizure of power.
  • Factors Leading to the Termination of World War I However, the deliberate humiliation of the German leadership at the hand of the Allied forces perpetrated through the signing of the “war guilt clause” indicates that the reason for the Allied forces was not solely […]
  • World War I Causes by Ethnic Problems in Austro-Hungary The presence of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne in the said maneuvers was the perfect opportunity. After the capture of Gavrilo Princip it was time for the Austro-Hungarian Empire to react and teach the […]
  • America Changes After World War I Among the various changes underwent by America during their recovery period in the 1920s were changes in culture, economy as well as in the workforce.
  • America in World War I One of the events that led America into the First World War was when a liner belonging to the British was sunk by the U-boat belonging to Germans.
  • Treaty of Versailles History: The Pact of Peace After WWI The differences among the winners of the war, later on, led to the emergence of more conflicts simply because Germany was not fully weakened; it is believed that the conflicts between these nations were the […]
  • The Wars Between 1815 and WWI in Europe Tsar Nicholas moved into Moldavia and Wallachia and secret accords with the Austrian and British governments for the disposition of the Ottoman empire were formulated in 1844 in London.
  • Great Depression of Canada and Conscription During World War I in Canada Due to the depression in the United States, the people across the border were not able to buy the wheat produced and cultivated in Canada and as a result, the exports declined.
  • Anti-War Movement DADA Vs. Propaganda Posters of WWI In relation to the causes of the WWI, these can considered as pertinent specifically on the basis that the reasons can be related to the type of society that is present during the said era.
  • Leadership in the World War I Environment Military leadership is the process of influencing others to accomplish the mission by providing purpose, direction, and motivation and the basic responsibilities of a leader are the accomplishments of the mission and the welfare of […]
  • The Battle of Verdun: World War One The choice of Verdun as the center of interest by the Germans was not very effective because the French men lost faith in the fortresses and the need to defend them.
  • Imperialist Global Order After World War I Thus, the general trend of the after-war years was the dismantling of multiethnic empires and the establishment of new nation-states. However, World War I also created new challenges to the existing hierarchies of wealth and […]
  • Soccer Influence on Sociopolitical Aspects of WWI During this period, many footballers and athletes were tempted or encouraged to join the militaries of their respective countries and become part of the ongoing war.
  • Idealist Philosophy After World War I Although I disagree with the philosophy of idealism, it is a fact that it managed to create a better world following the events of World War I.
  • World War I and Battle of Vimy Ridge for Canadians If the authors of the required readings gathered for a discussion of the First World War and Vimy Ridge, they would be likely to agree and disagree with one another on some points.
  • Aftermath of the WWI The source concludes that the provisions of the treaty were unfavorable to the government and the people of Germany, something that forced the country’s leaders to respond with militarization of the state.
  • World War I and Its Aftermath In 1930, Hitler’s ambitions and the rise of Nazism was boosted by president’s declaration that the state was to be ruled autocratically.
  • American Experiences in World War I: Radio Broadcast There was a heated debate in the American society concerning the county’s involvement in the Great War, and President Wilson was heavily criticized not only for the fact of entering the war but also for […]
  • World War I and the 1920s In this case, American citizens went from industry workers and soldiers during the World War I to the explorers, who discover different forms of entertainment in the 1920s because of stabilization of the politics in […]
  • World War I, Its Origin and Allies Many researchers consider the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in June 1914 in Sarajevo to be the reason for the start of World War I.
  • The Progressive Era and World War I To achieve the intended goals, many progressives began by exposing the major evils and challenges that were affecting the United States towards the end of the 19th century.
  • World War I for Americans: Before and After It is important to say that lower classes had to deal with the biggest number of issues, and they have suffered the most.
  • France Before World War I and After World War II To overcome the negative consequences of the Franco-Prussian War, France needed to focus on new perspectives for the state’s economic and political development, and such an approach could provide the state with the necessary resources […]
  • Life of Soldiers During the World War I In this paper, we are going to discuss how the World War I affected live of people and what was the life of soldiers and civilians serving and living on the frontlines.
  • Native Americans Role in World War I Most of the students who went to schools away from the reserves came to the realization that they were, ‘first Americans and then indians second.’3 The schools also taught patriotic songs as well as observation […]
  • American History From Reconstruction to World War I However, despite the popular opinion of the individual initiative of the first settlers, the federal government played a great role in facilitating the settlement of the West.

🔎 Interesting Topics to Write about World War 1

  • America & World War I The three years have been used to argue that the US was unwilling to enter the war; that the US was neutral as Woodrow Wilson had declared.
  • From World War One to Globalization Even though the First World War shook Europe to the core, the combination of the first and the Second World War created a three world order, modeled along three rival political affiliations.
  • How the Federal Bureaucracy Expanded During WWI? The role of the bureaucracy was expansive during the war since the state was expected to provide many services to the citizens, something that led to the formulation of stronger rules and regulations to guide […]
  • The Expansion of Federal Bureaucracy During WWI With these, a number of government agencies were created during the WWI particularly when it emerged that there was a need to regulate or control industrial sector as well as the call for the US […]
  • Role of Civilian Population in World War I Not only did the war encouraged people to join their forces in order to fight the enemy, but also affected their perception of the state’s key political processes raising political engagement rates among population, WWI […]
  • Eastman Kodak Company and Fujifilm The Eastman Kodak Company has been focusing on photography and has currently added the use of technology in combining images and information in order to alter the ways through which businesses and people communicate.
  • WWI: Germany’s Secret Gambles The “interception of the German arms shipment by the Royal Navy” led to the quick suppression of the Eastern uprising and execution of key leaders of the Irish Republicans.
  • The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War The first theme is the connection of writings of women on the subject of the First World War and the modernism theoretical constructs.
  • Watching the World Fall Apart: A Post-WWI Vision of the World in the Works of Otto Dix, Max Beckmann and George Grosz While it is quite understandable that at the current stage of the development of humankind, some conflicts still have to be resolved with the use of coercive methods, war as a massive homicide still remains […]
  • First World War and Germany In particular, the author is more concerned with giving the effects of the war on the German people, unlike other authors who generalize the effects of the war.
  • Ernist Junger’s World War I Experiences When the Storm of Steel was published, it became a favorite in Germany since it adored the greatness of war and the huge sacrifices made by the Germany warriors to end the war victoriously.
  • World War I Technological Advancements World War I saw the application of several new technologies to the battlefield, the most important being that of the internal combustion engine, which permitted the development of the first successful mechanized armored fighting vehicles1.
  • The First World War and the Russian Revolution Scholars argue that Russia’s involvement in the First World War and the economic consequences are the primary causes of the revolution.
  • United States and World War I The paper further gives an in-depth analysis of how the Germans waged war against the European countries and the circumstances that forced the United States to abandon its neutrality to take part in the Great […]
  • WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction In as much as soldiers and civilians garnered experience during WWI, it is imperative to acknowledge that the unsuitable environment at the forefront led to deterioration of health standards; furthermore, civilians were forced to live […]
  • The Causes of the First World War In his description of the war, it is clear that Europe played a key role towards the formation of the war alliances.
  • The Role of Airplanes During World War I (1914-1918) The government further formed a consultative ‘Aircraft Production Board’ that was made up of members of the Army, Navy, as well as the sector to assess the Europeans’ fortunes in aircraft sector in a bid […]
  • The World War I The war brought to the fore various issues which had been in the air in the end of the nineteenth century and in the beginning of the twentieth century.
  • Importance of Accountability: World War I It is clear from the beginning of this article, that the statistics on the World War I causalities indicates that the Germans suffered fewer casualties compared to their western counterparts, who are the French and […]
  • America and Democracy, at Home and Abroad, During and Just After the First World War Democracy is a kind of regime in which all eligible citizens are allowed to contribute to the decisions of the state.
  • Causes and Consequences of World War 1 In social and economic cycles, the interaction of the whites and Blacks was controlled by the laws that neither of the groups was allowed to cross the other party’s path.
  • Changes in the Middle East After the World War I The involvement in the war by the countries from the Middle East not only led to loss of power but also spurred the economic decline and created social problems.

⭐ World War 1 Research Topics

  • Industrialization and Competition for Resources Which Led to the First World War
  • Factors That Made the First World War Unique
  • Identify and Evaluate Two Main Themes That Have Defined Management Thought Since the End of the First World War.
  • The Events and Results of the First World War I
  • Terrible Beauty: Music and Writing of the First World War
  • Liberal Democracy and Capitalism After World War 1
  • European Politics and the Impact of French Foreign Policy Before the First World War
  • Chemical Warfare During the First World War
  • The First World War and Russian Revolution
  • European Diplomacy and the First World War
  • With What Justification Can World War 1 Be Called a Total War
  • The Catalyst for the First World War
  • The Reasons for the Economic Prosperity in America After the First World War
  • Events Leading for the First World War
  • Imperialistic Rivalries and the Road to the First World War
  • Shaping the American Dream, Defining Success From the First World War to Present
  • Austro-Serbian Relations Provoked the First World War
  • America and the First World War
  • The Purpose and Intent of the League of Nations After the First World War
  • The First World War Impact on Australian Economy
  • The Long Term and Short Term Causes of World War 1

📃 Simple & Easy World War 1 Essay Titles

  • European Goods Market Integration in the Very Long Run: From the Black Death to the First World War
  • The Reasons for the American Support for the Involvement in the First World War
  • Military Technology During the First World War
  • German Foreign Policy and the Impact of Nationalism on It Before the First World War
  • The American Foreign Policy After the First World War
  • The Economic, Social, and Political Impact of the First World War on Eur
  • Technological Advancements During the First World War
  • The World Before the First World War According to Barbara Tuchman
  • The Effects That the First World War Had on Many People
  • The Effective Weapons Used in the First World War
  • Women’s Work During the First World War
  • Diplomatic Crises: The First World War and the Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The First World War Changed the Way People Thought About War and Patriotism
  • Gender Roles During the First World War
  • The Reasons for the Outbreak of the First World War
  • Australia’s Economic and Military Contribution in the First World War
  • The First World War: A New Era of Military Conflict
  • German Propaganda During the First World War
  • Analyzing Propaganda During World War 1
  • Britain During the First World War and the Social and Welfare Reforms

❓ World War 1 Essay Questions

  • How Important Was the Entry of the U.S. Into the First World War?
  • Was the First World War a Total War?
  • What Effect Did the First World War Have on Germany?
  • How Significant Was the First World War?
  • In What Ways Were People’s Lives at Home Affected by the First World War?
  • The Russian Revolution Us a Direct Result of the First World War
  • How Did Medical Care Change During the First World War?
  • How the First World War Created Modern America?
  • Was the First World War the Cause of the February Revolution in Russia?
  • Was the First World War Inevitable?
  • How Did the First World War Change the Role of Women?
  • How Industrialization Powered the First World War?
  • Why Did the First World War Last So Long?
  • How Far Was the First World War Responsible for the Growth of the Labour Party and the Decline of the Liberal Party?
  • Why Did the United States Entry Into World War 1?
  • How Did the United States Prepare to Fight for the First World War?
  • How Did the First World War Set the Global Stage for the Second World War?
  • Why Did World War 1 End So Quickly After the Years of Stalemate?
  • Why Did the First World War End When It Did?
  • How Did the First World War Affect Britain Society?
  • How Did Women Affected World War 1?
  • How Did Imperialism Cause World War 1?
  • How the First World War Impacted the Homefronts of Participating Nations?
  • Was the Alliance System the Main Cause of the First World War?
  • How Did the Middle East Change as a Result of World War 1?
  • Why Did the Ottomans Enter the First World War?
  • Why Did Germany Lose the First World War?
  • What Was the Most Important Cause of the First World War?
  • How Did the Allies Win World War 1?
  • Why Did Some Men Oppose Women’s Employment in the Industry During the First World War?
  • Iraq War Research Ideas
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Home — Essay Samples — Sociology — Connection — Unveiling the Causes and Consequences of World War I

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Unveiling The Causes and Consequences of World War I

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Published: Mar 1, 2019

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As Ukraine Expands Military Draft, Some Men Go Into Hiding

Fearful that conscription is a one-way ticket to bloody trench warfare, the men spend their days holed up at home to avoid draft officers who roam the streets.

  • Share full article

Military draft officials talking to men on a city sidewalk.

By Constant Méheut

Reporting from Kyiv and Lviv, Ukraine

First, Vladyslav stopped going into Kyiv’s city center to avoid draft officers checking papers. Then he stopped exercising at the gym because of patrols in his neighborhood. Now, he spends most of his days holed up in his apartment, often using his binoculars to watch officers serving draft notices to commuters leaving a nearby subway station.

“They’re everywhere now,” said Vladyslav, 45, who, like other Ukrainians in hiding interviewed for this article, requested that his last name not be published. “I’ll try to avoid getting caught,” he said, “but I’m not sure it’s possible.”

As Russian forces are on the attack across the front line, the Ukrainian military has been desperately trying to replenish its war-battered forces, embarking on a large-scale mobilization campaign backed by new laws.

While many Ukrainian men have answered the call to serve, some others have tried to evade conscription. Even before the latest mobilization push, thousands of men had fled the country to avoid service, some of them swimming across a river separating Ukraine from Romania . Now, as officers scour the country’s cities to draft men of military age, currently 25 to 60, many people like Vladyslav have gone into hiding, fearful that conscription is a one-way ticket to the front line.

It is not clear how many men are hiding out, but in big cities like Kyiv and Lviv, social media groups alerting members to the movements of draft officers include tens of thousands of members.

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Election latest: 'Extraordinary' Tory betting scandal grows - as Cleverly says 'no reason to believe' ministers involved

James Cleverly tells Sunday Morning With Trevor Phillips he has "no reason to believe" any cabinet ministers are involved in the growing Tory betting scandal after it emerged the party's data chief has taken a leave of absence over allegations.

Sunday 23 June 2024 10:57, UK

  • General Election 2024

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  • 'Extraordinary' Tory betting scandal grows as top official put on leave
  • Cleverly: 'No reason to believe' any ministers put bets on election date
  • Labour updates key election message over voter complacency fears
  • Live reporting by Ben Bloch   and (earlier)  Bhvishya Patel

Election essentials

  • Manifesto pledges: Alliance Party | Conservatives | Greens | Labour | Lib Dems | Plaid Cymru | Reform | SNP | Sinn Fein | Workers Party
  • Trackers:  Who's leading polls? | Is PM keeping promises?
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  • Follow Sky's politics podcasts: Electoral Dysfunction | Politics At Jack And Sam's
  • Read more:  Who is standing down? | Key seats to watch | What counts as voter ID? | Check if your constituency is changing | Guide to election lingo | Sky's election night plans

The home secretary was the first guest on this morning's edition of Sunday Morning With Trevor Phillips .

James Cleverly was questioned about the Rwanda policy and one of his aides calling it "crap", his alleged previous description of it as "batshit", the latest allegations in the betting scandal engulfing the Tory party, and the threat Reform UK poses to his party's electoral future.

Watch the interview in full here:

A flurry of general elections since 2015 has brought an unprecedented churn in our parliamentary representatives.

This year, two in five MPs aren't seeking re-election and the picture for the Conservatives is record-breakingly grim.

An unparalleled total of 23% of Conservative MPs are calling it a day in 2024, more than the previous high of 22% of Tories who quit in 1997, another year of boundary changes.

In contrast, only 15% of Labour MPs are resigning.

There are many reasons MPs quit: from retirement, family commitments and health concerns to career change, abolished constituencies, and the prospect of defeat.

But their decision to depart can reveal much about life in Westminster and have a significant impact on parliament's mix of experience, demographics, and the direction of political parties.

Dr Sofia Collignon, associate professor in Comparative Politics, analyses the churn in our representatives here:

Thank you for joining us on Sky News for the second-to-last edition of Sunday Morning With Trevor Phillips before polling day.

We heard from:

  • James Cleverly , home secretary;
  • Bridget Phillipson , shadow education secretary;
  • Sharon Graham , Unite general secretary;
  • Robert Jenrick , former immigration minister.

We also got the views of:

Lionel Barber , former editor of the Financial Times, Sonia Sodha , former Labour adviser, and Guto Harri , former Number 10 communications director.

Scroll down for full coverage of the programme.

Stay tuned here in the Politics Hub throughout the day for the very latest political news.

Lastly on Sunday Morning With Trevor Phillips , we are discussing that interview with Robert Jenrick, who made a strong pitch to convince Reform UK voters to back the Tories (see previous posts).

We look at a graphic showing the top 10 seats where Reform could come in second place, according to YouGov MRP polling for Sky News - although there are around 120 seats in total.

Guto Harri , former Number 10 communications director, agrees that this appears to be the disintegration of the centre-right of British politics, and says Mr Jenrick is "exactly right to warn that a vote for Reform is a vote for Labour".

"Nobody should place a bet in the current context, but I would bet that the Conservatives end up with more seats than Reform.

"And the only contribution of Reform, and before them the Brexit Party, and before them UKIP, has been to undermine the exact things that they want - they're the most destructive force, and frankly, they're a one-man band as well."

He says Reform is simply "a vehicle for Nigel Farage and his, as we found out this week, his deeply, deeply offensive view of the world and of Britain".

Lionel Barber , former editor of the Financial Times, says a prominent newspaper owner said to him that we are "witnessing the death of the Conservative Party".

He describes Mr Jenrick's plea to Reform voters as "desperate", but adds: "It's almost too late."

He does also caution that we are "talking about Conservative weakness rather than Reform strength" - it is a movement rather than a party, he argues.

Sonia Sodha , a former Labour adviser, is clear that the net effect of Reform is "to make it easier for Labour to win in Labour-Tory marginals".

But the more interesting element would be if Nigel Farage is elected to parliament where he could "cause quite significant trouble" for the Tories.

She says it's "early to say it's existential" for the Tories, noting that many were writing off the Labour Party after the 2019 election.

Trevor Phillips asks Robert Jenrick what he has to say on Boris Johnson and Liz Truss.

Asked if Mr Johnson should be back on the campaign trail, the former immigration minister says: "Yes, he should.

"Boris paid a heavy price for what happened in the past but he is one of the stars of the Conservative movement.

"He is a brilliant campaigner and a superb Conservative politician."

He says "the whole Conservative Party needs to unite" and "rally together".

Asked about the latest polling that has been done on why people might not vote for the Tories, Phillips points out "Rishi Sunak is only part of the reason" and so is Liz Truss.

He asks what the Conservative Party he is trying to promote to the public and Mr Jenrick replies: "It's no secret I've had disagreements with the current government.

"But I do believe we face a moment of peril now.

"The choice is between the Conservatives who we know will increase taxes and believe in open borders."

Trevor Phillips also points out that there is a mortality question at play with the Tories, which is why the Tory gambling scandal has become a big issue.

"What they appear to have done is quite wrong - it was absolutely right to say they should be booted out of the Conservative Party," Mr Jenrick adds.

The final guest on this morning's edition of Sunday Morning With Trevor Phillips is Robert Jenrick, Conservative candidate and former immigration minister.

Trevor puts to him that an article he has written in the Mail on Sunday reads less like an election article and more like a pitch to be the next Tory leader.

But Mr Jenrick rejects that, saying he is "here today because I care passionately about the Conservative Party and I want it to get the best possible result at the general election".

He goes on: "I share the values and concerns of Reform voters, but I'm here to deliver a warning to them that if they vote for anyone other than a Conservative at this general election, they risk, because of our electoral system, a supermajority of the Labour Party."

That will mean, he says, "higher taxes, open borders, a ludicrous energy policy that will make them poor, and it means ransacking our rural communities".

He says he does not want to see that happen, and calls on them to "think carefully and act on their head, not their heart, or else they will get precisely the opposite of what they want for our country".

Mr Jenrick says that if anyone votes for Reform, they will "usher in, I believe, not just a couple of years of harmful Labour government, but potentially a generation of hard-left Labour rule".

Sharon Graham says she does not agree with Labour's fiscal rules and the party should borrow more to invest.

The Unite general secretary says other countries with growing economies have a larger debt-to-GDP ratio than the UK, "so there is wiggle room".

Rachel Reeves, the shadow chancellor, has promised to retain the Tories' commitment that debt as a proportion of GDP must be on track to fall in five years if Labour win the election on 4 July.

She has ruled out borrowing to fund day-to-day spending, saying her focus will be on reforms to grow the economy.

"I don't agree with Rachel Reeves in terms of what has been said about the plans on growth," Ms Graham says.

"If you look at other countries - in France, their debt to GDP is 112%. In America, where the economy's growing, it's 130% debt to GDP. Ours is around about 99%. We have wiggle room. Give Britain a break."

The union leader says that workers "are literally hurting beyond anything that you could comprehend" due to the cost of living crisis.

She adds: "We need the straitjacket off a little bit, get some wiggle room there.

"Borrowing to invest is not the same as other borrowing. It's borrowing to invest."

Ms Graham goes on to say Labour has got "one shot".

"There is one shot for Labour to get this right. We've seen the polls and how volatile the polls are," she adds.

Trevor Phillips asks the Unite boss about Labour's pledge to create 100,000 green jobs in the oil and gas industries, but not agree to any new exploration in the North Sea.

"What we need to see in terms of oil and gas is that we need to see a proper plan with investment behind it," Ms Graham says.

"There's no point saying we're going to create jobs, but you're not going to show where the money is to create those jobs."

Asked if she has seen the plans, Ms Graham says she has "seen the words on the page".

She says: "You cannot just magic up jobs - it doesn't work like that. You need an infrastructure, you need supply chains, you need training. You need all of those things to happen."

Unite union boss Sharon Graham is Trevor's next guest - and he asks her if she wants Labour to win the election with a big majority after she said she does not agree with Labour's fiscal rules.

"Yes absolutely," Ms Graham says. "Of course I want Labour to win the election with a big majority. I am a Labour Party member, but I'm also a trade union leader. And my first job is to defend workers."

She says she has to "come out very strongly" because she is defending workers on two core things: fire and rehire, and also on the oil and gas industry.

Ms Graham says she is asking her members to vote Labour and she will be voting for the party too.

"But that does not mean that you have to agree to every single thing," she adds.

"It does mean that you say, look, actually you're wrong in this situation and I think you need to do something slightly different."

Asked about Labour's manifesto, which Ms Graham has refused to endorse, she says "there were good things in the manifesto about steel, about industrial policy, the workers rights piece". 

But she points out that "fire and rehire is not an outright ban" and while everybody wants to move to net zero "you cannot allow oil and gas workers to become the coal miners of this generation".

"And because of that, I could not endorse the manifesto," she says.

Trevor turns to his panel for a debrief on his interview with Labour's Bridget Phillipson.

Sonia Sodha , a former party adviser, says: "One of the things that people have found slightly frustrating about the Labour campaign - it's very intentional - is that they aren't quite levelling with us about some of the tough trade-offs that the country faces when it comes to fiscal challenges."

She says she agrees with Ms Phillipson that it's very hard for governments to take on more debt when interest rates are high.

But that leaves "tough choices", and "Labour are sort of trying to have their cake and eat it a little bit" by making the case for both incrementalism and radicalism.

Lionel Barber , former editor of the Financial Times, says he has sympathy for Sir Keir Starmer, who is trying to win an election after the 2019 wipe out and having been out of power since 2010.

He predicts that there will be an interest rate cut in August from the Bank of England, which will reduce borrowing costs.

After that, they will arrive into government, say it's far worse than they thought, and then "change the fiscal rules".

Guto Harri , former Number 10 communications director, says: "The appetite for self-harm of the parliamentary Conservative Party is the reason why the polls are where they're at.

"It's not because of a genuine change of policy - it's the exact opposite. It's continuity."

He says Jeremy Hunt has reduced inflation, which Rachel Reeves will inherit. She is continuing Tory low-tax policy, and he quips: "No wonder people on the left are frustrated."

Labour will be "the Tories without [...] all this scandal and chaos".

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world war 1 caused essay

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  1. World War I

    World War I was one of the great watersheds of 20th-century geopolitical history. It led to the fall of four great imperial dynasties (in Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey), resulted in the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and, in its destabilization of European society, laid the groundwork for World War II.. The last surviving veterans of World War I were American serviceman Frank ...

  2. World War I

    Effects. As many as 8.5 million soldiers and some 13 million civilians died during World War I. Four imperial dynasties collapsed as a result of the war: the Habsburgs of Austria-Hungary, the Hohenzollerns of Germany, the sultanate of the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanovs of Russia. The mass movement of soldiers and refugees helped spread one of ...

  3. World War I: Summary, Causes & Facts

    World War I began in 1914, after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and lasted until 1918. During the conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central ...

  4. The Causes and Effects of World War I

    Causes. The start of World War I was precipitated by the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, on June 28, 1914 (Mulligan, 2010) The elimination of the high-standing official was carried out by the group of secret society members called Black Hand and directed by Bosnian Serb Danilo Ilić (Storey ...

  5. Causes of World War I

    In 1900, the British had a 3.7:1 tonnage advantage over Germany; in 1910, the ratio was 2.3:1 and in 1914, it reached 2.1:1. Ferguson argues: "So decisive was the British victory in the naval arms race that it is hard to regard it as in any meaningful sense a cause of the First World War."

  6. READ: What Caused the First World War

    Killing the archduke then was like killing the crown prince of Britain right now. Also, the assassination was not the only reason for war. the naval arms race and the scramble for africa are also reasons for the world war. basically, everybody wanted war. the killing of the archduke is what instigated it, thats all.

  7. First World War: Causes and Effects

    First World War outlined the beginning of the modern era; it had an immense impact on the economic and political status of many countries. European countries crippled their economies while struggling to manufacture superior weapons. The Old Russian Empire replaced by a socialist system led to loss of millions of people.

  8. Main Causes of World War 1: Discussion

    The essay explores the causes of World War 1, which took place from 1914 to 1918. It begins with a brief overview of the war's timeline and the major countries involved, including the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Japan, the United States of America, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. ...

  9. Top 5 Causes of World War I

    World War I, known as the "war to end all wars," occurred between July 1914 and November 11, 1918. By the end of the war, over 17 million people had been killed, including over 100,000 American troops. The causes of the war are infinitely more complicated than a simple timeline of events, and they are still debated and discussed to this day.

  10. READ: What Caused the First World War?

    The First World War lasted more than four years and killed between 15 and 19 million people around the planet. Each death was a human being, whether a soldier in the fight or a civilian caught up in the chaos of this violent global conflict. The war also devastated the global economy and contributed to massive disease outbreaks that killed ...

  11. World War I

    World War I or the First World War (28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918) was a global conflict between two coalitions: the Allies (or Entente) and the Central Powers. Fighting took place mainly in Europe and the Middle East , as well as parts of Africa and the Asia-Pacific , and was characterised by trench warfare and the use of artillery ...

  12. Causes of World War One

    The Anglo-German Naval Race before World War One is an example of militarism. At the time, Britain had the world's strongest navy. The ruler of Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm, wanted to build a navy ...

  13. PDF The First World War: Causes, Consequences, and Controversies

    ar and its causes, consequences, social and cultural impact, and continuing legacy. A se. ond is to use the First World War as a vehicle to better understand war in general. The Great War was unique in many respects, but it is still useful as an exemplar to understand broader phenomena, including the causes of war, globalization, the.

  14. PDF The Causes of World War I

    In fact according to Fischer, the German leadership felt it needed a war to maintain Germany's status as a great power.2 World War I happened because Germany needed it, and her statesmen and generals forced it to explode, out of fears of a rising Russia and a scheming France.3 In contrast to this Germany centric view, A. J. P. Taylor, in his ...

  15. Historical Context: The Global Effect of World War I

    The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also be traced, at least indirectly, to the First World War. World War I killed more people--more than 9 million soldiers, sailors, and flyers and another 5 million civilians--involved more countries--28--and cost more money--$186 billion in direct costs and ...

  16. World War 1 Essay

    10 Lines on World War 1 Essay in English. 1. The First World War was instigated in 1914 by Serbia. 2. The cause of the war was a competition between countries to acquire weapons and build military powers. 3. In 1914, Serbia aroused anger by assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir of Austria-Hungary throne. 4.

  17. 165 World War 1 Topics for Essays with Examples

    Political and military alliances before the WWI. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand as the starting point of WW1. Naval warfare of World War I. Ottoman Empire in World War 1. The role of technology in World War 1. The use of chemical weapons in WWI. The most cruel war crimes of WW1.

  18. PDF CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I

    CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I World War I occurred between July 1914 and November 11, 1918. By the end of the war, over 17 million people would be killed including over 100,000 American troops. The reason why war erupted is actually much more complicated than a simple list of causes. While there was a chain of events that directly led to the fighting ...

  19. Unveiling The Causes and Consequences of World War I

    Unveiling The Causes and Consequences of World War I. A war erupted between countries from 1914 to 1918 which is known as World War 1 which was between major powers of Europe. During the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th-century countries were in nonstop conflict. Tensions between the major powers and Germany were quickly advancing and ...

  20. Main Causes Of World War I History Essay

    Militarism was one of the main causes of the First World War. Increase in military control of the civilian government after 1907, there was an increase in military influence on policy making. This could be reflected particularly in Germany and Russia. The German Army at this period was called a "State within the State".

  21. Cause and Effect on World War 1 Essay

    The effects on World War One included over 8 million deaths, higher taxes, rationing of food, and etc. Imperialist is considered a primary cause of war. With Europe 's growing economy and wealth, rivalries and competition for colonies among European nations were more …show more content…. All of these factors where established in many of ...

  22. Mitch McConnell's Claim That the U.S. is Facing the 'Most ...

    In the essay, McConnell lays out the landscape for America entering the Second World War. He writes that American servicemen joined the battle against the Axis powers "not as a first instinct, but ...

  23. Ukraine Military Draft Causes Some Men to Hide

    By contrast, Britain trained infantry soldiers for about 22 weeks during World War II, he said. Image Andrii, a 28-year-old web designer from Lviv, described himself as "a bit paranoid."

  24. Election latest: Tom Tugendhat says Nigel Farage sounds like 'Putin's

    Labour are warning voters against complacency at the polls on 4 July as the party says "change will only happen if you vote for it". In an article for The Observer, Labour campaign coordinator Pat ...