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essay on the youth intervention for a new dawn

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Literature review: emerging youth intervention practices.

By Erika Rogers

Homelessness Policy Research Institute

Identifying proven and effective intervention strategies to mitigate the growing number of unhoused youth is a still-growing body of research. Because the unhoused youth population is incredibly heterogeneous, research has yet to understand how various interventions impact minority groups, like Black and Latinx youth, former foster youth, and LGBTQ+ youth. Scholars from across the world have been conducting studies, analyzing experimental results, and presenting findings to pinpoint successful and unsuccessful interventions that prevent the onset of youth homelessness or contribute to the transition into stable housing.

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School–family–community partnerships and community schools.

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Ensuring Healthy Youth Development through Community Schools: A Case Study

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Dawn Anderson-Butcher, Lauren Paluta, Karen Sterling, Carol Anderson, Ensuring Healthy Youth Development through Community Schools: A Case Study, Children & Schools , Volume 40, Issue 1, January 2018, Pages 7–16, https://doi.org/10.1093/cs/cdx026

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Using mixed methods, this case study explored outcomes associated with the adoption and implementation of a community schools approach in four Title I schools using the Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement. Trends in school data demonstrate academic achievement improvements in three of the four schools. Absenteeism and the number of office discipline referrals dropped from pre- to two years postimplementation. Teacher and staff perceptions of school climate and the learning support system were more favorable two years postimplementation. Interview and focus group data involving 10 stakeholders highlight facilitators and barriers, and demonstrate contextual factors supporting or hindering implementation efforts. Findings showcase the promise of community schools and other partnership approaches for ensuring healthy youth development and learning, especially for students in high-impact schools.

Each year in the United States, nearly 400,000 students drop out of public high schools ( Stark & Noel, 2015 ). Among high school graduates, approximately one-third complete no postsecondary education or training ( Ruppert, 2003 ). Of those who do, many are unprepared. Forty percent of four-year and 63 percent of two-year college students require some type of remediation ( Callan, Finney, Kirst, Usdan, & Venezia, 2005 ). Contributing to these alarming trends is a host of complex, interwoven issues both within and external to schools. Young people, especially those living in poverty, often bring with them to school multiple barriers impeding their learning and development. To address these needs, schools need new strategies to ensure that all students fluidly matriculate and successfully transition to adulthood.

In light of these trends, the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare Grand Challenges for Social Work prioritize the healthy development of all youths through prevention ( Hawkins et al., 2015 ). Preventing school dropout is a central priority within this grand challenge, along with other emphases such as increasing access to behavioral health care and promoting collaboration ( Hawkins et al., 2015 ). Schools can and should lead efforts toward the vision laid out by the grand challenges for several reasons. First, youths spend the majority of their time in schools, and schools provide unmatched access to health and social services ( Anderson-Butcher, Mellin, Iachini, & Ball, 2014 ; Flaherty, Weist, & Warner, 1997 ). In addition, students form important relationships with teachers, coaches, intervention assistants, and other school staff, and these adults serve as caring role models and key referral agents ( Anderson-Butcher et al., 2014 ). Last, school administrators, school social workers, and other stakeholders often facilitate partnerships with outside agencies to promote student outcomes. Schools can maximize these linkages to further connect students and families to community resources and supports. In short, school–family–community partnership models that respond to the complex, diverse needs of students and families have the potential to help ensure healthy development for all youths and address dropout ( Anderson-Butcher, 2004 ; Blank, Melaville, & Shah, 2003 ; Dryfoos, Quinn, & Barkin, 2005 ). To advance research in this area, this study examined outcomes associated with the implementation of community schools in four elementary schools over a two-year period.

A variety of partnership models exist to support schools in expanding improvement priorities beyond just academic learning, such as the coordinated school health model ( Hurwitz & Weston, 2010 ), the “whole school, whole community, whole child” approach ( Lewallen, Hunt, Potts-Datema, Zaza, & Giles, 2015 ), and comprehensive systems of learning supports frameworks ( Adelman & Taylor, 2002 ). Schools using these models develop collaborative partnerships with community-based organizations, parents and families, the private sector, government, and others. By doing so, school communities secure resources to enhance services during the school day and extend opportunities for learning and development through out-of-school time programming ( Anderson-Butcher et al., 2008 ). Outcomes from partnership approaches include improved academic outcomes, enhanced student perceptions of school climate, and improved system-level capacities such as improved linkage and referral processes ( Anderson-Butcher, Iachini, Ball, Barker, & Martin, 2016 ; Anderson-Butcher, Lawson, Iachini, Bean, et al., 2010 ; Anderson-Butcher, Lawson, Iachini, Flaspohler, et al., 2010 ; Lawson, 2013 ; Leone & Bartolotta, 2010 ).

Community schools, one specific partnership model, originated from the pioneering work of Jane Addams and John Dewey in Chicago during the early 20th century. Community schools integrate the settlement house idea with expanded visions of the neighborhood school, exploring how schools can be hubs of child development, family support, and neighborhood cohesion. The best models combine school-based and -linked services, and strive to maximize family, school, and community resources. Evidence is growing in relation to the role of community schools in promoting positive school and student outcomes ( Blank et al., 2003 ; Moore & Emig, 2014 ). Most of these studies, however, are descriptive in nature, and few explore impacts over time. In addition, little research examines behavioral outcomes, such as attendance and discipline, or the value of these approaches for varying stakeholders.

This mixed-methods case study explores outcomes associated with the implementation of a community schools framework using the Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement (CCMSI) process ( Anderson-Butcher et al., 2008 ). This study explores school-level outcomes, including academic and behavioral indicators, from baseline to two years postimplementation. Changes in teacher and staff perceptions of factors central to learning and climate are explored. Last, stakeholder- perceived facilitators and barriers affecting implementation efforts are distilled. Findings can inform school social work practice as the field addresses grand challenges focused on promoting healthy youth development and preventing school dropout and other problem behaviors.

School Demographic Data in 2013–2014

Sources: Canyons School District. (2014) . Academic and behavioral data records . Sandy, UT: Author. Utah State Office of Education. (2014) . School report card data . Salt Lake City: Author.

At the time, the four schools of interest here were involved in districtwide improvement efforts aligned to NCLB accountabilities. More specifically, the four schools and overall district were adopting curriculum-based measures in reading and math, reading comprehension assessments, and common formative assessments to monitor learning and progress. In addition, positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) were being implemented districtwide, and schools were focused on creating common expectations and norms, implementing behavioral interventions, and rewarding students for good behavior. Professional development experiences for teachers and staff also were underway, especially ones to improve the quality of instruction in classrooms. To broaden and deepen these traditional school improvement efforts, as well as address other conditions affecting learning, each school followed the CCMSI model, as depicted in Figure 1 ( Anderson-Butcher, Lawson, Iachini, Bean, et al., 2010 ).

Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement Source: Anderson-Butcher, D., Lawson, H. A., Bean, J., Flaspohler, P., Boone, B., & Kwiatkowski, A. (2008). Community collaboration to improve schools: Introducing a new model from Ohio. Children & Schools, 30, 161–172.

Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement Source: Anderson-Butcher, D., Lawson, H. A., Bean, J., Flaspohler, P., Boone, B., & Kwiatkowski, A. (2008). Community collaboration to improve schools: Introducing a new model from Ohio. Children & Schools, 30 , 161–172.

Efforts followed CCMSI implementation milestones. Specifically, one of the first steps involved expanding the school improvement team membership and adding parents and caregivers, local after-school program providers, nonprofit leaders, and other stakeholders to the “planning table.” This expanded school improvement team led the school community in a comprehensive needs assessment, resource mapping, and gap analysis process. During the initial stages, various stakeholders were surveyed to assess their perceptions of the school climate, school engagement, student nonacademic barriers to learning, parent and community involvement, and other school experience factors. Several needs were identified. For instance, students were experiencing multiple stressors. Specifically, survey data found that 47.6 percent of students reported having trouble sleeping in the week prior to the survey administration, and 32.3 percent felt worried. One in four youths reported no involvement in out-of-school-time positive youth development experiences. Survey data also suggested that parents and caregivers were dealing with stressors such as unemployment, underemployment, and challenges with meeting basic needs. Likewise, only 43.4 percent of parents and caregivers reported that the schools “help families get the services we need in the community.” Other challenges were noted, such as significant internalizing symptomology among students.

Next, school leaders, in partnership with parents and caregivers, community partners, and other stakeholders, began mapping school- and community-based resources across the five CCMSI pathways. Gaps in programs and services were noted, especially as top priority needs were identified based on the academic, behavioral, and stakeholder survey data. In the end, expanded school improvement plans resulted and included academic priorities (for example, targeting after-school tutoring), as well as ones focused on youth development and school climate (for example, opening Boys & Girls Clubs on site), parent/family engagement and support (for example, housing Family Literacy Centers), health and social services (for example, adding social work interns), and community partnerships (for example, partnering with the local United Way and faith-based organizations).

In response to the needs assessment, resource mapping, and gap analyses, new or expanded evidence-based strategies were implemented according to the PBIS framework, an approach also embedded in the grand challenge focus area on enhancing youth development ( Hawkins et al., 2015 ). Tier 1 universal strategies for all students focus on improving schoolwide climate, managing classroom behaviors, and providing quality instruction (for example, PlayWorks! recess interventions). Tier 2 early identification and intervention strategies target at-risk and gifted and talented students (for example, social skills groups, after-school tutoring). Tier 3 indicated interventions focused on students and families with highly individualized needs (for example, school-based mental health services). Priority was given to the development and enhancement of services both during the school day and during out-of-school time.

In addition to these intervention priorities, system-level innovations were created as the building leadership teams focused on improving infrastructure, another key step in the CCMSI adoption process. New community school coordinators (individuals prepared as school social workers) led partnership development and facilitated overall efforts. School social work interns were added to provide individual and group skill building and case management. School psychologists began doing more indirect practice as they consulted with teachers. Infrastructure was improved, through key activities such as the enhancement of the student learning support system. More specifically, teachers were provided professional development in relation to the early identification of academic challenges and other barriers to learning. Referral procedures were created and included the assignment of a specific person in the building to be the single-point-of-contact person for all referrals. In addition, service coordination wraparound teams, called Care Teams, were created at each school to case individual students in need of additional learning supports to address academic, social, emotional, physical health, and other basic needs. Data on students identified for services were monitored regularly to assess progress through a response-to-intervention process. Teachers and staff also received professional development and consultation to infuse PBIS strategies in their classrooms, support students having experienced trauma, and use data to provide differentiated instruction.

Procedures and Measures

Mixed methods included records reviews, survey data collection with teachers and staff, and interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders. Procedures were approved by the institutional review boards at a large midwestern university and the school district.

Records Review

School and program records from 2012 to 2014, along with associated secondary data, were collected from the district and partnering agencies. Each school’s state report card was reviewed. Two school performance metrics were of interest: achievement and growth points. The state’s standardized testing procedures changed during the course of this study, so scores could not be compared across time. Instead, the overall letter grades served as the main indicator of academic performance. Attendance and office discipline referrals (ODRs) data were examined in aggregate counts for each school year. Because the schools stopped serving sixth grade in 2013–2014, analyses included only kindergarten through fifth grade. Please note that variation in enrollment was not substantial enough to influence overall trends, so unstandardized absenteeism and ODR counts are reported. Last, participation records were collected to describe rates of service utilization.

Teacher Perception Surveys

Teacher Perception Data in 2012 and 2014

a Mean scores calculated for respondents completing all scale items; sample sizes for 2012 ranged from 169 (Basic Needs) to 210 (School Climate).

b Sample sizes for 2014 ranged from 225 (Basic Needs) to 285 (School Climate).

C All negatively worded items were reverse coded for purpose of mean score calculations.

d Difference between 2012 and 2014 was statistically significant ( p = .001).

Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups

Key informant interviews were conducted in person with the four school principals. A focus group was conducted with six stakeholders identified by district leadership as critical informants, including a school-based mental health provider, two district administrators, an after-school program coordinator, a university partner, and a community school coordinator. All participants provided consent for participation. Interviews and the focus group took place in meeting rooms in the schools approximately 18 months into the community school implementation. A semistructured format was used. Example interview and focus group questions included the following: “What barriers have you encountered?” and “How has implementation of the community schools affected your school or organization as a whole?” The interviewer used probing questions to elicit further detail. Each interview or focus group lasted approximately 60 minutes and was transcribed. Transcripts were reviewed for overall themes using inductive techniques ( Patton, 1990 ). Throughout the coding process, a peer reviewer was consulted, to discuss emergent themes and enhance validity. As recommended by Barker and Pistrang (2005) , two key leaders also validated emergent themes through a member checking process.

After implementing initial CCMSI steps, the four schools prioritized new or enhanced programs and strategies across the five CCMSI pathways in 2012–2013. Participation numbers served as initial indicators of impact. During each implementation year, an additional 260 youths received after-school tutoring and another 100 youths were served in prekindergarten classrooms. New programs were added and served large numbers of students. For instance, an average of 818 youths participated in the after-school program, 150 students received Care Team wraparound supports, and 175 youths received school-based mental health services.

School-Level Outcomes Associated with Adoption and Implementation

A number of data sources were examined to assess school-level outcomes, including secondary data collected from various state and local sources, as well as teacher and staff perceptual survey data.

Secondary Academic and Behavioral Data

Three Years of Report Card Data across Four Schools

Source: Utah State Office of Education. (2014) . School report card data . Salt Lake City: Author.

a In the 2013–2014 school year, Utah adopted a new standardized test that contributed to drops in achievement scores not only in these four schools, but statewide.

b The maximum achievement/proficiency score and growth score are both 300, for a maximum total score of 600.

Behavioral Indicators across Three School Years

Behavioral Indicators across Three School Years

Teacher and Staff Perceptions

Teacher and staff perceptions on all scales were more favorable in 2014 than 2012 (see Table 2 ). In particular, the differences in perceived learning supports and school climate were statistically significant ( p = .001). Examination of individual scale items revealed specific areas of growth. For instance, 76.3 percent of teachers and staff at baseline, compared with 93.9 percent at two years postadoption, reported there was “a system in place where teachers/staff can refer students and families who are in need of additional learning supports.” Likewise, 77.0 percent of teachers and staff at baseline versus 86.1 percent at post reported, “Students in need of extra learning supports in my school are able to get them”; 79.2 percent at baseline compared with 88.9 percent in 2014 reported, “Teachers and staff work closely with school counselors, social workers, and other support staff in my school.”

Factors Affecting Adoption and Implementation


Stakeholders mentioned the importance of infrastructure, including the value of a strong, clearly defined organizational structure. They highlighted the need for regular partnership meetings to review progress, examine challenges, explore emergent needs, and brainstorm solutions. School-level teaming structures also were identified as essential, especially the Care Team wraparound structures that allowed for team problem solving related to individual student needs. Key programs and partners were noted, particularly ones involving academic interventions, school-based mental health services, and parent–family educational programs. Several stakeholders also mentioned the value of data, including the importance of the CAYCI SES data for focusing on priorities during the needs assessment, resource mapping, and gap analysis process. In addition, participants mentioned how data were important for fostering a sense of shared ownership among partners. Key institutional leaders and staff at both the district and schools were viewed as important. In fact, stakeholders pointed out that the schools with the more experienced principals were also the ones with the strongest organizational structure. The role of the community school coordinators was mentioned by several participants, as they said that individuals in these roles “stayed positive,” were “persistent,” and were extremely “patient.” Flexibility also was important to the community school design. As one stakeholder stated, there was “flexibility in the ways we can do the community school; the way we can schedule programs and design things to meet the needs of the students in our schools; as well as to fit what resources and opportunities we are dealing with into the programs.” Professional development and consultation were mentioned as important for building the knowledge and skills of individuals as they explored “new ways of doing things.” Professional development opportunities related to PBIS implementation and trauma-informed classrooms were identified as especially important, and schools where teachers implemented these evidence-based strategies with fidelity tended to have more significant reductions in ODRs. Last, stakeholders identified policy facilitators. Federal accountabilities and state-level testing frameworks showcased how the schools were underperforming, putting pressure on the district to adopt the community schools model. In addition, existing state-level initiatives and priorities (such as PBIS) made it easier to promote the adoption of new innovations.

Facilitators and Barriers

Several themes emerged as both facilitators and barriers. Challenges were noted in relation to garnering buy-in for the community schools work, especially among classroom teachers and principals. Efforts moved more smoothly once stakeholders “got on board,” and stakeholders reported on how the CCMSI milestones and logic model (that is, Figure 1 ) helped build knowledge and gain commitments. In addition, buy-in seemed to be an important facilitator in relation to strengthening the learning support system. In fact, CAYCI SES data significantly improved over the course of implementation, most likely due to the buy-in teachers and staff had in relation to the need for improving the identification and referral system. Pacing (or lack thereof) also was noted as both a facilitator and barrier. Stakeholders perceived that “we grew so fast” and there was not always time to “reflect” and “process” what was happening in “real time.” Stakeholders, especially ones representing the more high-impact schools (that is, schools 1 and 3), described how adding new programs and staff simultaneously and quickly (for instance, during the first year of adoption) caused additional stressors. Yet the fast growth and addition of various new strategies made it easy for stakeholders to see success and want more. One example is noteworthy. After-school programs were implemented in 2012 and initially served an average 120 students in each site. There was a rush to serve as many students as possible, but the adoption of such a large program the first year was challenging. Stakeholders suggested that retrospectively, the programs should have started small, “got their feet wet,” and then expanded to serve more youths. Significant needs among youths and families facilitated a sense of urgency to improve conditions but also were a challenge because stakeholders felt overwhelmed. This was especially the case in school 3, the building with the most at-risk student population. High needs among students in this school created a sense of urgency related to the adoption of new programs, but the addition of more programs and interventions added multiple new stressors to the system. Finally, funding was a key facilitator, as diverse funding streams were used to support implementation efforts. The lack of dollars, however, often limited progress.

Interview and focus group respondents mentioned how some teachers and staff, district leaders, and local partners “lacked awareness” of the significant needs among students and in the community. They reported how some individuals did not know the extent to which families were struggling, and in turn had less value placed among adopting interventions to address nonacademic barriers. This seemed to especially pertain to schools 1 and 3, where there were the most needs. In addition, participants shared how they sometimes had differing expectations for what a community school should be and how much time and resources they thought were needed to implement expanded strategies. Stakeholders mentioned ways in which turf hindered implementation. Whether among internal school partners or between school and community leaders, tensions arose when negotiating how to make decisions regarding what was perceived as “my school,” my program, or my student. Challenges were especially evident in regard to the relationships among school employees and after-school program staff, and in schools with the largest after-school programs. One major challenge involved who “owned” the space. Teachers were frustrated by the after-school program using “my class” to run its program. Teachers and after-school program staff had different philosophies in relation to the primary focus of the program (that is, academic only versus whole-child focus) and the degree of structure desired. Additional turf issues and tensions resulted in ongoing conflicts and involved issues related to funding, staffing, performance expectations, communication, poor implementation efforts, and interpersonal relationships. Finally, stakeholders reported that many people working in the community school experienced burnout and struggled with whether they could indeed make an impact. Turnover among district and school leaders, teachers and staff, and students also was seen as a barrier. This theme was noted primarily in relation to schools 1 and 3, where there were higher percentages of students who were English language learners and living in poverty.

This mixed methods study provides support for the adoption and implementation of a community schools model. Initial indicators of the impact were discernible in the four Title I schools two years postadoption. Foremost, large numbers of youths and families were served through the partnership agenda, particularly in the after-school programs and school-based mental health services. School-level outcomes improved over the two-year period. Specifically, school report card scores improved in three of the four schools (and the one school not improving had the most favorable school report card at baseline and had less room to grow in relation to improvements). Behavioral data improved in all four schools, as both absenteeism and ODRs decreased from baseline to two years postimplementation. Schools with the least amount of improvement were the ones most high impact (schools 1 and 3), as there were high levels of needs among students and families, as well as additional barriers related to mobility and family stability. Marked improvements were noted in teacher and staff perceptions, especially in relation to school-level constructs related to the learning support system and school climate. Improvements in these areas may be attributed to the strong focus initially placed on adopting PBIS-related universal strategies and improving tier 2 supports through targeted after-school tutoring program, social skills groups, and Care Team wraparound supports.

As the four Title I schools moved through the CCMSI milestones, new ways of “doing business” were developed. New systems, policies, and partnerships facilitated adoption and implementation, and people working in and with the schools took on new or expanded roles and responsibilities. Schools with solid organizational structures, strong principal and community school coordinators, and effective Care Teams seemed to have the most progress. Academic data, however, revealed that more work is needed, as student academic performance in all schools was still well below benchmarks and state averages. The barriers noted here, as well as other challenges within high-impact schools, must be addressed to promote further progress and turnaround. Data comparisons across the schools further demonstrate this issue. The two schools with the most challenging student populations (schools 1 and 3) had less amplified behavioral improvements over time than the other two schools in the case study. Stakeholders also accentuated more barriers to adoption in these settings. School reforms are more difficult given the complexities of these settings.

Findings should be considered in light of the study’s limitations. The adoption and implementation of the community schools agenda took place in real time and real place, instead of in a controlled environment. Although ecological validity was promoted, the design limited generalizability and implications related to causal effect. Likewise, many innovations occurred during the two-year implementation period, making it difficult to determine which strategies made the most difference. Future research should explore the adoption of the CCMSI using more rigorous research designs, and continue to explore variabilities in implementation efforts based on local school and community contexts. Also, only perceptions of teachers and staff were explored, and these data were collected in the aggregate (so the degree to which individual changes occurred is unknown). Additional studies exploring different stakeholder perspectives are needed. In the end, the challenges of applied research in complex schools are evident and point to the need for a cautious interpretation. That said, it is important to remember that moving school-level academic indicators takes time, up to five to 10 years in some cases ( Fullan, 2001 ).

Implications for School Social Work Practice

Taken together, lessons learned from this case study can inform other efforts to ensure the healthy development of all youths through school–family–community partnership models such as community schools. Learning support system elements discussed here—such as new roles (for example, community schools coordinators), expanded planning processes, new data usages, redefined roles, and new teaming structures (for example, Care Teams and building leadership teams)—may be adopted elsewhere to facilitate implementation efforts. In addition, the case for the role of schools as hubs of partnership development is evident, especially in relation to promoting school climate and improving academic and behavioral outcomes (ones known to influence graduation and dropout). One key implication centers on the need for social workers who can take on new roles to facilitate school–family–community partnerships to support the overall grant challenges agenda. In these schools, the community school coordinators used indirect practice skills to build partnerships, facilitate relationships, coordinate services, oversee the learning support system, and design and implement programs and maximize resources. In addition, community mental health workers (most of whom were licensed clinical social workers) colocated their services to the school. These school-based mental health providers were more than outsiders in host agencies; they were integral parts of the Care Teams and consulted regularly with school personnel. These new and expanded roles of social workers working in schools are central to assisting schools in promoting learning and healthy youth development, especially among students who are falling behind or have nonacademic barriers to learning. Given these evolving roles and responsibilities, preservice training programs and professional development opportunities are needed to ensure that school social workers possess the core competencies required to do this complex work. Competencies such as leading and working in teams, building trust, and facilitating collaborations are critical for success ( Ball, Anderson-Butcher, Mellin, & Green, 2010 ; Mellin, Anderson-Butcher, & Bronstein, 2011 ).

A community schools approach, especially one guided by CCMSI, provides a framework for integrating nonacademic strategies into traditional school improvement efforts. Schools can become community hubs and help to maximize school, family, and community resources to support academic learning, healthy development, and overall school success. This work is critical in light of the complexity of factors affecting youths and contributing to high dropout rates, and has implications for how social work as a discipline mobilizes to promote the healthy development of all youths as part of the grand challenges agenda. As social workers rise to meet the needs of today’s youths, community schools and other school–family–community partnership models should be considered a promising strategy.

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Moore , K. A. , & Emig , C. ( 2014 ). Integrated student supports: A summary of the evidence base for policymakers . Bethesda, MD : Child Trends .

Patton , M. Q. ( 1990 ). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Ruppert , S. S. ( 2003 ). Closing the participation gap: A national summary . Denver : Education Commission of the States .

Stark , P. , & Noel , A. M. ( 2015 ). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 1972–2012 (NCES 2015-015). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Utah State Office of Education . ( 2014 ). School report card data . Salt Lake City : Author .

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A New Dawn in the Negev

Our mission is that one day, the diverse residents of the Negev, young and old, will live celebrating their differences and working together toward a peaceful, and equal future together.  A New Dawn in the Negev is an Arab-Jewish community development organization based in Rahat, Israel where we promote education, employment, and leadership. We work together with other NGOs to promote unity, peace and understanding.

How do we promote our goals?

Educational activities: By partnering with local schools, A New Dawn assists both teachers and students in identifying educational disparity and developing creative solutions to address any issues found.

Cultural activities: In an effort to make Bedouin culture accessible to both a new generation of youth as well as to the outside world. A New Dawn documents and shares traditional cultural practices that, for generations, have represented the essence of Bedouin life.

International activities: We facilitating visits for outside groups to come see what life is like in the Negev. We also organize international youth exchanges where our youth can meet other children of the same age and vice versa. We seek to help young Bedouins develop important intercultural skills, which are required to be active contributing members of the global community.

At A New Dawn we feel the division between the Jewish and Bedouin communities of the Negev is mainly a result of disparity in these three areas: education, cultural understanding, and international exposure.  Strengthening educational systems in the Bedouin society helps prepare Bedouin youth to function as active and equal contributors in Israeli society. Promoting awareness and understanding of the Bedouin people’s rich cultural heritage allows Bedouin communities to take pride in their roots and discover how their traditions can contribute to the global community. Finally, actively connecting Bedouin and Jewish communities with intentional, meaningful activities allows new relationships to break through social barriers. Fostering the growth of trust and mutual respect among the residents of the Negev.

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Egyptian youth and new dawn hopes

For young Egyptians, long-dormant patriotism and pride have been finally awakened.

egypt protests

As police stations and ministry of interior installations continue to burn through the night in many of Egypt’s cities, the Arab World is waking up to a new dawn.

In more than 18 years of living in Cairo, I have never felt the sense of cautious hope that exists in Egypt now, particularly among young men and women who feel that for the first time in their lives they may actually be able to determine their own destinies.

Young Egyptians that say that despite the number of teargas canisters fired at protesters and the number of those who have been beaten and detained, long-dormant patriotism and pride have been finally awakened.

They feel emboldened by the positive changes in Tunisia and believe they share common cause and aspiration.

Many of the students I teach at the American University in Cairo have taken part in the protests, avoiding tear gas, seeking refuge in shops and alleyways. They have been reporting and participating in the protests. Some have been beaten only to return the next day and face off with riot police.

To them, they have known no other president, no other ruling party and no other political system. They have for years been groomed on the government’s realpolitik on the one hand, and the empty rhetoric of opposition groups on the other.

They have made it clear to me that these opposition parties, long defunct and impotent, have been replaced by grassroots social action. Their fears of detention and torture have been supplanted by the need for better living conditions and better wages.

The protests have drawn Egyptians from all walks of life, many of whom have never participated in demonstrations and feel that the time has come for them to voice their resentment.

What started with a few dozen protesters on January 25 quickly mushroomed as passers-by and ordinary citizens joined in.

This was the Arab Street – the silent majority which has finally found a voice to express palpable anger.

Listening to the protesters, one gets the feeling that they have not been deterred by the severity of the beatings; rather, their resolve has been hardened.

In an unprecedented show of civil disobedience and open revolt, young Egyptians have clearly and forcibly delivered a message that is still resonating in the Middle East and North Africa: Authoritarian rule in the region is over.

The common yet indigenous, denominators – political and economic disenfranchisement and disdain at rampant corruption – between the two countries were conveyed through social media networks, helping to create a momentum that seized popular anger and provided it with a dynamic that produced mass mobilisation on the streets of Tunis and Cairo.

By calling for the ouster of Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian president, and persevering in the face of tear gas, water cannons and baton beatings, young Egyptian men and women have beat back decades of one-party rule, brutal repression against civil liberties, iron-clad control of the media, and corrupt economic policies.

The protesters have been dismantling archaic forms of governance in which the ruler is considered to be beyond reproach and economic policies are determined by his self-preserving business elite allies.

They are demanding equity in the distribution of wealth, an end to state corruption, greater employment opportunities and a curb to rampant inflation.

They want to be able to express themselves freely – both in mainstream media and online – without the specter of arrest, torture and imprisonment looming overhead.

Just three months ago, Egyptian authorities released Kareem Amer, a blogger jailed in 2007 for defaming Islam and the presidency. His release came just a few weeks after several stations were taken off the air by the national satellite carrier NileSat for allegedly failing to abide by their contracts and/or failure to pay licensing fees.

They are not interested in a change of government – as Mubarak promised on January 28 – and they will not be dissuaded by repeated promises of economic reform and prosperity. They believe that Egypt’s current socio-economic malaise is rooted in the political system itself, a system which has not evolved since the first revolution overthrew the King of Egypt in 1952.

When the ruling National Democratic Party swept Parliamentary elections amid allegations of widespread fraud last November, Egyptian youth said that they felt their votes had been stolen and the entire process of political reform hijacked.

Some observers at the time warned that the government would likely suffer a backlash. The young protesters that we now see on the streets of Cairo, Ismailiya, Suez, Alexandria and Mahala want a political process that safeguards their democratic participation.

Few in Egypt have a desire – or expectation – to see Gamal Mubarak, the president’s son, inherit the presidency in a contrived political gimmick to convince the public that there was a democratic transfer of power.

Among my students, Copts and Muslims alike, there is a call for social cohesion. In the aftermath of the bombing at the Two Saints Church in Alexandria, many Egyptians blamed the government for failing to adequately protect minorities and allowing sectarian strife to fester.

Now, the momentum – and history – is on the protesters’ side.

Firas Al-Atraqchi is an associate professor of practice at department of journalism and mass communication at the American University in Cairo .


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Arise Sister

“ Forget the former things, do not dwelling on the past. See, I am doing a new thing, now it Springs up, do you not perceive it? I am making a way in the desert and streams in the wasteland”.

Isaiah 43:18~19

A new dawn connotes new things, experiencing a change of story or situation for the better. A new dawn is often pregnant with so many possibilities and what we should ask ourselves is, what do I need to do so as to key in, into these possibilities.

1. A New or a Renewed Vision.

A vision is a picture projecting a desirable future. It can be sourced from within oneself, from observing people we admire. To renew something is to refresh old and abandoned dreams. What was the beautiful dream you had in 2019, which you ended up abandoning? It’s a new year, a new dawn, pick it up, refresh it in 2020. How then can we refresh old abandoned dreams? A new approach.

2. A New Approach

What you and me should be asking ourselves in this new dawn is how can I do it differently so that I don’t get same results as in the last year but have the best results in this new year? Hannah tried a different approach in the yearly Shiloh program which she and her family attended for many years and Heaven responded. Try something different, try a different method and the results won’t be same. Do we only try a different approach ? No! A new perspective also matters

3. A New Perspective

How far can you see? What you see is what you will become. If you choose to see failure, impossibility, stagnation, dryness, that you will receive. Choose to see possibility even in impossibility, choose to see streams of water in the desert and that which you see, you will become. Let the report of others not influence your perspective but let what God says be your drive. Once you have a new perspective, you need a new spirit aswell

4. A New Spirit

An I-can-do-all-things spirit is very vital for a new dawn. No matter where you find yourself, no matter what lies ahead, we need a God inspired kind of determination to lead us into that vision we have. With a new spirit we can’t be disturbed but we have rest because we know strength comes from God and once we put in an effort, he blesses the effort, hence we need to be diligent aswell.

5. A New Diligence

Diligence is work directed towards a proper channel. We can have a powerful vision, change our approach, have a new perspective and have a new spirit but we need to put an effort manifest the newness. A great deal of effort is required. Take that step of faith, make an attempt to move into the new direction and God who is committed to blessing the work of our hands will definitely bless that effort and behold something new, something great, something better will be our portions.

May God grant us the grace to do something new and better for His glory

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Blueprint gives you the latest Nigerian news in one place. Read the news behind the news on burning National issues, Kannywood, Videos and the Military

National Youth Conference: FG receives action plan for implementation as Dare declares new dawn youths

essay on the youth intervention for a new dawn

As the maiden edition of the National Youth Conference (NYC) ended in Abuja with about 34 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, major youth organisations and agencies participating in the programme, the federal government has been presented with an action plan for implementation.

The Minister of Youth and Sports Development, Mr Sunday Dare, who received the recommendations and outcomes of the Conference contained in a communiqué, at the Velodrome of the Moshood Abiola National Stadium, Abuja, stated that the event was a “New dawn for the Nigerian Youth”.

He assured that government will look into the recommendations and action points emanating from the programme with a view to expediting action within the framework policy of this administration.

Mr Dare who acknowledged that young Nigerians are the most strategic asset for economic strength, growth and development of the nation, explained that, this is the reason the present administration came up with the initiative of the N75 billion Nigeria Youth Investment Fund(NYIF) to boost employability and creative skills that will enable them transition seamlessly into professionals and nation builders.

He assured that the commitment of the present administration to youth development remains consistent and unwavering in bringing the youth of this nation on board as learners and decision makers who will do the country proud now and in the future.

Dare who applauded the participants for taking advantage of the opportunity given them by the federal government for engagement, commended relevant government agencies, all stakeholders, private sector partners and the Nigerian youth in particular for their active and robust contributions at the conference.

He stated further that, this will not only promote youth inclusiveness in government policy decision, but also in the area of politics and governance, security, employment opportunities, education, skills acquisition, empowerment, innovation and self-development.

Some of the action plans contained in the communiqué presented to the federal government for consideration and implementation at the end of the youth conference include among others; inclusion in politics, nation building, peace, unity and security, utilisation of the soft power of sports, entertainment and creativity, enhancing education as well as creating the enabling environment for innovation and technology for youth development.

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Why Do We Need DAWN?

What is dawn, the dawn study, what dawn taught us, implications of the dawn study, translating goals into action, article information, the diabetes attitudes, wishes, and needs (dawn) program: a new approach to improving outcomes of diabetes care.

The DAWN International Advisory Committee includes Ib Brorly (a person with diabetes), Denmark; Ruth Colagiuri, RN, Australia; P. Geelhoed-Duijvestijn,MD, the Netherlands; Hitoshi Ishii, MD, Japan; Line Kleinebreil, MD, France;Rüdiger Landgraf, MD, Germany; Torsten Lauritzen, MD, Denmark; David Matthews, MD, United Kingdom; A. Ramachandran, MD, India; Richard Rubin, PhD,United States; and Frank Snoek, PhD, the Netherlands.

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Soren E. Skovlund , Mark Peyrot , on behalf of the DAWN International Advisory Panel; The Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) Program: A New Approach to Improving Outcomes of Diabetes Care. Diabetes Spectr 1 July 2005; 18 (3): 136–142. https://doi.org/10.2337/diaspect.18.3.136

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The Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) program is an international partnership effort to improve outcomes of diabetes care by increasing the focus on the person behind the disease, especially the psychosocial and behavioral barriers to effective diabetes management. DAWN was initiated by an international survey of > 5,000 people with diabetes and almost 4,000 diabetes care providers. The DAWN program has facilitated a number of concrete initiatives to address the gaps in diabetes care identified by the DAWN study.

Diabetes is one of the major world health problems. Recent estimates from the World Health Organization predict that if current trends continue, the number of people with diabetes will more than double, from 176 to 370 million people by 2030. 1   Diabetes is already the single most costly health care problem in Westernized countries. Among those diagnosed with the disease, at least half still do not achieve satisfactory glycemic control, despite the availability of effective treatments. 2   As a consequence, millions of people with diabetes are at elevated risk of suffering needlessly from serious complications of the disease. With the growing number of people with diabetes, there is an urgent need to find better ways of curbing the human and economic burden of this chronic progressive disease, through prevention, detection, and treatment. A review of the literature suggests several important areas that have the potential to address these problems.

Suboptimal diabetes self-management has been identified by several studies as one of the possible causes of poor outcomes of diabetes care in general practice. 3 , 4   A multitude of research studies, mainly in the Western world and with relatively small patient samples, has indicated the potential importance of a multitude of psychological, social, and behavioral factors for patient self-management. 5 , 6   Access to patient-centered self-management support and education has been shown in several studies to improve outcomes of diabetes care. 7  

Psychosocial research points to an integral role of psychosocial issues in all aspects of diabetes care, 8   and in particular comorbid depression is associated with impaired self-management and metabolic control. Psychological treatment may help to improve both quality of life and diabetes self-management. 9   Furthermore, monitoring of psychological health may improve patient-reported outcomes as part of ongoing diabetes care. 10  

In terms of the structure and processes of care, effective communication between patients and providers has been suggested to be important for optimal treatment outcomes. 11 , 12   For instance, application of motivational interviewing techniques has been shown to improve the success rate of behavior change consultations. 13  

Access to a coordinated interdisciplinary diabetes care team to offer appropriate care, whether the need is self-management education, medical advice, or psychosocial support, has been identified as an important factor for improving treatment outcomes in diabetes. 14 , 15  

Delayed initiation of medication therapies to prevent long-term complications is commonly observed in general practice settings. Both patient and provider beliefs appear to contribute to the delayed use of effective therapy (e.g., misconceptions of the consequences of initiating medication,that medication is not efficacious or may have serious side effects). 16 , 17   These factors lead to a reluctance to intensify treatment regimens, which may be overcome through improved communication.

DAWN is an international collaborative program initiated in 2001 by Novo Nordisk in partnership with the International Diabetes Federation and an international expert advisory panel representing leading spokespeople for medical, educational, psychological, and advocacy issues related to improving a person-centered approach to diabetes care. Panel members were from Denmark,France, Germany, India, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. National activities are developed by multidisciplinary national expert groups drawing on relevant best practices for putting DAWN into action.

The goal of DAWN is to improve outcomes of diabetes care by increasing the focus on the person behind the disease, especially the psychosocial and behavioral barriers to effective diabetes management. DAWN was initiated by an international study designed to identify a broad set of attitudes, wishes, and needs among diabetes patients and care providers (physicians and nurses) in order to lay a foundation for national and international efforts to improve diabetes care. 18   The DAWN study examined several factors related to quality of diabetes care:levels of diabetes self-management and psychological distress among people with diabetes, quality of relationships between people with diabetes and their care providers, collaboration among diabetes care providers (team care), and barriers to effective medication therapy for diabetes.

Once the DAWN study was completed, the results provided the impetus for a number of initiatives designed to remedy the problems identified. Some of these initiatives were already underway, and the results stimulated support for their development; other initiatives grew out of the collaborative efforts of the international community exposed to the findings of the DAWN study.

All data are self-reports gathered during 2001 by structured interviews conducted face-to-face or by telephone, using DAWN questionnaires that had been developed based on a literature review and focus groups in eight countries and translated into the languages of the countries studied. Interviews were conducted in 11 regions (representing 13 countries):Australia, France, Germany, India, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Scandinavia(Sweden, Denmark, and Norway), Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Scandinavian samples were evenly divided among the three countries.

The study was conducted with three independent samples. The first sample consisted of 2,705 physicians with a quota of 250 per region: 200 in primary care and 50 specialists (endocrinologists and diabetologists with 2 years of experience and treating > 50 diabetes patients per month). The second sample consisted of 1,122 nurses with a quota of 100 per region: 50 specialists (treating > 50 people with diabetes per month) and 50 generalists. Caring for at least five people with diabetes per month was an inclusion criterion for the study, and only one provider was selected from a given practice.

Physician respondents were predominantly male (72.6%), whereas nurses were predominantly female (95.2%). Both physicians (69.5%) and nurses (69.0%)worked in urban sites, as opposed to rural and suburban sites. Physicians had a longer average duration of practice (15.9 years) than nurses (10.6 years).

The third sample consisted of adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with a quota for each region of 250 people with self-reported type 1 diabetes and 250 with self-reported type 2 diabetes. For the purpose of analysis, people were classified as having type 1 diabetes if they were diagnosed with diabetes before age 40 and treated with insulin both at diagnosis and at the time of the survey; others were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Respondents who did not provide information necessary to classify type of diabetes according to this algorithm were deleted from the analyses, leaving a usable sample of 5,104.

People with diabetes were divided almost equally by sex (54.0% female) and lived primarily in urban areas (58.0%). The median age at which formal education was completed was 17 years. Approximately one-third were classified as having type 1 diabetes; Japan was an anomaly with < 5% having type 1 diabetes. Compared to people with type 2 diabetes, those with type 1 diabetes had a younger average age (38.0 vs. 59.3 years) and a longer average duration of diabetes (19.2 vs. 11.2 years).

The results reported here draw on a number of forthcoming articles and analyses presented at research conferences. 19 – 25  

Reported adherence with recommendations for diet, exercise, medication taking, glucose testing, and appointment keeping was low. Fewer than one in five people with diabetes (19.4% of those with type 1 diabetes and 16.2% of those with type 2 diabetes) reported that they completely complied with all aspects of their prescribed regimens. Providers rated adherence substantially worse than did people with diabetes (7.3% of providers estimated that their typical type 1 patient completely complied with all aspects of their prescribed regimens, and 2.9% of providers estimated the same for their typical type 2 patient).

People with diabetes reported that diabetes-related distress is high at diagnosis (85.2% reported feeling shocked, guilty, angry, anxious, depressed,or helpless). Long after diagnosis (mean duration of almost 15 years),problems of living with diabetes were prevalent, including fear of future complications and resulting social disabilities, as well as immediate social and psychological burdens ( Table 1 ). Three of four (73.6%) reported at least one of these fears or burdens. Providers reported that the majority of their patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes experience psychological problems (67.9 and 65.6%,respectively). Almost half of all people with diabetes in the DAWN study had poor well-being according to the WHO-5 well-being index. 19  

Percentage of Patients Experiencing Various Aspects of Diabetes-Related Distress

Percentage of Patients Experiencing Various Aspects of Diabetes-Related Distress

There was a linkage between poor adherence and psychological problems. The majority of providers (68.3%) reported that psychological problems influence regimen adherence. Moreover, a poor reaction at diagnosis (characterized by an inability to accept the diagnosis and a strong negative emotional response)was associated with a variety of poor patient-reported outcomes, including regimen nonadherence ( Figure 1 ).

Despite the widespread prevalence of diabetes-related distress and its important negative consequences, only a small minority of people with diabetes(3.3%) had received psychological treatment for diabetes-related problems within the 5 years prior to the survey.

Patient-Provider Relationships

The quality of patient-provider relationships was rated high by patients;88.8% reported that they have a good relationship with the people who care for their diabetes. However, most providers reported that they need to better understand the psychological consequences of diabetes (69.8%) and the various ethnic cultures that they deal with (78.8%).

Provider Collaboration

Team care was less than optimal ( Table 2 ). To assess levels of team care, physicians were asked how many of seven providers a typical patient of theirs saw on an annual basis (primary care practitioner, diabetes specialist physician, diabetes nurse,dietitian/nutritionist, eye doctor, foot doctor, behavioral specialist). Most providers (65.6%) said their diabetes patients saw two or fewer providers in addition to themselves; specialist physicians were more likely than primary care physicians to report four or more additional providers (22.0 vs. 12.0%). Annual appointments were common only for eye doctors (approximately two or three respondents described such visits as typical), and typical appointments with most other providers were reported by only one in three participants,with behavioral specialists reported as team members for the typical patient by < 10% of physicians. Only half of people with diabetes (51%) felt that their diabetes health care providers talked to each other about their care.

Percentage of Physicians Reporting That Their Typical Patient Sees Various Diabetes Care Providers Annually

Percentage of Physicians Reporting That Their Typical Patient Sees Various Diabetes Care Providers Annually

Poor reaction to diagnosis predicts later problems. QoL, quality of life.

Barriers to Use of Effective Medication Therapy

Many people with diabetes have worries about starting diabetes medication and intensifying existing medication regimens. And providers are not eager to use medication to achieve treatment goals. Of those taking antihyperglycemic medication, one in six (16.6%) feels that their treatment is too complicated,and one in three (33.7%) is tired of complying with their medication regimen. Of those not taking insulin and who feel that their diabetes is not well controlled, only one in four (26.9%) believes that insulin would help them to manage their diabetes better. Nearly one in two providers (43.4%) prefers to delay initiation of oral medication until it is “absolutely essential.” And only half (49.2%) of health care providers believe that earlier use of insulin would decrease the overall cost of diabetes care. Patients who are resistant to effective medication regimens and who are treated by providers who share their resistance are likely to experience delays in the intensification of treatment even in the face of persisting need.

The DAWN study has identified several important gaps in the management of diabetes across a number of countries. Diabetes self-management is less than optimal and is compromised frequently by diabetes-related distress, which often is not treated. Although the quality of patientprovider relationships is generally good, providers need a better understanding of the social and psychological problems that people with diabetes face. Team care is uncommon,with few providers providing their patients with comprehensive multidisciplinary care. People with diabetes and health care providers often resist initiating effective medication therapies. These problems combine and reinforce one another, leading to an unnecessary increase in the burden of diabetes.

While these findings confirm what many diabetes health care professionals already believe, the DAWN study provided the first quantitative data from a large-scale, international study regarding both the magnitude and nature of these problems. Furthermore, the study offered a host of new insights about concordance and the lack thereof in the perceptions of different participants in diabetes care. Importantly, the study identified major gaps in the provision of diabetes care today, including a failure to take fully into account the individual barriers to achieving full health and quality of life among people with diabetes.

To transform the wealth of insights from the DAWN study into concrete actions to improve diabetes care, two international DAWN summits were held,each attended by > 100 leading health care professionals, researchers,decision-makers, people with diabetes, media personnel, and representatives of major nongovernmental diabetes organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The 1st International DAWN Summit was held in Oxford, United Kingdom, in April 2002. 26   This 2-day meeting involved presentation and discussion of the primary DAWN findings. Major themes were identified through discussion of findings in discipline-specific and country-specific break-out groups.

The 2nd International DAWN Summit was held in London in November 2003 with a goal of initiating concrete action. 27   The 2-day meeting included presentations from government policymakers, representatives of the International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization,and leading researchers. The common theme was defining feasible actions that could be taken to address the gaps in diabetes care identified by the DAWN study. Best practices were shared by speakers from countries that had already taken action based on the DAWN findings at a national level. These presentations laid the foundation for multidisciplinary, multinational workshops in which participants could identify concrete and feasible actions that could be taken to help overcome the barriers to optimal health and quality of life faced by people with diabetes. In plenum, voting systems enabled all participants to take part in the final selection of key goals for future action. Based on the key findings of the DAWN study, the following five goals were confirmed for concerted advocacy and action to improve diabetes care worldwide ( Table 3 ). 27 , 28  

Promote active self-management.

Active self-management is a key determinant of treatment outcome in diabetes, and therefore the diabetes care team's ability to facilitate active self-management and patient involvement in the care process is central to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Health care professionals should encourage better self-management by taking into account individual patient's circumstances, needs, and resources when creating treatment plans and considering psychosocial barriers to self-management as an integral part of the care process.

Enhance psychological care.

Although many people with diabetes cope well and live normal, healthy lives with diabetes, far too many suffer emotionally without receiving basic psychosocial support. Improved access to health care professionals and psychologists trained in identifying patients' needs and providing counseling and psychosocial support to people with diabetes is needed in order to diminish the psychological burden of living with diabetes and overcome the psychological barriers to effective disease self-management.

Enhance communications between people with diabetes and health care providers.

Effective patient-centered communication is considered a prerequisite for understanding and addressing the individual psychosocial barriers to diabetes self-management in daily care. Because enhanced communication requires the active involvement of both the person with diabetes and health care professionals, efforts in this area should involve initiatives to empower and engage both people with diabetes as well as health care professionals to communicate effectively. People with diabetes should be supported in taking responsibility for their own disease and expressing their treatment and support needs clearly to their health care professionals.

Promote communication and coordination between health care professionals.

Diabetes is a complex condition, and its effective management requires a coordinated multidisciplinary care approach. The role of every team member should be enhanced, and strategies are needed to promote team building and dialogue among all diabetes professionals to ensure a coherent, integrated approach to optimizing treatment.

Reduce barriers to effective therapy.

Patient understanding of the consequences of not treating diabetes optimally requires that health care providers give the information and support necessary to enable patients to make informed decisions about intensification of therapy. All health care professionals should be aware of the health implications of postponing necessary therapy and should enable patients to make genuinely informed choices about therapy. This requires increased awareness and information about diabetes treatment options that suit the individual lifestyle and treatment needs of each patient.

DAWN Goals and Strategies

DAWN Goals and Strategies

The DAWN Call to Action 27 , 28   was developed on the basis of international dialogue among patients,educators, physicians, health care researchers, politicians, and nongovernmental organizations. It identifies concrete strategies that can be implemented at the local, regional, national, and international levels to promote the achievement of the five goals of the DAWN program and the translation of DAWN study insights into real quality-of-life improvements on a large scale ( Table 3 ). Guided by this framework, numerous initiatives have been proposed and implemented by groups and organizations in different countries. Below, we define the strategies and provide examples of these initiatives.

Strategy 1. Raise awareness and advocacy.

Those individuals and organizations with an understanding of the benefits of providing psychosocial support for people with diabetes must play an active role in sharing their knowledge with their peers and raising awareness in the public about the importance of changing our approach to diabetes care and focusing more on the attitudes, wishes, and needs of people with diabetes and their caregivers.

Examples of action. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF)published a special issue of its journal Diabetes Voice , which was distributed in 140 countries; this issue was dedicated to the implications of the DAWN study and the resulting international DAWN Call to Action and triggered many new DAWN activities. 28   In the United States, the American Diabetes Association's patient magazine, Diabetes Forecast , highlighted the key insights from the DAWN study,reaching millions of readers nationwide. 29   In the Arabic world, Asia, Europe, and Latin America, lay media coverage of DAWN findings has helped reach out to millions more people at risk for and with diabetes.

Strategy 2. Educate and mobilize people with diabetes and those at risk.

People with diabetes and those at risk of developing the condition need access to empowering information in order to make informed decisions about their health and quality of life. As experts in the management of their own condition, people with diabetes need to be engaged to play a key role in new approaches, tools, and guidelines for patient-centered care. People with diabetes inform health care providers, policymakers, and others about the needs and wants of people with diabetes.

Examples of action. The Assisting Young Diabetics in Egypt Project successfully offered psychological support and therapeutic patient education to > 2,000 children and families with diabetes over just 2 years' time. This project was identified by the DAWN international advisory board as the winner of the 2004 DAWN Award. The DAWN international and national advisory boards involve people with diabetes, and the DAWN summits offer people with diabetes opportunities to speak to international audiences about their needs. In Germany and the Netherlands, concrete activities include the issuance of diabetes passports to all people with diabetes to encourage active self-management and clear communication and agreement among patients and providers about the mutual responsibilities involved in optimal diabetes management. In New Zealand, people with diabetes attending a large diabetes center were offered a patient involvement form before each consultation to encourage active patient participation and clear communication during diabetes visits.

Strategy 3. Train health care providers and enhance their competencies.

In order to overcome the psychosocial barriers to effective diabetes management identified by DAWN, health care systems need to identify ways to improve the identification of these barriers and develop approaches to effectively address these in general practice settings. Training opportunities should be made more easily available for diabetes health care providers, along with simple and practical strategies to promote sustainable institutionalization of feasible person-centered approaches to delivering diabetes care.

Examples of action. In the United States, a continuing medical education program on how to put DAWN into clinical practice was created for diabetes educators based on one of several DAWN symposia held as part of the annual meetings of the American Association of Diabetes Educators. 20   In Poland, the DAWN study revealed a major national need for training primary care in an integrated medical and psychosocial approach to treating type 2 diabetes. Using DAWN as a foundation, train-the-trainer workshops and simple daily assessment tools were developed and disseminated widely in that country,and today > 4,500 Polish health care professionals have been trained in both the psychological and medical aspects of treating diabetes. In Germany,> 1,000 general practitioners, and diabetes specialists and nurses were trained in skills focusing on communication and psychosocial matters in order to increase patient empowerment. Drawing on experiences from > 300 diabetes nurse specialists from 14 countries who took part in a new DAWN workshop concept for diabetes teams, a set of diabetes team workshops and DVD- and video-enhanced training tools was developed in 2004; these have been adopted by many providers in countries such as Australia, Germany, Israel, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Strategy 4. Provide practical tools and systems.

The adequate identification of psychosocial and educational needs requires first and foremost effective listening and communication skills on the part of health care professionals, an essential element of the chronic illness care model. 30   In addition, patient self-report assessment tools and decision-support tools can facilitate inclusion of psychosocial aspects in routine clinical encounters between health care professionals and patients to improve patients'well-being. 10 , 31  

Examples of action. In response to the DAWN study, several countries have introduced internationally endorsed measures of psychological well-being,diabetes-related distress, and barriers to self-management into quality-of-care monitoring systems. During the period from 2002 to 2004, >15,000 people with diabetes from > 15 countries have completed the WHO-5 well-being index and other diabetes-specific items from the DAWN survey questionnaire, offering a wealth of new insights about the needs of people with diabetes and the associations between psychological variables, perceived quality of care, and clinical outcomes. A one-page patient form was developed in New Zealand and several other countries for use by patients prior to each consultation to help identify relevant psychosocial issues and promote more active involvement of the patient in the consultation and decision-making process.

Strategy 5. Drive policy and health care systems change.

In diabetes management guidelines, reimbursement systems, and quality systems, the psychosocial needs of people with the condition should be approached with the same priority as their medical needs. Toward this end,governments and health care systems can be lobbied to adopt the chronic care model advocated by the World Health Organization.

Examples of action. The DAWN program has facilitated two international guideline meetings in 2004 and 2005 aimed at promoting consensus regarding evidence-based recommendations for psychosocial care for people with diabetes. At the DAWN guideline meeting in Wuerzburg, Germany, in April 2005,experts in psychosocial aspects of diabetes from 12 different countries developed a joint statement that “diabetes mellitus is an emotionally and behaviorally demanding condition, and psychosocial factors are integral to its prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.”

In response to the DAWN Call to Action, the national care guidelines in Japan were updated to include psychosocial treatment recommendations for diabetes, and the Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Council of the American Diabetes Association initiated a working group to develop psychosocial care guidelines. In 2003 and 2004, the Netherlands and Germany have taken steps towards implementing evidence-based psychosocial guidelines in diabetes, 32   and the IDF will be publishing its global treatment guideline by the end of 2005 with a separate section on psychosocial care in diabetes.

Strategy 6. Develop psychosocial research in diabetes.

More collaborative clinical research on psychosocial aspects of diabetes needs to be conducted to demonstrate the health and economic benefits to society of improved patient-centered diabetes care and adoption of the call to action specified here. A better understanding is required of the effective patient-centered approaches to support self-management and enhance long-term health and quality of life of people with diabetes.

Examples of action. The European Depression in Diabetes Research Consortium (EDID), a multinational research initiative stimulated by the DAWN Call to Action, has begun to assess the psychosocial burden of diabetes by promoting the use of a common set of measures so that national comparisons can be made. 33   In countries such as Argentina and Israel, evaluation studies are ongoing to assess the impact of intervention and education programs aimed at bringing the DAWN findings into action. A multicountry DAWN study in Europe is examining the feasibility of daily use of psychosocial assessments in primary care settings in Europe. In the United States, a large DAWN research initiative has been launched to evaluate specific approaches to increasing active participation in diabetes care among people with diabetes from different ethnic groups.

The paradigm for treating diabetes care is changing on a global scale. Governments, health insurers, health care professionals, and nongovernmental organizations are increasingly recognizing the importance of new partnerships and new ways of adopting more effective approaches to helping people with diabetes better self-manage the medical and psychosocial challenges associated with the disease. The DAWN study has contributed to highlighting the urgency of making this change and identifying where efforts need to be focused at the global and national levels. The DAWN program has stimulated momentum to support national action and provided a platform for sharing best practices worldwide.

A key challenge for putting the insights from the DAWN study into effect is the ongoing promotion of broad dialogue and the creation of sustainable partnerships involving all key parties in diabetes care, with people with diabetes at the center. Only through such partnerships can the proposed new approach to diabetes be fully embedded into whole communities and national diabetes programs. Furthermore, an increased focus on the attitudes, wishes,and needs of special populations (including children and adolescents with diabetes and people with diabetes in underprivileged communities or who belong to ethnic minorities) is critically needed to identify opportunities to improve care and quality of life for these groups.

Continuous and increasing collaborative efforts are needed to transform care for diabetes and other chronic diseases from the acute to the chronic care model. Future focus needs to be placed on implementation and translational research, with international sharing of effective tools for furthering a person-centered approach to chronic disease management and prevention.

Soren E. Skovlund, Msc, Bsc, is a senior adviser at Novo Nordisk in Bagsvaerd, Denmark. Mark Peyrot, PhD, is a professor of sociology at Loyola College in Baltimore, Md.

Note of disclosure: Mr. Skovlund is employed by and Dr. Peyrot has received honoraria and research support from and served on an advisory panel for Novo Nordisk, which manufactures products for the treatment of diabetes and has provided financial support for the DAWN initiative.

The DAWN study was initiated and funded by Novo Nordisk, which provided access to the data presented in this article and support for its writing. Aggregate country-specific data may be made available for local quality-of-care improvement activities. (See www.dawnstudy.com .)Novo Nordisk has provided ongoing support for the DAWN program, including DAWN summits and various national DAWN initiatives.

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essay on the youth intervention for a new dawn

  • Ikeda Sensei

The Dawn of a New Era

March 26, 2019

essay on the youth intervention for a new dawn

The following is an essay from SGI President Ikeda’s new series “Our Brilliant Human Revolution,” which originally appeared in the Feb. 4, 2019, issue of the Seikyo Shimbun , the Soka Gakkai’s daily newspaper.

“Light enlightens,” [1] declared the great French writer Victor Hugo (1802–85). His masterpiece Les Misérables relates the quest for the light that makes people strong and happy. He sought to enable ordinary people to triumph over misery, to illuminate youth who were forced to endure suffering.

Hugo also said that daring is the driving force for progress. [2]

The courage to take action for justice and humanity makes our lives shine brilliantly.

In the Lotus Sutra, the Bodhisattvas of the Earth are praised for possessing “an immeasurable brightness” ( The Lotus Sutra and Its Opening and Closing Sutras , p. 252).

Where today do we find the brightness of the Bodhisattvas of the Earth? Let’s proclaim to all the world that it shines in the members of the Soka Gakkai, who are bravely and vigorously exerting themselves to realize kosen-rufu and the ideal of “establishing the correct teaching for the peace of the land,” in accord with Nichiren Daishonin’s teachings.

A new year has begun since I completed my novel The New Human Revolution, which was 25 years in the writing. The time has come for each of you, my precious fellow members, to demonstrate proof of your great human revolution in your lives.

Today, as our Soka network of global citizens is becoming increasingly active around the world, I would like to embark on this new essay series “Our Brilliant Human Revolution.”

Nichiren Buddhism is the Buddhism of the Sun.

Soka Gakkai founder and first President Tsunesaburo Makiguchi boldly communicated the truth about Nichiren’s teachings, even while imprisoned for his beliefs during World War II.

The interrogation transcripts from that time show that Mr. Makiguchi quoted from “Supernatural Powers,” the 21st chapter of the Lotus Sutra [describing the hallmarks of a Bodhisattva of the Earth who upholds and practices the Mystic Law]:

As the light of the sun and moon can banish all obscurity and gloom, so this person as he advances through the world can wipe out the darkness of living beings. (LSOC, 318)

He also clearly stated that Nichiren was the great teacher who could lead all people to attain Buddhahood in their present form. [3]

Mr. Makiguchi’s courageous stance was in stark contrast to the Nichiren Shoshu priesthood who, fearful of persecution by the militarist authorities, agreed to delete numerous important passages from the Daishonin’s writings, including “I, Nichiren, am the foremost sage in all Jambudvipa [the entire world]” (“A Sage Perceives the Three Existences of Life,” The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin , vol. 1, p. 642).

Let us always be proud of the indisputable fact that the shining essence of Nichiren Buddhism has been protected and carried on through the lionhearted spirit of the Soka Gakkai.

The above-mentioned passage from the “Supernatural Powers” chapter, which Mr. Makiguchi personally embodied, contains the phrase “as he advances through the world” (LSOC, 318). Soka Gakkai activities exemplify this actual engagement in the real world. If we were to withdraw from society, we might spare ourselves from slander and abuse, and troublesome hardships. But, based on our vow as Bodhisattvas of the Earth from time without beginning, we have voluntarily appeared in challenging places to dispel the darkness of the people’s sufferings, the darkness of the age and the darkness of society.

Members of the Soka family throughout Japan and around the globe, donning the “robe of gentleness and patience” (see LSOC, 207), are courageously and sincerely “advancing through the world” carrying out their Buddhist practice.

I am certain that their brave efforts would be praised wholeheartedly by Nichiren and bring tremendous joy to President Makiguchi.

Sixty-seven years ago (1952), I threw myself into action as an advisor of Kamata Chapter. [4]

I sought to express my gratitude to Nichiren and second Soka Gakkai President Josei Toda by crowning their birth month of February with a significant expansion of membership.

Focusing on the unit (today’s group), the smallest organizational component at the time, I strove alongside my fellow members united in the spirit of “many in body, one in mind.” As a result, we broke through all previous propagation records and opened the way forward in our movement for kosen-rufu.

I offered the members three guidelines: 1) Let’s start with chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo; 2) Let’s share our experiences in faith; and 3) Let’s treasure our neighbors. This was the beginning of the Soka Gakkai tradition of making February a month for propagation activities.

We had no special strategy. Each member simply focused on those in their immediate environment and courageously engaged them in dialogue.

When we determine to work for kosen-rufu where we are, our attitude toward the people we encounter and to whom we are connected changes. As our prayers deepen, we see a change in them as well as in our circumstances. If we avoid practicing in this way, the place where we are will never become the true stage of our mission.

Treating those around us as friends with whom we share profound ties and transforming our community into a realm of happiness through the light of the Mystic Law constitute the great path to realizing Nichiren’s ideal of “establishing the correct teaching for the peace of the land.”

While battling tremendous difficulties on Sado Island (in present-day Niigata Prefecture), the Daishonin declared calmly: “There can be none who overflow with joy as we do. Therefore, wherever we dwell and practice the single vehicle [the Lotus Sutra], that place will be the Capital of Eternally Tranquil Light” (“Reply to Sairen-bo,” WND-1, 313).

Just as no life is free from problems, no community is without its unique issues and challenges. But with the firm conviction that the places where we live are “excellent, excellent lands” (“The Receipt of New Fiefs,” WND-1, 945), we must bring forth our creativity and ingenuity to make them so, as Nichiren states.

Our continued efforts in that invigorating challenge will lead to the positive transformation of our communities into ideal realms.

My wife, Kaneko, and I are very happy to hear that places where I engaged in propagation efforts during the February Campaign—such as Ota in Tokyo, and Kawasaki and Tsurumi in Kanagawa Prefecture—are now flourishing vibrantly, and we are chanting for all our friends there.

Our theme for 2019 is the “Year of Soka Victory—Toward Our 90th Anniversary.”

The tradition of selecting an annual theme began 60 years ago, in 1959, with my proposal that the first year after Mr. Toda’s death be designated the “Year of Dawn.”

Dawn is the transition from darkness to light.

Back in those days, I was simultaneously serving as the Soka Gakkai’s general administrator and youth division chief of staff, and I had vowed and prayed to make the new year the dawn of Soka through the power of youth.

I strove tirelessly in the vanguard of this effort—determined to go to the front lines of our movement, visiting regions I hadn’t been to yet and meeting members I had never met before.

I believed that, since the Lotus Sutra is a teaching of challenging adversity as if in winter, it is up to leaders to take the initiative and go to areas where members are struggling the most. With that as my resolve, in January 1959, I set forth to visit the northern island of Hokkaido.

I arrived at my first Hokkaido destination of Otaru on Jan. 15, and from there traveled on to Asahikawa, Yubari and Sapporo, meeting members throughout that vast region. Thinking about the difficulties the members faced during the harsh winter, I strove to light a flame of hope in that place that had been home to my mentor.

On Feb. 1, I went to Kansai, then traveled on to Shikoku, where I visited Kagawa and Kochi prefectures. After briefly returning to Tokyo in mid-February, I went to Nagoya in the Chubu region and then Osaka in Kansai again. In between court appearances associated with the Osaka Incident, [5] I gave my all to encouraging my fellow members.

In March, I visited Hitachi and Mito in Ibaraki Prefecture, followed by Omiya in Saitama Prefecture. The Daishonin writes:

Although Nichiren and his followers are few, because they are different in body, but united in mind, they will definitely accomplish their great mission of widely propagating the Lotus Sutra. Though evils may be numerous, they cannot prevail over a single great truth [or good]. (“Many in Body, One in Mind,” WND-1, 618)

Wherever I went, I read Nichiren’s writings and reaffirmed with the members that the unity of “many in body, one in mind” was key to our victory.

In the latter half of March, I traveled to Aichi, Shiga, Fukui, Kyoto and Gifu prefectures, drawing encouragement from the Daishonin’s writings and engaging members in dialogue. Never allowing the briefest opportunity to slip by, I also devoted myself to offering personal guidance.

Members everywhere were grappling earnestly with problems of all kinds. Citing Nichiren’s writings and my mentor’s guidance, I did my best to impart the light of hope and courage, and thereby bring the light of a new dawn to their lives.

Nichiren writes, “A lantern [can light] up a place that has been dark for a hundred, a thousand, or ten thousand years” (“The One Essential Phrase,” WND-1, 923).

When we speak out tirelessly and confidently, we can help members and nonmembers alike forge connections with the Daishonin’s teachings, and brightly illuminate and warm their hearts.

Now, six decades since the Year of Dawn (1959), a fresh generation of members who will shoulder the new era of worldwide kosen-rufu has joined such core behind-the-scenes youth training groups as the Soka Group, Gajokai and Byakuren. Their endeavors herald the arrival of a new dawn.

Our youth division leaders in each region are striving—with the profound sense of responsibility that I had when I was youth division chief of staff—to encourage and foster capable individuals. I wish to praise and convey my sincere thanks to them.

The Soka Gakkai’s humanistic daily newspaper, the Seikyo Shimbun , has reached its milestone 20,000th edition (on Jan. 20, 2019). This January also marks 65 years since the system of volunteer correspondents was established throughout Japan.

I would like to once again express my gratitude for the noble contributions of these volunteers in chronicling and promoting the frontline activities of our grassroots Soka movement.

The Seikyo Shimbun column “My Dear Hometown,” presenting photographs taken by volunteer correspondents, recently featured a picture of swans on Lake Hyo in Niigata, a place with fond memories for me. The image of one of the swans spreading its wings in preparation for takeoff was especially striking.

Referring to the story of King Rinda, in which the king is invigorated by the neighing of white horses, who only do so when they hear white swans, the Daishonin writes: “The white horses are Nichiren, and the white swans are my followers. The neighing of the white horses is the sound of our voices chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo” (“King Rinda,” WND-1, 989). He also declares that the sound of chanting will brighten the light of Brahma and Shakra and all the heavenly deities, who will thus not fail to guard and protect us (see WND-1, 989–90).

No matter what hardships we encounter, let’s always remember that we can chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo to overcome them.

The fearless advance of our members as they chant together, “transcending all differences among themselves” (“The Heritage of the Ultimate Law of Life,” WND-1, 217), causes the banners of the protective functions of the universe to blaze brilliantly and amplifies the great light of human revolution and the ideal of “establishing the correct teaching for the peace of the land.”

Natural disasters, such as the record cold temperatures in the midwestern parts of the United States, continue, and the international situation remains unstable. I am chanting wholeheartedly for the health and safety of our precious members everywhere.

The American poet Walt Whitman (1819–92) called out powerfully: “Say on, sayers! sing on, singers!” [6]

The tenacious voices of youth, of the people and of solidarity have the power to change the world.

Our voices are a source of strength and light.

With the spirit that “our voice does the Buddha’s work” (see The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings , p. 4), let us speak out with strong conviction, our words resounding like a lion’s roar, and make this Year of Soka Victory shine brilliantly!

  • Victor Hugo, Les Misérables, translated by Julie Rose (New York: The Modern Library, 2009), p. 486. ↩︎
  • Ibid., p. 490. ↩︎
  • Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, Makiguchi Tsunesaburo zenshu (Collected Writings of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi), vol. 10, (Tokyo: Daisanbunmei-sha, 1987), pp. 195–96. ↩︎
  • In February 1952, Daisaku Ikeda, then an advisor to Tokyo’s Kamata Chapter, initiated a dynamic propagation campaign, which led to 201 new households joining the Soka Gakkai. ↩︎
  • The occasion when Daisaku Ikeda, then Soka Gakkai youth division chief of staff, was arrested and wrongfully charged with election law violations in a House of Councilors by-election in Osaka in 1957. At the end of the court case, which continued for more than four years, he was fully exonerated of all charges on Jan. 25, 1962. ↩︎
  • Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (New York: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1968), p. 190. ↩︎
  • Our Brilliant Human Revolution

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Memories of the nihon university auditorium, the magnificent ceremony on march 16.


Today's Paper | April 21, 2024

Prioritising youth.

essay on the youth intervention for a new dawn

FOR the last decade or so, development economists have been sounding the alarm about Pakistan’s youth demographic, saying that if not leveraged as an opportunity, it could turn into a ticking time bomb. Ominously, the ticking time bomb appears set to explode, pumped with ammunition in the form of propaganda and action against, arguably, the only politician in recent times that the youth have resonated with.

Banning the PTI founder’s mention on the media, confiscating the party’s electoral sign, imprisoning its leadership, and obstructing its election campaign are measures that have turned a major party into a victim in the eyes of a large part of the electorate. Those responsible for these actions perhaps forget the power of sympathy votes. Had the PTI been allowed to complete its term, its poor economic performance would have been enough to keep it from returning to power. But that was not an option for its powerful detractors.

There are concerns that in this situation the party’s youth following will have few qualms about resorting to violence, propaganda, or other extreme measures if encouraged in this direction by the politicians they support. This is the rotten fruit that years of not investing in the youth has borne. Unfortunately, the youth demographic has yet to realise the impact of the controversial economic policies implemented by the PTI when it was in power.

To counter the negativity propagated by the PTI government, a well-thought-out strategy is needed. This is not the 20th century where censorship, media crackdowns, arrests, and other intimidatory tactics are going to silence people. Stifling and suffocating the voice of the youth is only going to make them more rebellious. In fact, it is for this very reason that they have come to see the PTI as a symbol of resistance against injustices and the absence of equal opportunities over the years.

The importance of the three E’s cannot be overemphasised.

With elections coming up, there is a serious need for policymaking circles to reconsider the direction they want to take the country in, especially with regard to the youth. Addressing the youth at conferences to emphasise the importance of democratic governments simply doesn’t cut it. What is needed is a strategic policy to address the issues of growing intolerance in society by focusing on the three E’s education, employment, and entrepreneurship.

Poor educational outcomes and dearth of employment opportunities have adversely impacted the employability of the youth, becoming the root cause of intolerance in society. With youth unemployment on the rise, there is a need to develop vocational training programmes that establish direct connections with employment opportunities within key industries, and abroad in countries that require trained workers. The content of these courses should meet international standards, and must be offered both in person and online to ensure inclusivity.

Schemes that incentivise students to study harder, such as merit-based scholarships, tuition reimbursement programmes, and technology and gadget incentives should be expanded. In this regard, the laptop scheme was a good initiative which needs to be reintroduced. Educational travel grants should be provided to students who do well in academics. These grants can be offered with a view to facilitating participation in workshops, short courses, and conferences, and thus encouraging an environment that promotes re­­search and innovation.

To help cre­­ate em­­ployment opportunities, a series of reforms that facili­t­a­­te financial inclusion and innovation ne­ed to be undertaken to cultivate a conducive at­mosphere for the gro­wth of a start-up culture. Viable and innovative business proposals from young minds at the grassroots level should have equal and unrestricted access to capital, enabling them to launch their own entrepreneurial ventures. Programmes and digital applications can be launched to link budding entrepreneurs with potential investors and mentors for guidance and financial assistance.

Most importantly, equitable digitalisation must be ensured so that youth across Pakistan can have access to online education, employment, and e-commerce opportunities.

This is a crucial concern that demands the collective effort of the politicians in the country, regardless of the issues that create divisions among them. They must agree on the core concept of the three Es in order to chalk a way forward for the youth of Pakistan. They must realise that channelising the youth’s energy in the right direction is both a moral obligation, and a socioeconomic imperative.

The writer is a senior research associate at the Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad. The views are the writer’s own and do not reflect the SDPI’s position.

Published in Dawn, January 30th, 2024

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Favorite Quote: Never doubt that a small group of committed people can change the world. Indeed, nothing else ever has. ~Margaret Mead

Our history books are tainted by blood, and our cities are filled with memorials for dead soldiers and citizens, who lost their lives because of pure hatred, corruption and unfathomable amounts of anger. Too many people have died for nothing, too many families have been ripped open by slaughter, and too many innocent people have to live with pain. There is no use defending any one nation, or claiming that only one nation has been innocent in the ordeal of history. Once we can all accept that we have all played the part of both victim and oppressor, only then can we begin a healing process of both apology and forgiveness. There is one generation that can begin that healing process and there is one generation who can accept the past as the past and move onwards, building a new, fresher, healthier world. And that generation, my friends, is ours. We can become a generation that adds tragedies to the textbooks, and who build a hundred more war memorials, or we can become a generation that puts the title ‘the peacemakers’ in the history books, and who build a memorial for love. We can be the generation who let the justice system become corrupt, or we can be the generation who ends world hunger. We can be the generation who single-handedly destroys the earth, or we can be the generation that builds nature reservations across the world. It comes down to this: We can let the world crash before our eyes, or we can be the people who stand up and fight for humanity. This choice is ours to make. Choose to be the generation that goes down in history as the greatest generation that ever lived. If every nation, every city, every family, every person looks at themselves in the mirror and asks themselves: ‘Is this the best I can be?’ we can build a society whose base is peace, a world who acts upon righteousness, and a people who believe wholeheartedly in the gift of life. We, the new generation, the new dawn of history, can make this world a better place. But we can only accomplish this if we stand hand in hand, if we believe in ourselves and in basic humanitarian rights, and if we are ready to finally stand up for humanity. So let’s make ourselves ready—because a new dawn has risen.

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Favorite Quote: "God hath not given me a spirit of fear, but that of power, love, and of a sound mind."


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essay on the youth intervention for a new dawn

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Since 1900, the Christian Century has published reporting, commentary, poetry, and essays on the role of faith in a pluralistic society.

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Dawn: Essays by readers

We gave our readers a one-word writing prompt: “dawn.”.

essay on the youth intervention for a new dawn

In response to our request for essays on dawn, we received many compelling reflections. Below is a selection. The next two topics for reader submissions are DROP and SPARK — read more .

My firstborn daughter was named Dawn. A bundle of joy, she quickly became the family’s conversation piece. Early on we saw her gifts of personality and promise. After earning a degree in music and business, she entered the give-and-take of the world. We soon saw signs of turbulence in her life. We suspected drugs. She plowed on from occupation to occupation, despite the family’s efforts to help her reroute life’s journey.

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Then one day she abruptly took flight to a southwest city, declaring a job change that she claimed would restart her life. After several months and many phone calls we moved from denial to acceptance that Dawn was indeed battling various demons. Later we learned what we had silently wondered: she had become a resident of the streets, living in temporary shelters and grasping for meaning.

It was not long before she called to tell us of severe pains she was suffering. Doctors discovered stage-four cancer in her body. This brick-in-the-gut news brought the entire family to its knees. As we visited her over the ensuing months, we watched her decline in a homeless shelter for people who were medically disabled.

Finally, a reckoning came as she moved from chemo treatments to a final decline. On my last visit to see her we talked hopefully, all the while knowing that death was imminent.

Beside her bed in a hospital-like room was an electronic keyboard she often played as she was able. She was masterful at the piano and had won many awards. As I rose to say good-bye she said, “Dad, wait a minute. I want to play something for you.” She struggled to the keyboard and began playing and singing “Amazing Grace,” giving emphasis to the lines, “I once was lost, but now I’m found, / Was blind but now I see.”

At that moment the Dawn of my life dawned. She had moved out of a darkness into a light that gave her a peace she had not known for many years. We hugged and said good-bye, both knowing that daybreak can follow great darkness. Dawn is the holder of a very thin veil that separates darkness from light. It knows the reality of darkness even as it declares the presence of light. Dawn is that break into the day where the new begins, giving grace its definition.

Don R. Stevenson Hagerstown, MD

From Frederick Buechner, The Sacred Journey :  God speaks to us through our lives, we often too easily say. Something speaks anyway, spells out some sort of godly or godforsaken meaning to us through the alphabet of our years, but often it takes many years and many further spellings out before we start to glimpse, or think we do, a little of what that meaning is. Even then we glimpse it only dimly, like the first trace of dawn on the rim of night, and even then it is a meaning that we cannot fix and be sure of once and for all because it is always incarnate meaning and thus as alive and changing as we are ourselves alive and changing.  

I commute to work by bicycle, and I always get there very early. Years ago, on a very early summer morning, I rode under a lavender velvet sky. It was breathtaking. Then above the western horizon, between the roofline of the car dealerships and a scraggly urban redwood, I saw the full moon, golden and profuse. I got off my bike, stepped onto the sidewalk, and burst into tears at the unbidden beauty.

I soon realized that I was also crying because so very early in the morning there was no one around to share the moon with me. Relationship is what makes so much of this life so heartbreakingly beautiful. Alone, I ached with an inability to fully bear witness.

Out of the corner of my eye I saw someone approach. A man, older than I, was pushing a shopping cart filled with overflowing garbage bags full of recyclables. He clanked down the street, came up to me, and stopped. Noticing my streaky face, he asked if I was OK. I managed to nod. “Yeah,” I said. “It’s just . . .” I wiped my nose and jutted my chin toward the moon.

“Oh wow,” he said. “You’re right.” We stood there together on Broadway and regarded the moon. He uncapped his Mountain Dew, took a drink, and then extended it to me. “Want some?”

I still regret not accepting it. He was offering me so much more than soda. He was welcoming me into our mutual yearning for connection. He was offering me communion.

I grew up as the daughter of a minister, and my mom would always remind us just before praying the Great Thanksgiving that the table belongs to God and we are all invited. For me, the most important part of a worship service is when people queue up to receive the elements—standing in liminal space between our past and God’s future, illumined by the ancient and steadfast light of ritual, zippering together as we exit the pews every other aisle, helping those with walkers, always inviting someone to go ahead of you.

I still ride by where I saw the moon and that man. I don’t think I’ve seen him again, and I know I’ve never seen the moon quite like that again. But I still carry that dawn with me, and I imagine that he does too. It was a moment, a refraction of the divine light brilliantly present, when the terror and banality of our human reality was fused with the exquisite beauty of God. And I often think of that Mountain Dew when I’m shuffling down the carpeted church aisle to receive the elements, my hands each holding the small hand of one of my daughters, wondering at the miracle that we’ve found each other—not just my family but each of us here on earth trying to make our way, holding on to one another and continuing to offer ourselves again and again, every dawn while we draw our breath.

Alicia Van Riggs Oakland, CA

At 2 a.m. an orderly rolled me into room 505 at Good Samaritan Hospital. For the previous eight hours I had been in the emergency department dealing with breathing problems. Weakened muscles from polio, with me by that point for 76 years, often necessitate hospital trips.

The room was divided by a heavy gray curtain, and I was put in the bed closest to the door. I wondered if there was someone on the other side.

I soon heard my roommate’s feeble moans. Sooner or later I would find out why she was there, but for the moment I needed to let sleep soothe my being.

Nurses came in and out during the night to check our vital signs. My roommate sighed gently but did not speak. Around six, following a restless night, I heard throat clearing. Here we were, two women in the same room, not communicating. I decided to risk offending her by saying just a few words. “Good morning,” I said. She responded, and after a few more simple exchanges, she asked in her accented English, “Would you like to watch the sunrise? We can see it from my window.”

What a welcome surprise! “Yes, please,” I replied. Maria (by now we had exchanged names) slowly, carefully lowered herself from the bed. Despite showing signs of pain, she reached up to pull back the curtain. A gentle gray sky greeted us. In silence we saw streaks of soft pink turn into a bright apricot. Sturdy red rays appeared quietly. As the sun gradually appeared through our window, I felt an overwhelming sense of awe and wonder.

Maria kept repeating, “Gracias a Dios.” And I echoed, “Thanks be to God.” She played a song on her phone: “How Great Thou Art,” sung in Spanish. This holy matin moment counteracted the bustling sounds from the hallway. We both inhaled the beauty and marvel of daybreak.

We were roommates for the next two days. Each morning Maria asked in almost a whisper, “Do you want to share the sunrise?” Each time she played her recorded hymns. Our simple ritual bonded us.

When Maria was discharged, we knew we would probably never see each other again. But now when I experience the drama of dawn I often remember her, and I chant, “Gracias a Dios.”

Dosia Carlson Phoenix, AZ

“How do you know when the night is over and the day has dawned?” an old rabbi asked his students. “It is when you can look into the face of any man or woman and see there the face of your brother or sister. Because, if you cannot do that, no matter how bright it is, you are still in the night.”

I used to share this quote from the pulpit. While I knew its truth intellectually, my heart and body remained in the dark until I’d been retired as a pastor for almost three years. I was using a meditation app on my phone when it began to vibrate. My brother-in-law was calling. “Jane’s gone,” he said, “Jane’s gone.”

The police had just arrived at his front door to tell them that our younger sister had been found that morning on the floor by her bed. She was dead. After several years in and out of treatment for alcoholism, she’d relapsed one last time.

I thought I knew death pretty well. I’d known the deaths of grandparents, parents, other family members, friends, colleagues, and parishioners. But in the two years since I learned that Jane was gone I’ve realized that I didn’t really know death at all.

Later on the day she died I was walking along the river near our home. Vivid memories of our time together streamed through my mind, bringing both intermittent tears and occasional laughter. Jane was born when I was nine years old. The day she came home from the hospital I remember being very anxious, having heard that she had a soft spot on her head and that everyone had to handle her very carefully. I kept thinking about a broken robin’s egg I’d seen in a nest behind our house; I was afraid that Jane would be just as fragile.

Before my last year at seminary, we took a trip to the United Kingdom together and shared hotel rooms to save money. I can still see the clerks rolling their eyes when I told them that she was my sister.

As I reached the spot where Lake Erie empties into the Niagara River I began hearing in my mind the lyrics to James Taylor’s song “Fire and Rain.” When I heard, “I always thought I’d see you, one more time again,” I began sobbing. I wondered if I’d ever stop.

A family friend led the memorial service at a country club. Jane was “spiritual, but not religious.” Those who gathered all deeply loved her. I read a poem that kept coming to mind following her death—John Donne’s “No Man Is an Island,” which I adapted to include all humans. “Anyone’s death diminishes me” is the line that wouldn’t let me go.

It still won’t. Having known how diminished I’ve felt losing a sister has made me feel all the more diminished at the deaths of others—no matter who they are or how well I know them. I now know more fully than I’d ever known before that the old rabbi had it right when he explained that it’s only dawn when you can look in the eyes of anyone and see a sister or brother. Knowing that my sister has closed her eyes for the last time has opened my eyes to the mystery and wonder of the love in which we all live and move and have our being, the love that knit us together in our mother’s womb.

Bruce McKay Buffalo, NY

I don’t recall what prompted me to yell a swear word of epic proportions at the top of my lungs when I was at my friend’s house across the street. But my mother heard me, and apparently she didn’t think it was an appropriate thing for her ten-year-old daughter to say, let alone shout.

When I walked back into our house at dinnertime my mother ushered me back to the kitchen, squirted some Dawn dish detergent into my mouth, added a little bit of water, and asked me to slosh the mixture around a bit before telling me to spit the suds into the sink. This left a taste in my mouth that elicited the reaction for which my mother had hoped: I vowed never again to say that swear word—at least, not in front of my mother.

A friend says her mother preferred the bar-of-Dial-soap method. Whatever the variations, the practice of washing out an offending child’s mouth with soap was reportedly once common in the United States.

I still use Dawn to wash dishes. I suppose I could have switched over to the Joy brand as a means of reframing the shame of my childhood punishment. But using Dawn reminds me of my mother. I’m grateful I can place that one incident from nearly 60 years ago within the context of a childhood in which I felt safe, loved, and valued. Mom continued to love me, no matter what she had heard me yell from my friend’s house across the street. I’m certain she hated the mouth-washing punishment as much as I did but felt it was something she needed to do. Recalling my Dawn story helps me to remember my mother, who died 25 years ago, as a flesh-and-blood human being with her own struggles, rather than as someone deified in the rearview mirror of my imagination.

Because dawn brings light, the word carries a connotation of insight and awareness. When my mother died suddenly, it dawned on me that at the age of 42 I was an orphan. The night before her funeral, I went to sleep with an empty sheet of paper and a pen by my bed, having absolutely no idea what I would say at her funeral the next day. When I awoke to the light of dawn the words were there, pouring from pen to paper. It was a day of mourning but also of promise, as we were filled with God’s grace in the gathered community of her beloved family and friends. Zechariah’s prophecy, which I pray each morning as part of the liturgy of the hours, was realized in our experience: “By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high has broken upon us, giving light to all of us who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, and guiding our feet into the way of peace.”

Sandy Selby Akron, OH

The sun shone through the window in the hotel dining room, and I changed my course. My run could wait—perhaps I could catch the tail end of the sunrise.

I walked toward the small vending area, where a woman stood, staring at the ice machine through her sunglasses. I planned to squeeze in behind her and slip out the door on the other side.

Before I could, she looked at me in terror, jumped up, and shouted, “Oh no!” I laughed nervously and apologized, explaining I didn’t mean to scare her. She was panting wildly, holding her chest. “You scared the hell out of me. Why does everyone sneak up on me?” I apologized again. “I was just recently attacked,” she said. The smile left my face. Like a rushing wave I felt the familiar empathy, my gift and my curse, pour into my body.

“Oh God,” I said. “I’m so sorry.” The words felt meaningless. I knew my apology wouldn’t heal her or bring her attacker to justice. She pointed to a faded yellow bruise on her shin and then pulled the collar of her shirt down just above her breast.

“I was beaten, kicked, punched—for 20 minutes.” She went on to describe the attack, but I can’t remember what she said because it was all too painful and shocking for me to absorb in that moment. She paced back and forth as she told me.

“I feel everything. I sense everything. But everyone keeps sneaking up on me. Here you come dressed in black, and I’m trapped in this vending area with nowhere to go.” I put my hands up, suddenly aware that she still felt threatened and had backed up into the door. I retreated backward as well. She got out a cigarette and started to walk out the door—it seemed bizarre that she was leaving without ice, her whole reason for being in this cramped space. She held the door for me, talking quickly about how she should have been dead. Tears were dripping down my face.

We made it to the beach, where she lit her cigarette. “This is the best sunrise in the world,” she said. “Look at it.” I glanced over my shoulder. I had my back to the sunrise, because I couldn’t face something so beautiful in that moment. “And last night, I heard the moon was gorgeous. I missed it. But there’ll be another one in a month. The sun keeps rising. The moon does, too.” She took a drag from her cigarette.

I listened a while longer. After we parted I put my earbuds in and walked around the building. My tears were now pouring. I was completely shaken. Being a survivor myself, I never wanted to make someone feel like I would attack them. It struck my core. As my feet rhythmically hit the concrete, more tears fell.

When I finally reached the beach again, I squatted at the water’s edge. Birds cawed as the salty water splashed upon the rocks in the sand. I wept bitterly. I walked until the sand ran out, then turned back around. I gripped a large, smooth stone in my hand. I gathered more rocks—a white stone, a large reddish orange one. I stacked them, a tower of prayers to God. I thought of Jacob in Genesis as I said a prayer for this woman, for all women, the stones in our hearts stacked upon each other to create a safe space: a new dawn.

That afternoon I almost forgot about the encounter. I was buzzing from the excitement of the conference I was attending and had walked downtown to feed my coffee addiction. Across from the coffee shop I saw a store selling feminist artwork. Inside I saw a display: seven rocks stacked on top of each other. Here in this shop made for women was the same symbol I created on the beach. My empathy is a curse, because I have such a hard time letting go of others’ stones. Yet, it is also a blessing, because it is when we stop having these visceral reactions to abuse and hatred that we lose hope. When we stop feeling other people’s pain, something is wrong.

Katrina Pekich-Bundy Hanover, IN

She died at dawn, my wife of 58 years. It was the darkest day I have ever known. God must have had other things to do that day, because I felt utterly alone—abandoned.

It was almost four months from that first frantic rush to the hospital when she suddenly could not breathe until she breathed no more. Thyroid cancer, operation, a stroke, right side useless, tracheotomy, lost voice. She would point to letters on a chart. I was slow to comprehend, and she’d smile at me. Stomach tube, helplessness, medications—so many medications—wheelchair, walker, her always with a smile, me always fearing, trying to comfort her, to hold her up. How many kinds of therapy are there? We must have endured most of them. We held off on the radiation, hoping for strength to return.

And then it was too late for radiation. With treatment at an end, she was sent home in my care and hospice was called in. And still she smiled at me. All I could do was tell her I loved her and give her a kiss. Oh, how I loved her—all the while despairing. We battled so hard that last night, her so uncomfortable, me so weary and feeling so inept. And then, on the dark side of dawn, she left me. Suddenly there was nothing left to do but call 911 and cry.

Others have walked such valleys before us, many of whom I have known and who did not emerge. Maybe if I had walked it by myself, I could have feared no evil, but walking it with her I was so utterly afraid. It was as though I could see nothing but darkness ahead, whereas she smiled bravely in the face of it. Maybe indeed she felt God with her when I could not.

In the days after her death, gratitude crept in very slowly. I was grateful to God for allowing me to share so much of my life with this wonderful woman, grateful for all her gifts that made our life together so wondrous, grateful for the children she bore and raised so well. Grief never left, but it slowly gave way to gratitude—and the more it did, the closer I once again felt to God, even to the point of thanking God for relieving her of living on in pain and without hope.

I am an early riser, but dawn will never be the same for me. It has been almost a year now, and there is no dawn that I do not think of her again, of how I loved and lost her, of how I miss her, and of all we shared. And then, once again, I thank God for her.

Herb Evert Cottage Grove, WI

It was 1972. I was ten years old. I had lived this moment a million times in my imagination: boarding a train for my first long-distance ride. I imagined sharply dressed porters standing at attention alongside a gleaming stainless steel train. I had placed myself in a 1950s railroad brochure my uncle gave me.

The train in the brochure touted vista domes—train cars with a glassed-in second floor for panoramic sightseeing. I imagined climbing the spiral stairway to sit under glass as the landscape swept by. I would drink in the view. I would fly through it, watching as grassland changed into cropland, into trees, into hills cut through by rivers, and then into a cityscape.

But the brochure I picked up as we waited at the station did not mention vista dome cars. I was devastated.

There were other disappointments. The conductor was not a smiling chap looking at his pocket watch. I had imagined I would ask him questions about the train, and he would put his arm around me and warmly welcome me aboard. I guess I had not heeded my mother’s warnings about letting my mind carry me away from reality. This conductor appeared stern and impatient. “Climb aboard quickly, please. We are late and have no time to waste.” I remained silent, afraid to bother him.

So boarding the train was nothing like I had expected. I had not had time to look at our car, let alone the 12 or so others down the line. It was dark and cold. My only clear view was of the arm of my dad’s tweed jacket and the floral pantsuit of a young woman in front of me. In the darkness of 3 a.m., the dawn was my only hope of seeing that for which I had so longed and dreamed: the vista domes. They would make up for all these other broken illusions.

Meanwhile, not everything was disappointing. The interior of our coach fit my daydreams perfectly. The window shades were exactly like the ones in Uncle Gail’s old brochure. So were the seats. My mother nudged me and commented on how comfortable they were, and I reminded her that they were called “sleepy hollow seats.” I learned that from the brochure, too. My initial disappointment upon boarding was replaced by a muted excitement.

As the porter dimmed the lights and the train eased its way out of the station, my mother noticed an elderly woman across the aisle struggling to figure out how to recline her seat. “My son knows all about how these seats work,” said my mother. I was more than eager to help her, hoping to appear as a veteran railroader. The woman rewarded me with rich gratitude.

Everyone else soon fell asleep, but I was too excited. I amused myself by pressing my face against the cool glass of the window, straining to see the train cars ahead and behind. But at that point there were no curves in the track, and it was very dark. So I waited and hoped. I fell asleep with my head still against the window.

I awoke with a start. The steady hum had been replaced for an instant by the sharp squeal of the wheels’ metal flanges grinding against the steel rails as they began a sharp curve. As I adjusted my eyes to the dimness of the early morning, a sudden beam of light struck me. It was the sun, creeping over the top of the embankment.

Because the dawn came exactly when it did—during that curve in the track—it gave me a glimpse of the cars ahead and behind. And there they were, in all their stainless steel and glass glory: vista domes. Just like in the brochure.

The rising sun transformed disappointment and doubt in a split second. At that moment, I knew I would get to ride in a vista dome. And the joy from that reality, coming after several disappointments, returns to me every time I bring that trip to mind. Ever since then, I have looked to the dawn for hope.

Randall Goeke Atkinson, NE

“My sister’s name is Morning Dove and brother’s name is Rain,” I cried out to my husband. I was trying to contemplate how I was going to fit into my biological family, with which I had just made contact at the age of 28. Every fiber of me felt the fear of not fitting in anywhere, of being different yet again. “How will they ever accept a woman from Connecticut with two children, a husband, and a dog? For goodness sake, the only thing I don’t have is a white picket fence.”

I projected judgment from people I had never met, and I looked to my husband for reassurance. “Honey, they will love you,” he said. “You will fit right in.”

I looked at him, stunned and confused. Had he not heard me? They were from Oregon. They had often lived without electricity and running water, and their names were Morning Dove and Rain. What would we possibly have in common aside from 50 percent of our DNA?

He looked at me and laughed, “You don’t see any connections here? Morning Dove, Rain, and Dawn?” He lengthened out my name, emphasizing each letter.

I had never heard my name in that context. I was named after a doll. Dawns were fashionable, lifelike dolls that came out before Barbies. My mother told me the story over and over: she loved her dolls and always said one day she would name her daughter Dawn. This story had become part of who I was—I was a gift that answered a childhood prayer. When she was young, Santa brought the doll. When she was an adult, Catholic Charities brought me.

I thought to myself, Who was this Dawn that went with morning doves and rain? Did this mean I was a different me—not a doll, not a gift, but an elusive space in time when the sun peeks over the horizon? A liminal threshold between night and day that slips away almost before you take full notice of it but is breathtakingly beautiful if you take the time to bear witness?

In the many years that have since passed, my biological mother has never told me the name she would have given me or if she even had one picked out. But the coincidence was powerful. I was one child with two names, even though they are spelled and pronounced the same way: Dawn, the morning sun and the childhood doll.

On that day, a feeling of belonging overcame me that superseded any logic: Morning Dove, Rain, and Dawn. I’m not sure who laughed harder as the recognition of what my husband had said rolled over me. God had shown that I was beloved both where I came from and where I was. My fears washed away. I was Dawn.

Dawn Adams Brimfield, MA

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  1. Youth Empowerment

    A New Dawn's youth workers provide personal support and guidance while contending with rising trends in school dropout rates, violence and unemployment to help shape the next generation of Bedouin adults. Once the youth turn 18 they graduate the Youth Empowerment program and begin our 'Next Steps' employment placement program.

  2. PDF Intervention Strategies that Work for Youth

    issues, emphasizing capacity building, scaling-up and sustainability, and youth involvement. This is the first in a new series of Youth Issues Working Papers to be produced by YouthNet on various topics. Part of YouthNet's mandate is to make the FOCUS materials as widely available as possible, including publication in multiple languages,

  3. Introduction

    A new dawn for youth crime prevention? References References. ... 1 Integrated or targeted youth support services: an essay on 'prevention' Notes. Notes. 2 Intervening in gang-affected neighbourhoods ... The rapidly changing early intervention youth justice policy terrain suggests that prevention is the focus of far greater political ...

  4. Literature Review: Emerging Youth Intervention Practices

    Identifying proven and effective intervention strategies to mitigate the growing number of unhoused youth is a still-growing body of research. Because the unhoused youth population is incredibly heterogeneous, research has yet to understand how various interventions impact minority groups, like Black and Latinx youth, former foster youth, and ...

  5. Ensuring Healthy Youth Development through Community Schools: A Case

    Tier 2 early identification and intervention strategies target at-risk and gifted and talented students (for example, social skills groups, after-school tutoring). Tier 3 indicated interventions focused on students and families with highly individualized needs (for example, school-based mental health services).

  6. (PDF) Awakening to a New Dawn: Perspectives of the ...

    A new framework is provided, the Tripartite Model of School-Based Mental Health Interventions, to stimulate future thinking on school-based programs and to help guide a second-generation of programs.

  7. Black Youth and African-Centered Interventions: A Systematic Review

    As a framework interchangeably referred to as "Afrocentric," or "African-centered," African-centered youth development models of practice focus on instilling indigenous African and African diasporan cultural values among African descent youth (Gilbert et al., 2009).For many Afrocentric scholars, practitioners, and community activists, the pursuit of African-centered models for guiding ...

  8. South Africa's International Relations: A New Dawn?

    A key aspect of the intended new dawn is the repositioning of South Africa regionally and globally. This paper examines the shifts and the continuity in South Africa's foreign policy, and the reasons for its waning global and regional stature. The paper argues that South Africa is once again in a position to be a norm- and agenda-setter ...

  9. Diverse Diversions: Youth Justice Reform, Localized Practices, and a

    Following their election in 1997, the New Labour government radically and rapidly overhauled juvenile justice with the Crime and Disorder Act (CDA) 1998. Juvenile Justice Departments were replaced by Youth Offending Teams under the management of a new Youth Justice Board. Practice was closely regulated and structured by a new

  10. Dusk to Dawn: Evaluating the effect of a hospital-based youth violence

    Youth violence prevention programming including an explicit discussion of how violence is learned and the role of family, friends, school, and a community in shaping youths' attitudes toward violence can effectively raise awareness of one's own risk factors. ... Dusk to Dawn (D2D), intended to improve youths' recognition of high-risk situations ...

  11. Our Mission

    A New Dawn documents and shares traditional cultural practices that, for generations, have represented the essence of Bedouin life. International activities: We facilitating visits for outside groups to come see what life is like in the Negev. We also organize international youth exchanges where our youth can meet other children of the same age ...

  12. Egyptian youth and new dawn hopes

    Egyptian youth and new dawn hopes. For young Egyptians, long-dormant patriotism and pride have been finally awakened.

  13. A New Dawn: Program for High School Drop Outs

    Final Project: A New Dawn Summary A New Dawn is a program which will help students who have dropped out of high school become members of society who will be...

  14. PDF Implementing Youth Violence Reduction Strategies

    enforcement, and community-violence-intervention stakeholders as they implement new strategies and refine existing ones to reduce youth gang/group and gun violence in their communities. The primary audience for the guide—and for this scan of interventions—is the leadership of local government bodies

  15. Home

    YOU are YIPA. If you support young people, YOU belong here!YIPA is an inclusive association of youth-serving programs that empower our young people. Together, we create a one-of-a-kind community that unites the large and diverse field of youth development. We learn from each other, encourage each other, and grow together.Ask A QuestionMeet The YIPA CommunityStay ConnectedThe Professional Youth ...

  16. A New Dawn

    A new dawn connotes new things, experiencing a change of story or situation for the better. A new dawn is often pregnant with so many possibilities and what we should ask ourselves is, what do I need to do so as to key in, into these possibilities. 1. A New or a Renewed Vision. A vision is a picture projecting a desirable future.

  17. National Youth Conference: FG receives action plan for implementation

    As the maiden edition of the National Youth Conference (NYC) ended in Abuja with about 34 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, major youth organisations and agencies participating in the programme, the federal government has been presented with an action plan for implementation. The Minister of Youth and Sports Development, Mr...

  18. New Dawn Government Launches National Youth Development Programme

    It represents a clear step taken by the New Dawn government to address youth unemployment and give more opportunities to young people across the country, whilst contributing to Zambia's economic development. The Minister of Youth summarised the plan stating, "As you may be aware, Zambian youths who constitute a majority of our country's ...

  19. The Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) Program: A New

    The International Diabetes Federation (IDF)published a special issue of its journal Diabetes Voice, which was distributed in 140 countries; this issue was dedicated to the implications of the DAWN study and the resulting international DAWN Call to Action and triggered many new DAWN activities. 28 In the United States, the American Diabetes ...

  20. The Dawn of a New Era

    The following is an essay from SGI President Ikeda's new series "Our Brilliant Human Revolution," which originally appeared in the Feb. 4, 2019, issue of the Seikyo Shimbun, the Soka Gakkai's daily newspaper. "Light enlightens," declared the great French writer Victor Hugo (1802-85). His masterpiece Les Misérables relates the quest for the light that makes

  21. Prioritising youth

    Stifling and suffocating the voice of the youth is only going to make them more rebellious. In fact, it is for this very reason that they have come to see the PTI as a symbol of resistance against ...

  22. A New Dawn

    There is one generation that can begin that healing process and there is one generation who can accept the past as the past and move onwards, building a new, fresher, healthier world. And that ...

  23. Dawn: Essays by readers

    We hugged and said good-bye, both knowing that daybreak can follow great darkness. Dawn is the holder of a very thin veil that separates darkness from light. It knows the reality of darkness even as it declares the presence of light. Dawn is that break into the day where the new begins, giving grace its definition.