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15 Product Management Case Studies [Detailed Analysis][2024]

In today’s fast-paced and highly competitive business environment, effective product management has never been more crucial. It is a strategic catalyst that drives innovation and shapes how companies respond to evolving market demands and consumer preferences. This article delves into product management by examining 15 diverse global case studies, each showcasing the profound impact and key learnings derived from some of the world’s most influential companies. From Apple’s groundbreaking entry into the smartphone market to Spotify’s transformation of music consumption, and Toyota’s efficiency-driven Lean Production Model, these case studies offer a panoramic view of how strategic product management can lead to revolutionary changes in various industries. The article aims to provide valuable insights into the challenges faced, solutions implemented, and the overarching effects of these strategies, revealing how companies like Airbnb, Tesla, Zoom, Slack, Samsung, Netflix, and Patagonia have not only achieved market success but also set new benchmarks and trends in their respective domains. Through this exploration, we aim to equip current and aspiring product managers and business leaders with practical knowledge and inspiration to navigate the complex landscape of product management, driving innovation and success in their ventures.

Related: How to Build a Career in Product Management?

1. Apple Inc. – Reinventing the Smartphone


Apple’s entry into the already crowded mobile phone market was a bold move, particularly with the objective of introducing a product that wasn’t just another addition but a complete redefinition of what a mobile phone could be. The challenge was to innovate in a way that would not only capture the market’s attention but also set a new standard for user interaction, functionality, and design in the smartphone industry.

The solution lay in the development of the iPhone, a device that combined a phone, an iPod, and an internet communicator. This integration, coupled with a pioneering touchscreen interface and a focus on user experience, positioned the iPhone not just as a product but as an ecosystem. Apple’s emphasis on design, functionality, and user interface created a product that stood out from its competitors.

Overall Impact:

  • Revolutionized the smartphone industry.
  • Set new standards for technology and user experience.

Key Learnings:

  • Innovation can disrupt established markets.
  • User-centric design is crucial in technology products.

2. Spotify – Transforming Music Consumption

In an era dominated by music piracy and declining physical album sales, Spotify faced the daunting task of reshaping how people accessed and paid for music. The challenge was not only technological but also cultural, requiring a shift in consumer habits and a rethinking of the existing music industry’s business model.

Spotify’s approach was to introduce a user-friendly music streaming service, offering a vast library of tracks with both a free, ad-supported model and a premium subscription option. This strategy addressed the issues of accessibility and affordability while respecting the rights of artists and producers, thus presenting an attractive alternative to illegal downloads.

  • Influenced the revenue model of the entire music industry.
  • Became a leader in music streaming.
  • Innovative business models can redefine industries.
  • Addressing consumer pain points is key to success.

3. Toyota – The Lean Production Model

Toyota was confronted with the challenge of enhancing efficiency and reducing waste in their production processes. The automotive industry, characterized by intense competition and high operational costs, demanded a strategy that not only improved production efficiency but also maintained high quality.

Toyota implemented the Lean Production Model, a revolutionary approach focusing on ‘Kaizen’ or continuous improvement. This methodology involved streamlining the manufacturing process, reducing waste, and empowering workers to contribute to ongoing improvements. The Lean Model emphasized efficiency, flexibility, and a relentless pursuit of quality in production.

  • Enhanced operational efficiency and profitability.
  • Established as a benchmark for manufacturing excellence.
  • Efficiency and quality are pillars of manufacturing success.
  • Continuous improvement drives operational excellence.

Related: Reasons to Study Product Management

4. Airbnb – Revolutionizing Hospitality

Airbnb aimed to carve out a new niche in the hospitality industry, which was traditionally dominated by hotels. The challenge was multifaceted, involving regulatory hurdles, building trust among users, and creating a reliable and scalable platform that connected homeowners with travelers seeking unique lodging experiences.

The solution was the creation of a user-friendly online platform that enabled homeowners to list their properties for short-term rental. This platform not only provided an alternative to traditional hotels but also fostered a sense of community and unique travel experiences. Airbnb focused on building a robust review system and transparent policies to overcome trust and safety concerns.

  • Disrupted the traditional hotel industry.
  • Became a leading figure in the sharing economy.
  • Innovative platforms can create new market segments.
  • Trust and transparency are crucial in community-driven businesses.

5. Tesla – Electrifying the Auto Industry

Tesla embarked on the ambitious goal of popularizing electric vehicles (EVs) as a sustainable and viable alternative to gasoline-powered cars. This task involved overcoming preconceptions about the performance, range, and practicality of EVs, as well as establishing the necessary infrastructure for their adoption.

Tesla’s approach was to develop high-performance, luxury electric vehicles that combined environmental friendliness with cutting-edge technology and stylish design. This strategy helped to change the perception of EVs from being seen as inferior alternatives to gasoline cars to desirable, high-tech vehicles. Tesla also invested in building a network of charging stations, further facilitating the practicality of EV ownership.

  • Led the transition towards electric vehicle adoption.
  • Influenced the auto industry’s direction towards sustainability.
  • Sustainable technology can be aligned with luxury and performance.
  • Changing consumer perceptions is key to introducing new technology.

6. Zoom – Simplifying Remote Communication

In a market crowded with various communication tools, Zoom faced the challenge of differentiating itself and proving its value. The goal was to provide a solution that was not only reliable and easy to use but also superior in terms of video and audio quality compared to existing offerings.

Zoom focused on creating a user-friendly platform that offered high-definition video and clear audio, even in low-bandwidth situations. This commitment to quality and reliability, combined with features like screen sharing, virtual backgrounds, and easy integration with other tools, made Zoom a preferred choice for businesses and individuals alike, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Became a staple tool for remote communication.
  • Highlighted during the global shift to remote work due to the pandemic.
  • Reliability and user experience are critical in technology solutions.
  • Agility in adapting to market changes is vital.

Related: History & Origin of Product Management

7. Slack – Redefining Workplace Collaboration

Slack was developed with the vision of transforming the cluttered and inefficient landscape of workplace communication, dominated by email. The challenge was to create a platform that not only streamlined communication but also integrated various work tools to enhance productivity and collaboration.

The solution was an intuitive, chat-based platform that allowed for real-time messaging, file sharing, and integration with a wide range of work tools and applications. Slack’s focus on reducing the reliance on emails and consolidating communication into a single, searchable platform revolutionized team collaboration and internal communication in businesses.

  • Changed the dynamics of team communication and collaboration.
  • Became a central tool in many organizations for internal communication.
  • Streamlining common practices can create significant market opportunities.
  • Integration and user-friendliness are key in collaborative tools.

8. Samsung – Innovation in Electronics

Samsung’s challenge was to establish itself as a leader in the highly competitive and rapidly evolving consumer electronics market. This required keeping up with technological advancements and differentiating its products in terms of quality, innovation, and user experience.

Samsung’s strategy involved substantial investment in research and development, focusing on bringing innovative and high-quality products to the market. Their innovation commitment spanned various product categories, including smartphones, televisions, and home appliances. This focus on quality and technological advancement helped Samsung achieve a leading position in the global electronics market.

  • Achieved a leading position in the consumer electronics market.
  • Known for innovation and quality in product offerings.
  • Innovation is crucial in technology sectors.
  • Quality and continuous improvement attract consumer loyalty.

9. Netflix – Pioneering Streaming Services

Netflix’s journey began with the goal of transforming the traditional movie rental business. The challenge was to transition from a DVD rental service to an online streaming platform, requiring a technological shift and a change in consumer viewing habits and content distribution models.

The solution was a gradual but determined shift to an online streaming model, offering customers an extensive and ever-growing library of movies and TV shows. Netflix’s investment in original content and exclusive deals with production studios further enhanced their appeal. This strategic pivot catered to the growing demand for on-demand entertainment, free from physical media and broadcast schedules constraints.

  • Redefined media consumption habits.
  • Led the rise of online streaming services.
  • Adaptability to technology and market trends is critical.
  • Investing in original content can differentiate streaming services.

Related: Top Product Management Tools

10. Patagonia – Ethical Product Management

In a clothing industry often criticized for environmental and ethical issues, Patagonia aimed to differentiate itself by committing to sustainability and ethical practices. The challenge was not only to maintain profitability but also to influence consumer behavior and industry standards towards more responsible practices.

Patagonia’s approach included using sustainable materials, ensuring transparency in their supply chain, and advocating for environmental causes. Their commitment extended to initiatives like repairing products to extend their lifespan and encouraging responsible consumption. This strategy appealed to environmentally conscious consumers and set a new standard for corporate responsibility in the clothing industry.

  • Became a model for sustainability in the clothing industry.
  • Influenced both consumer and industry practices towards eco-friendliness.
  • Sustainability can be a unique selling proposition.
  • Ethical practices enhance brand loyalty and reputation.

11. Microsoft – Shifting to Cloud Computing

Microsoft faced significant challenges in adapting to the rapidly evolving technology landscape. The traditional software model of boxed products had grown increasingly obsolete due to a surge in cloud computing. Emerging competitors like Amazon Web Services and Google’s cloud platform gained momentum, providing flexible, scalable solutions that shifted the market’s preference away from on-premise software to on-demand, subscription-based models. Microsoft needed to transform its business approach and product portfolio to align with these market trends

Under CEO Satya Nadella’s leadership, Microsoft shifted focus to cloud computing, developing Azure as an end-to-end platform providing comprehensive infrastructure and software services. The company also transitioned its flagship Office suite to a cloud-based subscription model with Office 365. They emphasized flexibility, scalability, and security while ensuring seamless integration with existing Microsoft products. Investments in data centers globally and new pricing models enabled Microsoft to compete directly with other leading cloud providers.

  • Transformed Microsoft into a leader in cloud computing.
  • Significantly increased recurring revenue through subscription-based services.
  • Implementation of emerging technologies is vital for staying ahead of market trends.
  • Subscription models can create predictable and sustainable revenue streams.

12. Lego – Rebuilding a Toy Empire

Lego was at a crossroads in the early 2000s. The company had overextended its product lines, ventured into unrelated business areas, and faced fierce competition from digital entertainment sources like video games. The result was a decline in sales and profitability, jeopardizing the company’s future and threatening the iconic brand with irrelevance.

To rebuild its brand, Lego implemented a back-to-basics approach, refocusing on its core product, the Lego brick. It also streamlined its product lines and improved internal operations. Partnering with entertainment franchises such as Star Wars and Harry Potter, they launched themed Lego sets that resonated with younger generations. Lego expanded its reach into digital media with video games and movies like The Lego Movie, engaging customers through multiple channels and breathing new life into the brand.

  • Restored profitability and renewed consumer interest in Lego products.
  • Expanded their presence into digital media and entertainment.
  • Diversification and partnerships can revitalize traditional products.
  • Engaging customers across multiple channels strengthens brand loyalty.

Related: Inspirational Product Management Quotes

13. Dropbox – User-Friendly Cloud Storage

Dropbox faced the challenge of competing with tech giants including Google and Microsoft in the nascent cloud storage market. While these companies offered vast storage solutions integrated with their productivity suites, Dropbox needed to carve out a niche by appealing to users with an easy-to-use, reliable platform. They aimed to provide seamless file synchronization, security, and accessibility across devices.

Dropbox placed simplicity at the forefront, developing a cross-platform application that allowed users to sync files effortlessly across multiple devices. The system’s seamless synchronization and ease of use differentiated it from other cloud storage providers. They employed a freemium model that offered free storage with the option to upgrade for more capacity and features, attracting millions of users globally and enabling them to monetize their growing user base.

  • Became a trusted name in cloud storage, with millions of users worldwide.
  • Pioneered the freemium model, offering free and paid plans.
  • User experience is a differentiator in competitive tech markets.
  • Freemium models can attract users and convert them to paid subscriptions.

14. Nike – Personalizing Athletic Wear

Nike, already a leader in sports apparel, faced stiff competition from rivals like Adidas and Under Armour. The company needed a unique strategy to differentiate its products and capture the loyalty of a diverse, increasingly demanding customer base. Customers wanted personalized experiences, and Nike aimed to address this by providing a solution that matched their specific preferences in athletic wear.

Nike launched the NikeID program, which allowed customers to personalize their athletic gear online, choosing colors, patterns, and custom text. This innovation expanded the company’s appeal to athletes and fashion-conscious consumers alike, helping them express their individuality while boosting engagement. By streamlining the customization process and leveraging digital technology, NikeID created an experience that could be replicated globally, resulting in increased brand loyalty and revenues.

  • Elevated customer engagement through personalized experiences.
  • Expanded customization to a broad range of products, increasing brand loyalty.
  • Personalization can differentiate brands in competitive markets.
  • Engaging customers in the design process enhances brand value.

15. Procter & Gamble – Open Innovation with Connect + Develop

Procter & Gamble (P&G), known for a vast portfolio of consumer goods, recognized that the traditional R&D process was becoming slower and costlier, hampering the company’s ability to innovate. With the proliferation of specialized knowledge worldwide, P&G realized that internal expertise alone wouldn’t suffice fulfill the increasing demand for new products across its various brands. They needed to find a way to tap into external innovation to stay ahead of the competition.

P&G launched the Connect + Develop platform, an open innovation initiative that invited inventors, academics, and other companies to submit ideas and collaborate on new products. This platform enabled P&G to access global expertise and accelerate the product development process by integrating external solutions with their own internal capabilities. The platform generated new partnerships that broadened P&G’s R&D reach and enhanced the product pipelines for various brands, significantly improving efficiency and innovation.

  • Increased innovation by sourcing solutions from a global network.
  • Enhanced product pipelines across multiple categories.
  • Open innovation can tap into global expertise for improved R&D.
  • Collaborating beyond company boundaries accelerates product development.

Related: Product Management Failure Examples

Closing Thoughts

In conclusion, these case studies exemplify the transformative power of effective product management. They highlight the importance of understanding market needs, embracing innovation, focusing on user experience, and the value of ethical practices. Aspiring business leaders can draw valuable lessons from these examples to navigate challenges and drive success in their endeavors.

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50 Product Management Case Studies

We often wonder what kind of process other product teams have created, planned, and most importantly, how they have implemented it. That is why we at Producter have compiled 50 different case studies for you.

2 years ago   •   4 min read

We often wonder what kind of process other product teams have created, planned, and most importantly, how they have implemented it.

That is why we at Producter have compiled 50 different case studies for you.

Brought to you by Roadmape

case study for product

1- Rules of Flow for Product Management: an AirBnB Case Study

“Engagement” is a term that is so overused in product management that it has almost lost its meaning. So often I’ve heard from teams, “We’ll measure the success of this test with engagement,” which could mean anything from feature click-through to bounce to we-aren’t-really-sure-this-will-drive-conversion-so-we’re-hedging-our-bet. Underneath, the reason this term has been co-opted and jargonized is that genuine, productive engagement can be ramped toward long-term customer loyalty. And loyalty pays off: a loyalty increase of 7% can boost lifetime profits per customer by as much as 85%, and a loyalty increase of 3% can correlate to a 10% cost reduction ( Brand Keys ).

an AirBnB Case Study

2- The Psychology of Clubhouse’s User Retention (...and churn)

Clubhouse’s User Retention

3- Netflix Q1 ’21 Subscriber Growth Miss: Can We Avoid Another One?

As a data analyst supporting a mobile subscription business , Netflix’s Q1 ’21 subscriber growth miss is a classic example of when I would get called for recommendations to prevent a miss in the future. I thought this would make an interesting case study to discuss my approach to finding insights to drive subscriber growth. Sadly I’m not a Netflix employee and will be limited to publicly available data but the wealth of information on the Internet about Netflix is sufficient to generate insights for this case study.


4- Amazon Go Green

As part of the Design Challenge from productdesign.tips, our team came together to find ways for Amazon to encourage more sustainability on their e-commerce platform. As with any unsolicited design project, the challenge comes with a lack of access to application analytics and technical feasibilities. Nonetheless, the question remains: How might we design checkout screens for an e-commerce app to help people recycle the goods they buy?

Amazon Go

5- Quora Case Study – The Wonderful World of Quora

Quora has become a substantive resource for millions of entrepreneurs and one of the best sources for Business to Business market. Majorly used by writers, scholars, bloggers, investors, consultants, students this Q/A site has much to offer in terms of knowledge sharing, connection building and information gathering.


6- Building a product without any full-time product managers


Jambb is an emerging social platform where creators grow their communities by recognizing and rewarding fans for their support. Currently, creators monetize fan engagement through advertisements, merchandise, and subscriptions, to name a few. However, this only represents 1% of fans, leaving the other 99% (who contribute in non-monetary ways) without the same content, access, and recognition that they deserve.


8- What if you can create Listening Sessions on Spotify

Summary: The project was done as a part of a user experience design challenge given to me by a company. I was given the brief by them to work on a feature of Spotify and I spent around 25–30 hours on the challenge in which I went through the entire process, from the research to testing.


9- Redesigned Apple Maps and replicated an Apple product launch for it

Quick-fire question; what is the single most important and widely used feature in a phone — asides from texting and instant messaging friends, coworkers and family? Maybe you guessed right, perhaps this feature is so integrated into your life that you didn’t even think about it — either way, it is your phone’s GPS. It is reasonable to say that GPS technology has changed society’s lives in ways we never could’ve imagined. Gone are the days of using physically printed maps and almanacks, when we now have smartphones with navigation apps. Since the launch of the iPhone and the App Store, consumers have been able to use different apps for their personal navigation needs. Everyone has a preference, and apps have come out to try and address every need.


10- Intuitive design and product-led growth

In 2018, Miro was hardly a blip on the radar in the Design world. Fast forward two years, and suddenly Miro is solidly the number one tool for brainstorming and ideation.


Click below to see the complete list 👇

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Product management case studies - Netflix, Spotify, Slack and Airbnb

Goutham Jagannatha

Case studies play a pivotal role in product management, serving as valuable tools to understand real-world scenarios, learn from past successes and failures, and shape future strategies. 🎯💡

The Importance of Case Studies in Product Management 🔍📚🚀 ​

In this article, we explore the significance of case studies in product management and how they provide actionable insights, inspire innovation, and drive effective decision-making. So, let's dive in and discover why case studies are an indispensable asset for product managers! 🕵️‍♂️💼💡

🧐 Gaining Insights from Real-World Scenarios ​

Case studies offer a glimpse into real-life product management experiences, showcasing the challenges faced, strategies implemented, and outcomes achieved. They provide an opportunity to learn from industry leaders and understand how they tackled complex problems, made critical decisions, and achieved success. 💡🎓📊

💡 Inspiring Innovation and Creativity ​

By analyzing case studies, product managers can uncover innovative approaches and creative solutions implemented by successful companies. These success stories can serve as a catalyst for fresh ideas, spark creativity, and inspire new ways of thinking. 🚀💡💭

🚦 Avoiding Costly Mistakes ​

Case studies not only highlight success stories but also shed light on failures and pitfalls encountered by organizations. By studying these failures, product managers can identify common pitfalls, avoid costly mistakes, and make informed decisions based on lessons learned from others' experiences. 🚫💸🚧

🔄 Adapting Strategies to Different Contexts ​

Each case study presents a unique context, market dynamics, and customer segments. By examining a range of case studies, product managers can gain insights into how strategies and approaches differ based on industry, company size, target audience, and other factors. This adaptability is crucial in developing customized strategies for their own products and markets. 📊🌍🔀

🌟 Validating and Communicating Product Decisions ​

Case studies serve as concrete evidence to validate product decisions and gain stakeholder buy-in. By referencing successful case studies, product managers can showcase the effectiveness of their strategies and build confidence in their decision-making process. This can be particularly valuable when navigating complex organizational structures or addressing skeptics. 💪✅🗣️

📈 Driving Continuous Improvement ​

Through case studies, product managers can identify areas of improvement, spot trends, and drive continuous innovation. By analyzing successful case studies, they can identify best practices to emulate and incorporate into their own product management processes. This constant quest for improvement ensures staying ahead in an ever-evolving market. 🔄📈💡

So, whether you are a seasoned product manager or just starting your journey, embracing case studies as a valuable resource can unlock invaluable insights, inspire innovation, and guide your product management decisions. 🎓🔍🚀

Now, let's delve into some captivating case studies and extract the pearls of wisdom they offer! 💎📚✨

Case Study 1: Netflix - Personalization and Content Recommendation ​

Netflix is a global streaming service that offers a wide range of movies, TV shows, and original content. One of the key challenges for Netflix's product management team was to enhance personalization and content recommendation to improve user engagement and retention.

Challenges Faced: ​

  • Content Diversity: With a vast library of titles across different genres and categories, Netflix needed to cater to diverse user preferences and ensure that each user discovered content tailored to their tastes.
  • User Retention: Keeping users engaged and subscribed to the platform was essential for Netflix's long-term success in the highly competitive streaming market.
  • Discoverability: With an ever-growing library, it was crucial for Netflix to help users navigate and find relevant content easily.

Product Management Strategies Implemented: ​

  • Recommendation Algorithms: Netflix developed sophisticated recommendation algorithms that analyzed user viewing history, ratings, and behavior patterns to generate personalized recommendations. These algorithms leveraged machine learning and AI techniques to provide users with suggestions based on their individual tastes.
  • Content Tagging and Metadata: Netflix invested in tagging and categorizing its content with rich metadata, including genre, subgenre, themes, cast, and more. This enabled the platform to create personalized content collections and improve search and discovery functionalities. Personalized Thumbnails: Netflix tested and implemented personalized thumbnails that displayed images relevant to individual users' preferences and viewing habits. This approach aimed to capture user attention and increase the likelihood of content selection.
  • A/B Testing and Experimentation: Netflix conducted extensive A/B testing and experimentation to optimize the user interface, recommendation algorithms, and user experience. This iterative approach allowed them to continuously improve the platform based on data-driven insights.

Results and Lessons Learned: ​

  • Improved User Engagement: Netflix's personalized recommendations and content discovery features significantly increased user engagement and the amount of time users spent on the platform.
  • Enhanced User Retention: By consistently delivering content that aligned with individual user preferences, Netflix successfully retained users and reduced churn rates.
  • Differentiation in the Market: The focus on personalization and recommendation algorithms helped Netflix differentiate itself from competitors and establish its position as a leading streaming service.

Case study 2: Spotify - Personalization and Discoverability ​

Spotify is a leading music streaming platform with millions of users worldwide. One of the key challenges for Spotify's product management team was to improve personalization and discoverability to enhance the user experience and increase user engagement.

  • Content Overload: With a vast library of songs, playlists, and podcasts, Spotify users faced difficulties in discovering new content that aligned with their tastes and preferences.
  • User Retention: Ensuring users stayed engaged and retained on the platform was crucial for Spotify's long-term success in a highly competitive market. Catering to Diverse Tastes: Spotify needed to cater to a wide range of musical genres and user preferences to provide a personalized experience for each individual user.
  • Recommendation Algorithms: Spotify leveraged advanced recommendation algorithms to analyze user listening patterns, preferences, and behaviors. These algorithms provided personalized recommendations for songs, playlists, and podcasts based on individual user profiles.
  • Discover Weekly and Release Radar: Spotify introduced personalized playlists like Discover Weekly and Release Radar, which curated a selection of new and relevant content for each user on a weekly basis. These playlists helped users explore new music and stay up-to-date with their favorite artists.
  • User-Curated Playlists: Spotify empowered users to create and share their own playlists, fostering a sense of community and allowing users to discover music based on the recommendations of others with similar tastes.
  • Collaborations and Exclusive Content: Spotify forged partnerships with artists, influencers, and podcast creators to offer exclusive content and collaborations. This enhanced the platform's discoverability and provided unique experiences for users.
  • Enhanced Discoverability: Spotify's personalized recommendations and curated playlists significantly improved the discoverability of content for users, leading to increased engagement and satisfaction.
  • Improved User Retention: By tailoring the user experience to individual preferences and providing fresh and relevant content, Spotify was able to retain users for longer periods, reducing churn rates.
  • Differentiation in the Market: The focus on personalization and discoverability helped Spotify differentiate itself from competitors and solidify its position as a leading music streaming platform.

Case Study 3: Airbnb - Scaling Trust and Safety Measures ​

Airbnb is a global online marketplace that connects travelers with hosts offering unique accommodations. As the platform grew in popularity, ensuring trust and safety became a critical focus for Airbnb's product management team.

  • Trust Concerns: Trust and safety were paramount for Airbnb's success. Instances of fraudulent listings, host-guest conflicts, and safety incidents posed a challenge in building trust among users.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Airbnb had to navigate various legal and regulatory frameworks worldwide, ensuring compliance and addressing concerns related to housing regulations, taxation, and guest safety.
  • User Experience: Balancing trust and safety measures without compromising the user experience was essential to maintain the platform's user-friendly nature.
  • Verified Hosts and Guests: Airbnb implemented a verification process, encouraging hosts and guests to provide identity verification, social media profiles, and reviews from previous stays to establish trustworthiness.
  • Ratings and Reviews: The product management team enhanced the ratings and reviews system, allowing users to share their experiences and provide feedback on hosts and guests. This helped establish accountability and transparency.
  • Safety Measures: Airbnb introduced safety features such as secure messaging, 24/7 customer support, and a dedicated Trust and Safety team to address concerns promptly. They also implemented safety guidelines for hosts and guests.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Airbnb collaborated with governments and local authorities to ensure compliance with regulations, providing transparency and addressing concerns related to housing regulations and taxation.
  • Improved Trust: The implementation of verification processes, ratings, and reviews contributed to increased trust among Airbnb users, fostering a safer and more reliable community.
  • Enhanced Safety: The introduction of safety measures and guidelines improved the overall safety of stays, addressing user concerns and reducing incidents.
  • Regulatory Partnerships: Collaborating with governments and local authorities helped Airbnb navigate regulatory challenges and establish a legal framework for operating in various jurisdictions.

Case Study 4: Slack - Improving User Onboarding and Adoption ​

Slack is a widely popular collaboration and communication platform used by teams worldwide. As it gained traction in the market, Slack faced challenges in user onboarding and adoption.

  • Low User Activation: Many new users signed up for Slack but struggled to fully activate and integrate the platform into their workflow.
  • Lack of Engagement: Some users found the platform overwhelming or faced difficulty in navigating its various features, leading to low engagement levels.
  • Competition and Alternatives: Slack faced increasing competition from similar collaboration tools, which prompted the need to differentiate and continuously improve its product.
  • Enhanced Onboarding Experience: Slack's product management team revamped the onboarding process to provide a more guided and intuitive experience for new users. They introduced interactive tutorials, tooltips, and contextual help to help users understand key features and get started quickly.
  • Simplified User Interface: The product management team identified and addressed pain points in the user interface, simplifying navigation and reducing clutter. They focused on improving the overall user experience and making it more intuitive for users to find and utilize the platform's functionalities.
  • Integration with Third-Party Tools: Recognizing the importance of seamless integration, Slack's product management team worked on enhancing the platform's capabilities to integrate with popular third-party tools and services. This allowed users to connect their favorite apps and streamline their workflow within Slack.
  • Improved User Activation: By implementing a more intuitive onboarding experience, Slack witnessed an increase in user activation rates. New users were able to grasp the platform's key features more efficiently, leading to higher adoption.
  • Increased Engagement: The simplified user interface and improved navigation contributed to higher user engagement, as users found it easier to discover and use Slack's features.
  • Competitive Edge: By prioritizing user needs and continuously enhancing the product, Slack maintained a competitive edge over alternative collaboration tools in the market.

Conclusion ​

In product management, case studies serve as valuable resources for gaining insights, inspiring innovation, and driving effective decision-making. By analyzing real-world scenarios, product managers can learn from successes and failures, adapt strategies to different contexts, and validate and communicate product decisions. Case studies provide actionable insights, guide product management practices, and ultimately contribute to the success of products and businesses.

So, whether you're a seasoned product manager or aspiring to be one, embracing case studies as a source of inspiration and learning will help you navigate the dynamic landscape of product management and drive impactful outcomes.

Remember, each case study provides a unique perspective and set of lessons, so explore a diverse range of case studies to expand your knowledge and sharpen your product management skills.

  • 🧐 Gaining Insights from Real-World Scenarios
  • 💡 Inspiring Innovation and Creativity
  • 🚦 Avoiding Costly Mistakes
  • 🔄 Adapting Strategies to Different Contexts
  • 🌟 Validating and Communicating Product Decisions
  • 📈 Driving Continuous Improvement
  • Challenges Faced:
  • Product Management Strategies Implemented:
  • Results and Lessons Learned:

28 Case Study Examples Every Marketer Should See

Caroline Forsey

Published: March 08, 2023

Putting together a compelling case study is one of the most powerful strategies for showcasing your product and attracting future customers. But it's not easy to create case studies that your audience can’t wait to read.

marketer reviewing case study examples

In this post, we’ll go over the definition of a case study and the best examples to inspire you.

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What is a case study?

A case study is a detailed story of something your company did. It includes a beginning — often discussing a conflict, an explanation of what happened next, and a resolution that explains how the company solved or improved on something.

A case study proves how your product has helped other companies by demonstrating real-life results. Not only that, but marketing case studies with solutions typically contain quotes from the customer. This means that they’re not just ads where you praise your own product. Rather, other companies are praising your company — and there’s no stronger marketing material than a verbal recommendation or testimonial. A great case study is also filled with research and stats to back up points made about a project's results.

There are myriad ways to use case studies in your marketing strategy . From featuring them on your website to including them in a sales presentation, a case study is a strong, persuasive tool that shows customers why they should work with you — straight from another customer. Writing one from scratch is hard, though, which is why we’ve created a collection of case study templates for you to get started.

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There’s no better way to generate more leads than by writing case studies . But without case study examples to draw inspiration from, it can be difficult to write impactful studies that convince visitors to submit a form.

Marketing Case Study Examples

To help you create an attractive and high-converting case study, we've put together a list of some of our favorites. This list includes famous case studies in marketing, technology, and business.

These studies can show you how to frame your company offers in a way that is both meaningful and useful to your audience. So, take a look, and let these examples inspire your next brilliant case study design.

These marketing case studies with solutions show the value proposition of each product. They also show how each company benefited in both the short and long term using quantitative data. In other words, you don’t get just nice statements, like "This company helped us a lot." You see actual change within the firm through numbers and figures.

You can put your learnings into action with HubSpot's Free Case Study Templates . Available as custom designs and text-based documents, you can upload these templates to your CMS or send them to prospects as you see fit.

case study template

1. " How Handled Scaled from Zero to 121 Locations with the Help of HubSpot ," by HubSpot

Case study examples: Handled and HubSpot

What's interesting about this case study is the way it leads with the customer. That reflects a major HubSpot cornerstone, which is to always solve for the customer first. The copy leads with a brief description of why the CEO of Handled founded the company and why he thought Handled could benefit from adopting a CRM. The case study also opens up with one key data point about Handled’s success using HubSpot, namely that it grew to 121 locations.

Notice that this case study uses mixed media. Yes, there is a short video, but it's elaborated upon in the other text on the page. So while your case studies can use one or the other, don't be afraid to combine written copy with visuals to emphasize the project's success.

Key Learnings from the HubSpot Case Study Example

  • Give the case study a personal touch by focusing on the CEO rather than the company itself.
  • Use multimedia to engage website visitors as they read the case study.

2. " The Whole Package ," by IDEO

Case study examples: IDEO and H&M

Here's a design company that knows how to lead with simplicity in its case studies. As soon as the visitor arrives at the page, they’re greeted with a big, bold photo and the title of the case study — which just so happens to summarize how IDEO helped its client. It summarizes the case study in three snippets: The challenge, the impact, and the outcome.

Immediately, IDEO communicates its impact — the company partnered with H&M to remove plastic from its packaging — but it doesn't stop there. As the user scrolls down, the challenge, impact, and progress are elaborated upon with comprehensive (but not overwhelming) copy that outlines what that process looked like, replete with quotes and intriguing visuals.

Key Learnings from the IDEO Case Study Example

  • Split up the takeaways of your case studies into bite-sized sections.
  • Always use visuals and images to enrich the case study experience, especially if it’s a comprehensive case study.

3. " Rozum Robotics intensifies its PR game with Awario ," by Awario

Case study example from Awario

In this case study, Awario greets the user with a summary straight away — so if you’re feeling up to reading the entire case study, you can scan the snapshot and understand how the company serves its customers. The case study then includes jump links to several sections, such as "Company Profile," "Rozum Robotics' Pains," "Challenge," "Solution," and "Results and Improvements."

The sparse copy and prominent headings show that you don’t need a lot of elaborate information to show the value of your products and services. Like the other case study examples on this list, it includes visuals and quotes to demonstrate the effectiveness of the company’s efforts. The case study ends with a bulleted list that shows the results.

Key Learnings from the Awario Robotics Case Study Example

  • Create a table of contents to make your case study easier to navigate.
  • Include a bulleted list of the results you achieved for your client.

4. " Chevrolet DTU ," by Carol H. Williams

Case study examples: Carol H. Williams and Chevrolet DTU

If you’ve worked with a company that’s well-known, use only the name in the title — like Carol H. Williams, one of the nation’s top advertising agencies, does here. The "DTU," stands for "Discover the Unexpected." It generates interest because you want to find out what the initials mean.

They keep your interest in this case study by using a mixture of headings, images, and videos to describe the challenges, objectives, and solutions of the project. The case study closes with a summary of the key achievements that Chevrolet’s DTU Journalism Fellows reached during the project.

Key Learnings from the Carol H. Williams Case Study Example

  • If you’ve worked with a big brand before, consider only using the name in the title — just enough to pique interest.
  • Use a mixture of headings and subheadings to guide users through the case study.

5. " How Fractl Earned Links from 931 Unique Domains for Porch.com in a Single Year ," by Fractl

Case study example from Fractl

Fractl uses both text and graphic design in their Porch.com case study to immerse the viewer in a more interesting user experience. For instance, as you scroll, you'll see the results are illustrated in an infographic-design form as well as the text itself.

Further down the page, they use icons like a heart and a circle to illustrate their pitch angles, and graphs to showcase their results. Rather than writing which publications have mentioned Porch.com during Fractl’s campaign, they incorporated the media outlets’ icons for further visual diversity.

Key Learnings from the Fractl Case Study Example

  • Let pictures speak for you by incorporating graphs, logos, and icons all throughout the case study.
  • Start the case study by right away stating the key results, like Fractl does, instead of putting the results all the way at the bottom.

6. " The Met ," by Fantasy

Case study example from Fantasy

What's the best way to showcase the responsiveness and user interface of a website? Probably by diving right into it with a series of simple showcases— which is exactly what Fantasy does on their case study page for the Metropolitan Museum of Art. They keep the page simple and clean, inviting you to review their redesign of the Met’s website feature-by-feature.

Each section is simple, showing a single piece of the new website's interface so that users aren’t overwhelmed with information and can focus on what matters most.

If you're more interested in text, you can read the objective for each feature. Fantasy understands that, as a potential customer, this is all you need to know. Scrolling further, you're greeted with a simple "Contact Us" CTA.

Key Learnings from the Fantasy Case Study Example

  • You don’t have to write a ton of text to create a great case study. Focus on the solution you delivered itself.
  • Include a CTA at the bottom inviting visitors to contact you.

7. " Rovio: How Rovio Grew Into a Gaming Superpower ," by App Annie

Case study example from App Annie

If your client had a lot of positive things to say about you, take a note from App Annie’s Rovio case study and open up with a quote from your client. The case study also closes with a quote, so that the case study doesn’t seem like a promotion written by your marketing team but a story that’s taken straight from your client’s mouth. It includes a photo of a Rovio employee, too.

Another thing this example does well? It immediately includes a link to the product that Rovio used (namely, App Annie Intelligence) at the top of the case study. The case study closes with a call-to-action button prompting users to book a demo.

Key Learnings from the App Annie Case Study Example

  • Feature quotes from your client at the beginning and end of the case study.
  • Include a mention of the product right at the beginning and prompt users to learn more about the product.

8. " Embracing first-party data: 3 success stories from HubSpot ," by Think with Google

Case study examples: Think with Google and HubSpot

Google takes a different approach to text-focused case studies by choosing three different companies to highlight.

The case study is clean and easily scannable. It has sections for each company, with quotes and headers that clarify the way these three distinct stories connect. The simple format also uses colors and text that align with the Google brand.

Another differentiator is the focus on data. This case study is less than a thousand words, but it's packed with useful data points. Data-driven insights quickly and clearly show how the value of leveraging first-party data while prioritizing consumer privacy.

Case studies example: Data focus, Think with Google

Key Learnings from the Think with Google Case Study Example

  • A case study doesn’t need to be long or complex to be powerful.
  • Clear data points are a quick and effective way to prove value.

9. " In-Depth Performance Marketing Case Study ," by Switch

Case study example from Switch

Switch is an international marketing agency based in Malta that knocks it out of the park with this case study. Its biggest challenge is effectively communicating what it did for its client without ever revealing the client’s name. It also effectively keeps non-marketers in the loop by including a glossary of terms on page 4.

The PDF case study reads like a compelling research article, including titles like "In-Depth Performance Marketing Case Study," "Scenario," and "Approach," so that readers get a high-level overview of what the client needed and why they approached Switch. It also includes a different page for each strategy. For instance, if you’d only be interested in hiring Switch for optimizing your Facebook ads, you can skip to page 10 to see how they did it.

The PDF is fourteen pages long but features big fonts and plenty of white space, so viewers can easily skim it in only a few minutes.

Key Learnings from the Switch Case Study Example

  • If you want to go into specialized information, include a glossary of terms so that non-specialists can easily understand.
  • Close with a CTA page in your case study PDF and include contact information for prospective clients.

10. " Gila River ," by OH Partners

Case study example from OH Partners

Let pictures speak for you, like OH Partners did in this case study. While you’ll quickly come across a heading and some text when you land on this case study page, you’ll get the bulk of the case study through examples of actual work OH Partners did for its client. You will see OH Partners’ work in a billboard, magazine, and video. This communicates to website visitors that if they work with OH Partners, their business will be visible everywhere.

And like the other case studies here, it closes with a summary of what the firm achieved for its client in an eye-catching way.

Key Learnings from the OH Partners Case Study Example

  • Let the visuals speak by including examples of the actual work you did for your client — which is especially useful for branding and marketing agencies.
  • Always close out with your achievements and how they impacted your client.

11. " Facing a Hater ," by Digitas

Case study example from Digitas

Digitas' case study page for Sprite’s #ILOVEYOUHATER campaign keeps it brief while communicating the key facts of Digitas’ work for the popular soda brand. The page opens with an impactful image of a hundred people facing a single man. It turns out, that man is the biggest "bully" in Argentina, and the people facing him are those whom he’s bullied before.

Scrolling down, it's obvious that Digitas kept Sprite at the forefront of their strategy, but more than that, they used real people as their focal point. They leveraged the Twitter API to pull data from Tweets that people had actually tweeted to find the identity of the biggest "hater" in the country. That turned out to be @AguanteElCofler, a Twitter user who has since been suspended.

Key Learnings from the Digitas Case Study Example

  • If a video was part of your work for your client, be sure to include the most impactful screenshot as the heading.
  • Don’t be afraid to provide details on how you helped your client achieve their goals, including the tools you leveraged.

12. " Better Experiences for All ," by HermanMiller

Case study example from HermanMiller

HermanMiller sells sleek, utilitarian furniture with no frills and extreme functionality, and that ethos extends to its case study page for a hospital in Dubai.

What first attracted me to this case study was the beautiful video at the top and the clean user experience. User experience matters a lot in a case study. It determines whether users will keep reading or leave. Another notable aspect of this case study is that the video includes closed-captioning for greater accessibility, and users have the option of expanding the CC and searching through the text.

HermanMiller’s case study also offers an impressive amount of information packed in just a few short paragraphs for those wanting to understand the nuances of their strategy. It closes out with a quote from their client and, most importantly, the list of furniture products that the hospital purchased from the brand.

Key Learnings from the HermanMiller Case Study Example

  • Close out with a list of products that users can buy after reading the case study.
  • Include accessibility features such as closed captioning and night mode to make your case study more user-friendly.

13. " Capital One on AWS ," by Amazon

Case study example from Amazon AWS

Do you work continuously with your clients? Consider structuring your case study page like Amazon did in this stellar case study example. Instead of just featuring one article about Capital One and how it benefited from using AWS, Amazon features a series of articles that you can then access if you’re interested in reading more. It goes all the way back to 2016, all with different stories that feature Capital One’s achievements using AWS.

This may look unattainable for a small firm, but you don’t have to go to extreme measures and do it for every single one of your clients. You could choose the one you most wish to focus on and establish a contact both on your side and your client’s for coming up with the content. Check in every year and write a new piece. These don’t have to be long, either — five hundred to eight hundred words will do.

Key Learnings from the Amazon AWS Case Study Example

  • Write a new article each year featuring one of your clients, then include links to those articles in one big case study page.
  • Consider including external articles as well that emphasize your client’s success in their industry.

14. " HackReactor teaches the world to code #withAsana ," by Asana

Case study examples: Asana and HackReactor

While Asana's case study design looks text-heavy, there's a good reason. It reads like a creative story, told entirely from the customer's perspective.

For instance, Asana knows you won't trust its word alone on why this product is useful. So, they let Tony Phillips, HackReactor CEO, tell you instead: "We take in a lot of information. Our brains are awful at storage but very good at thinking; you really start to want some third party to store your information so you can do something with it."

Asana features frequent quotes from Phillips to break up the wall of text and humanize the case study. It reads like an in-depth interview and captivates the reader through creative storytelling. Even more, Asana includes in-depth detail about how HackReactor uses Asana. This includes how they build templates and workflows:

"There's a huge differentiator between Asana and other tools, and that’s the very easy API access. Even if Asana isn’t the perfect fit for a workflow, someone like me— a relatively mediocre software engineer—can add functionality via the API to build a custom solution that helps a team get more done."

Key Learnings from the Asana Example

  • Include quotes from your client throughout the case study.
  • Provide extensive detail on how your client worked with you or used your product.

15. " Rips Sewed, Brand Love Reaped ," by Amp Agency

Case study example from Amp Agency

Amp Agency's Patagonia marketing strategy aimed to appeal to a new audience through guerrilla marketing efforts and a coast-to-coast road trip. Their case study page effectively conveys a voyager theme, complete with real photos of Patagonia customers from across the U.S., and a map of the expedition. I liked Amp Agency's storytelling approach best. It captures viewers' attention from start to finish simply because it's an intriguing and unique approach to marketing.

Key Learnings from the Amp Agency Example

  • Open up with a summary that communicates who your client is and why they reached out to you.
  • Like in the other case study examples, you’ll want to close out with a quantitative list of your achievements.

16. " NetApp ," by Evisort

Case study examples: Evisort and NetApp

Evisort opens up its NetApp case study with an at-a-glance overview of the client. It’s imperative to always focus on the client in your case study — not on your amazing product and equally amazing team. By opening up with a snapshot of the client’s company, Evisort places the focus on the client.

This case study example checks all the boxes for a great case study that’s informative, thorough, and compelling. It includes quotes from the client and details about the challenges NetApp faced during the COVID pandemic. It closes out with a quote from the client and with a link to download the case study in PDF format, which is incredibly important if you want your case study to be accessible in a wider variety of formats.

Key Learnings from the Evisort Example

  • Place the focus immediately on your client by including a snapshot of their company.
  • Mention challenging eras, such as a pandemic or recession, to show how your company can help your client succeed even during difficult times.

17. " Copernicus Land Monitoring – CLC+ Core ," by Cloudflight

Case study example from Cloudflight

Including highly specialized information in your case study is an effective way to show prospects that you’re not just trying to get their business. You’re deep within their industry, too, and willing to learn everything you need to learn to create a solution that works specifically for them.

Cloudflight does a splendid job at that in its Copernicus Land Monitoring case study. While the information may be difficult to read at first glance, it will capture the interest of prospects who are in the environmental industry. It thus shows Cloudflight’s value as a partner much more effectively than a general case study would.

The page is comprehensive and ends with a compelling call-to-action — "Looking for a solution that automates, and enhances your Big Data system? Are you struggling with large datasets and accessibility? We would be happy to advise and support you!" The clean, whitespace-heavy page is an effective example of using a case study to capture future leads.

Key Learnings from the Cloudflight Case Study Example

  • Don’t be afraid to get technical in your explanation of what you did for your client.
  • Include a snapshot of the sales representative prospects should contact, especially if you have different sales reps for different industries, like Cloudflight does.

18. " Valvoline Increases Coupon Send Rate by 76% with Textel’s MMS Picture Texting ," by Textel

Case study example from Textel

If you’re targeting large enterprises with a long purchasing cycle, you’ll want to include a wealth of information in an easily transferable format. That’s what Textel does here in its PDF case study for Valvoline. It greets the user with an eye-catching headline that shows the value of using Textel. Valvoline saw a significant return on investment from using the platform.

Another smart decision in this case study is highlighting the client’s quote by putting it in green font and doing the same thing for the client’s results because it helps the reader quickly connect the two pieces of information. If you’re in a hurry, you can also take a look at the "At a Glance" column to get the key facts of the case study, starting with information about Valvoline.

Key Learnings from the Textel Case Study Example

  • Include your client’s ROI right in the title of the case study.
  • Add an "At a Glance" column to your case study PDF to make it easy to get insights without needing to read all the text.

19. " Hunt Club and Happeo — a tech-enabled love story ," by Happeo

Case study example from Happeo

In this blog-post-like case study, Happeo opens with a quote from the client, then dives into a compelling heading: "Technology at the forefront of Hunt Club's strategy." Say you’re investigating Happeo as a solution and consider your firm to be technology-driven. This approach would spark your curiosity about why the client chose to work with Happeo. It also effectively communicates the software’s value proposition without sounding like it’s coming from an in-house marketing team.

Every paragraph is a quote written from the customer’s perspective. Later down the page, the case study also dives into "the features that changed the game for Hunt Club," giving Happeo a chance to highlight some of the platform’s most salient features.

Key Learnings from the Happeo Case Study Example

  • Consider writing the entirety of the case study from the perspective of the customer.
  • Include a list of the features that convinced your client to go with you.

20. " Red Sox Season Campaign ," by CTP Boston

Case study example from CTP Boston

What's great about CTP's case study page for their Red Sox Season Campaign is their combination of video, images, and text. A video automatically begins playing when you visit the page, and as you scroll, you'll see more embedded videos of Red Sox players, a compilation of print ads, and social media images you can click to enlarge.

At the bottom, it says "Find out how we can do something similar for your brand." The page is clean, cohesive, and aesthetically pleasing. It invites viewers to appreciate the well-roundedness of CTP's campaign for Boston's beloved baseball team.

Key Learnings from the CTP Case Study Example

  • Include a video in the heading of the case study.
  • Close with a call-to-action that makes leads want to turn into prospects.

21. " Acoustic ," by Genuine

Case study example from Genuine

Sometimes, simple is key. Genuine's case study for Acoustic is straightforward and minimal, with just a few short paragraphs, including "Reimagining the B2B website experience," "Speaking to marketers 1:1," and "Inventing Together." After the core of the case study, we then see a quote from Acoustic’s CMO and the results Genuine achieved for the company.

The simplicity of the page allows the reader to focus on both the visual aspects and the copy. The page displays Genuine's brand personality while offering the viewer all the necessary information they need.

  • You don’t need to write a lot to create a great case study. Keep it simple.
  • Always include quantifiable data to illustrate the results you achieved for your client.

22. " Using Apptio Targetprocess Automated Rules in Wargaming ," by Apptio

Case study example from Apptio

Apptio’s case study for Wargaming summarizes three key pieces of information right at the beginning: The goals, the obstacles, and the results.

Readers then have the opportunity to continue reading — or they can walk away right then with the information they need. This case study also excels in keeping the human interest factor by formatting the information like an interview.

The piece is well-organized and uses compelling headers to keep the reader engaged. Despite its length, Apptio's case study is appealing enough to keep the viewer's attention. Every Apptio case study ends with a "recommendation for other companies" section, where the client can give advice for other companies that are looking for a similar solution but aren’t sure how to get started.

Key Learnings from the Apptio Case Study Example

  • Put your client in an advisory role by giving them the opportunity to give recommendations to other companies that are reading the case study.
  • Include the takeaways from the case study right at the beginning so prospects quickly get what they need.

23. " Airbnb + Zendesk: building a powerful solution together ," by Zendesk

Case study example from Zendesk

Zendesk's Airbnb case study reads like a blog post, and focuses equally on Zendesk and Airbnb, highlighting a true partnership between the companies. To captivate readers, it begins like this: "Halfway around the globe is a place to stay with your name on it. At least for a weekend."

The piece focuses on telling a good story and provides photographs of beautiful Airbnb locations. In a case study meant to highlight Zendesk's helpfulness, nothing could be more authentic than their decision to focus on Airbnb's service in such great detail.

Key Learnings from the Zendesk Case Study Example

  • Include images of your client’s offerings — not necessarily of the service or product you provided. Notice how Zendesk doesn’t include screenshots of its product.
  • Include a call-to-action right at the beginning of the case study. Zendesk gives you two options: to find a solution or start a trial.

24. " Biobot Customer Success Story: Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida ," by Biobot

Case study example from Biobot

Like some of the other top examples in this list, Biobot opens its case study with a quote from its client, which captures the value proposition of working with Biobot. It mentions the COVID pandemic and goes into detail about the challenges the client faced during this time.

This case study is structured more like a news article than a traditional case study. This format can work in more formal industries where decision-makers need to see in-depth information about the case. Be sure to test different methods and measure engagement .

Key Learnings from the Biobot Case Study Example

  • Mention environmental, public health, or economic emergencies and how you helped your client get past such difficult times.
  • Feel free to write the case study like a normal blog post, but be sure to test different methods to find the one that best works for you.

25. " Discovering Cost Savings With Efficient Decision Making ," by Gartner

Case study example from Gartner

You don't always need a ton of text or a video to convey your message — sometimes, you just need a few paragraphs and bullet points. Gartner does a fantastic job of quickly providing the fundamental statistics a potential customer would need to know, without boggling down their readers with dense paragraphs. The case study closes with a shaded box that summarizes the impact that Gartner had on its client. It includes a quote and a call-to-action to "Learn More."

Key Learnings from the Gartner Case Study Example

  • Feel free to keep the case study short.
  • Include a call-to-action at the bottom that takes the reader to a page that most relates to them.

26. " Bringing an Operator to the Game ," by Redapt

Case study example from Redapt

This case study example by Redapt is another great demonstration of the power of summarizing your case study’s takeaways right at the start of the study. Redapt includes three easy-to-scan columns: "The problem," "the solution," and "the outcome." But its most notable feature is a section titled "Moment of clarity," which shows why this particular project was difficult or challenging.

The section is shaded in green, making it impossible to miss. Redapt does the same thing for each case study. In the same way, you should highlight the "turning point" for both you and your client when you were working toward a solution.

Key Learnings from the Redapt Case Study Example

  • Highlight the turning point for both you and your client during the solution-seeking process.
  • Use the same structure (including the same headings) for your case studies to make them easy to scan and read.

27. " Virtual Call Center Sees 300% Boost In Contact Rate ," by Convoso

Case study example from Convoso

Convoso’s PDF case study for Digital Market Media immediately mentions the results that the client achieved and takes advantage of white space. On the second page, the case study presents more influential results. It’s colorful and engaging and closes with a spread that prompts readers to request a demo.

Key Learnings from the Convoso Case Study Example

  • List the results of your work right at the beginning of the case study.
  • Use color to differentiate your case study from others. Convoso’s example is one of the most colorful ones on this list.

28. " Ensuring quality of service during a pandemic ," by Ericsson

Case study example from Ericsson

Ericsson’s case study page for Orange Spain is an excellent example of using diverse written and visual media — such as videos, graphs, and quotes — to showcase the success a client experienced. Throughout the case study, Ericsson provides links to product and service pages users might find relevant as they’re reading the study.

For instance, under the heading "Preloaded with the power of automation," Ericsson mentions its Ericsson Operations Engine product, then links to that product page. It closes the case study with a link to another product page.

Key Learnings from the Ericsson Case Study Example

  • Link to product pages throughout the case study so that readers can learn more about the solution you offer.
  • Use multimedia to engage users as they read the case study.

Start creating your case study.

Now that you've got a great list of examples of case studies, think about a topic you'd like to write about that highlights your company or work you did with a customer.

A customer’s success story is the most persuasive marketing material you could ever create. With a strong portfolio of case studies, you can ensure prospects know why they should give you their business.

Editor's note: This post was originally published in August 2018 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.

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Product Case Studies: Examples and Best Practices for Success

Discover the power of product case studies with our comprehensive guide.

Posted May 15, 2023

case study for product

Featuring John K.

Product Recruiting AMA with a PM from LinkedIn, Uber, and a Startup

Starting monday, july 22.

11:00 PM UTC · 45 minutes

Table of Contents

Product case studies are an important tool that businesses use to showcase their products and demonstrate their value. They are especially crucial for companies that have innovative and complex products that require explanation and demonstration to potential customers. A product case study can help potential customers to understand a product's features, benefits, and the results they can expect when using it. In this article, we will explore the importance of product case studies, how to identify the right products for case studies, tips for creating compelling case studies, and best practices for promoting them.

Why Product Case Studies are Important for Businesses

Product case studies provide businesses with a platform to showcase their products in a real-life scenario and demonstrate how they solve customers' problems. By doing so, businesses can communicate the value of their products to potential customers and build trust with them. According to a study by MarketingSherpa, 71% of B2B buyers read case studies during their decision-making process, making them a highly effective marketing tool. Case studies provide social proof and credibility that inspire others to use the product and generate leads. Additionally, product case studies can be repurposed into blog posts, website pages, social media posts, and email marketing campaigns, giving businesses an ongoing source of content to engage their audiences.

How to Identify the Right Products for Case Studies

The first step in creating a successful product case study is identifying the right product to showcase. The ideal product is one that solves a problem that your ideal customer faces, has unique features that set it apart from competitors and generates positive results. It's important to consider the availability of resources, such as time, budget, and personnel. You also need to assess how representative the product is of your business's value proposition and goals. Finally, consider the potential impact of the case study and how well it aligns with the target audience's interests.

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Tips for Choosing the Best Format for Your Product Case Study

The format of your product case study will depend on the product, audience, and objective of your study. Common formats include written case study, video case study, podcast case study, and presentation format. The chosen format should match the objectives of your study, the target audience's preferences, and your available resources. The format should be well-designed, clear, persuasive, and include all relevant information that the reader or viewer needs to know about the product.

Elements of a Compelling Product Case Study

Effective product case studies share certain elements that make them compelling to readers and viewers. The elements include the background of the company and customer, the problem or pain point that the customer faced, the solution offered by the product, the implementation and usage of the product, and the results achieved by the customer. A good product case study should be well-structured, engaging, and informative. It should have a clear and concise message, a call to action, and be supported by data and quotes from the customer or expert.

Steps to Creating a Successful Product Case Study

The process of creating a successful product case study encompasses various steps that businesses should undertake. The first step is to identify the product, identifying the customers who use it and their needs. The second step is to collect data by researching, interviewing customers and experts. The third step is to create a structure or outline that guides the case study, including the key elements mentioned above. The fourth step is to draft the case study, edit it, and get feedback from customers and experts. Finally, businesses should promote the case study to their ideal audience through multiple channels.

Real-life Examples of Successful Product Case Studies

There are numerous examples of successful product case studies that businesses can use to inspire their strategies. One example is the Dropbox case study, a written case study that showcases Dropbox's product's integration with other services, cost savings for businesses, and customer feedback. Another example is the Hubspot case study, a video case study that focuses on the customer's business challenges, the solution, and the results achieved by their partnership with Hubspot. These case studies are well-written, engaging, and informative, providing valuable insights for potential customers.

How to Measure the Success of Your Product Case Study

After creating and promoting a product case study, it's essential to track its success to improve future strategies. Metrics such as the number of views, engagement, clicks, leads generated, sales, and customer retention rate can provide insights into the case study's effectiveness. Additionally, reviewing customer feedback such as testimonials, ratings, and reviews can give businesses valuable insights into the impact their product case study had on customers.

Best Practices for Promoting Your Product Case Studies

After creating a product case study, it's critical to promote it to reach your ideal audience effectively. Best practices for promoting your product case studies include using multiple channels such as social media, email marketing campaigns, press releases, website pages, blog posts, and paid advertising. Additionally, segmenting the audience based on their interests and preferences can increase engagement and lead generation. Finally, businesses should measure and analyze the metrics to adapt their strategies based on the case study's feedback.

Common Mistakes to Avoid in Creating Product Case Studies

Creating compelling and effective product case studies can be challenging, and it's essential to avoid common mistakes that can hinder their impact. Common mistakes include failing to target the right audience, not having a clear message or value proposition, making the case study too sales-oriented, or lacking concrete data and statistics. It's crucial to have a thorough understanding of the product, the customers, and their needs, and providing an objective evaluation of the results to avoid these pitfalls.

How to Use Customer Feedback in Your Product Case Studies

Customer feedback is an essential source of insights for businesses that want to create engaging and effective product case studies. The feedback can be collected through customer satisfaction surveys, interviews, and reviews. By incorporating customer feedback in product case studies, businesses can improve the credibility of the study, provide social proof and build trust with potential customers. Additionally, customer feedback can help businesses to improve their products, services, and marketing strategies based on customer needs and preferences.

The Role of Storytelling in Creating Effective Product Case Studies

Storytelling is a powerful tool in creating compelling and persuasive product case studies. By telling the customer's story, businesses can connect emotionally with potential customers and demonstrate the benefits, value, and relevance of the product. Storytelling can also make the case study more engaging, memorable, and relatable. The story format can help simplify complex concepts and make it easier for customers to understand the product's features and benefits.

Tips for Conducting Interviews with Customers and Experts for Your Product Case Study

Conducting interviews with customers and experts is a crucial step in creating accurate and informative product case studies. Tips for conducting successful interviews include preparing a structured agenda or script, identifying the right experts and customers, asking open-ended questions, listening actively, taking detailed notes, and following up after the interview. By conducting thorough and well-prepared interviews, businesses can gather valuable insights, quotes, and data that can help shape the product case study effectively.

How to Incorporate Data and Statistics in Your Product Case Study

Data and statistics can provide valuable insights that justify the value and impact of the product being showcased in the case study. When incorporating data and statistics in a product case study, it's essential to use credible and reliable sources, present the data in a clear and concise format, and link the data to the customers' needs and challenges. Data and statistics can also help businesses to identify trends and patterns in their customer behavior and preferences, leading to better marketing strategies and product development.

The Benefits of Using Video in Your Product Case Study

Video is a powerful and engaging format that can increase the impact and reach of product case studies. Video case studies can offer a more immersive and engaging experience for potential customers, allowing them to see the product's features, benefits, and value in action. Video case studies can also be easily shared across multiple social media platforms, generating greater brand awareness and recognition. Additionally, video case studies can provide visual data, graphs, and diagrams that can be more impactful than written or spoken testimonies.

How to Leverage Social Media to Amplify your Product Case Study

Social media is a powerful tool that can be used to amplify the reach and engagement of product case studies. Tips for leveraging social media include identifying the right social media platforms, creating shareable content that resonates with the audience, using relevant hashtags, tagging influential people in the industry, and promoting the content to targeted audiences. Social media can also be used to generate feedback, encourage testimonials, and gain insights into customers' views and opinions.

The Importance of A/B Testing in Optimizing your product case study

A/B testing can provide valuable insights into how potential customers interact with product case studies and what elements are most persuasive. A/B testing involves creating two versions of the product case study, each with a slightly different element, such as colors, headlines, or calls to action. By measuring how customers interact with each version, businesses can identify which elements are most effective and optimize the case study accordingly. A/B testing can lead to increased engagement, conversion rates, and customer satisfaction.

Best practices for collecting qualitative data through surveys and interviews

Collecting qualitative data through surveys and interviews is a valuable source of insights for product case studies. Best practices for collecting qualitative data include creating a structured interview process or survey, identifying the right questions, avoiding leading questions, listening actively, encouraging detailed responses, and using open-ended questions. Additionally, businesses should ensure confidentiality and anonymity to encourage honest and objective feedback from customers and experts.

Top mistakes businesses make when creating product case studies

Creating effective and compelling product case studies can be challenging, and businesses can make common mistakes that can hinder their impact. Common mistakes include not targeting the right audience, failing to have a clear message or value proposition, making the case study too sales-oriented, and lacking concrete data and statistics. It's crucial to have a thorough understanding of the product, the customers, and their needs, and providing an objective evaluation of the results to avoid these pitfalls.

The role of branding in creating an effective product case study

Branding plays a crucial role in creating an effective and persuasive product case study. The case study should reflect the brand identity and voice, including logos, fonts, and colors. It should also align with the target audience's preferences and interests and embody the brand's values, mission, and vision. An effective product case study should differentiate the brand from competitors and communicate the unique selling proposition. Lastly, brand consistency should be maintained across all channels and formats used to promote the case study.

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6 Product Management Case Studies You Can't Miss

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Associate Product Marketer at Zeda.io.

Mahima Arora

Created on:

June 26, 2024

Updated on:

8 mins read

6 Product Management Case Studies You Can't Miss

Transform Insights into Impact

Build Products That Drive Revenue and Delight Customers!

Product management case studies are detailed analyses of how a product was conceptualized, developed, and marketed. A typical product management case study contains the following:

  • The pain points and expectations of the user
  • Competing products in the market
  • Development , delivery, and iteration methods
  • Marketing strategies implemented to relay the product’s value proposition
  • How the product was received
  • Lessons for the product team

So, why should you learn about the development of a product in so much detail? The answer lies in the sixth bullet.

Let’s look at how reading case studies related to product management can help you.

How product management case studies help you

Here’s why reading product management case studies is a worthwhile investment of your time. A well-written case study:

  • Gives you an in-depth understanding of real product problems : Meeting or exceeding the expectations of the customers is always challenging. Whether it is technical complexities, budget limitations, or organizational miscommunication, a case study helps you recognize the source of the problem which led to the development of a less-desirable product.
  • Contains practical insights outside of the theory : Even a layman can learn the steps of SaaS product management . However, seasoned product managers know that developing a successful product takes more than learning the development steps. These case studies contain tons of real-life scenarios and the lessons that come with them.
  • Educates you and makes you a better product manager: Product management case study examples take you through the journey of developing a product, which helps you improve your existing approach toward product development. You will also learn better ways to manage your team and resources.

In simple terms, a product management case study helps teams learn lessons that they can emulate to develop a more profitable product.

In this article, let’s look at six product management case studies that are a must-read for every product manager.

1. Slack: Initial product launch strategy

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Stewart Butterfield started a gaming company called Tiny Speck to change the world of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG). Him and his team created Glitch which was quite different from other games in that genre such as World of Warcraft.

Glitch was a 2D game that did not have the violent aspects that typical MMORPG games had at the time. It allowed extensive character personalization and Butterfield described it as “Monty Python crossed with Dr. Seuss on acid”.

While building Glitch, Butterfield and his team used the Internet Relay Chat (IRC), an online chat tool popular in the 80s and 90s. However, it fell short as the team found it difficult to keep track of past conversations, which motivated them to build their own communication tool.

As they developed Glitch, their internal chat tool gained more features based on their needs.

Despite lots of support from investors, Glitch was unable to attract enough players to keep running profitably and Butterfield eventually shut it down in 2012 .

After six months, in early 2013, Butterfield renamed their internal communication tool Slack - acronym for Searchable Log of All Conversation and Knowledge and requested his friends and colleagues to try it out and give feedback — they all loved it.

By May 2013, Slack was ready for the big reveal which posed a new challenge — executing the perfect launch strategy to drive demand.

Slack’s Challenge: Nailing the initial product launch

While launching an app that can have such an impact on how organizations work, it is crucial to get it right. At the time, there weren’t many team messaging apps and most teams had conversations via email.

Slack needed a significant number of early adopters to validate their hypotheses about team collaboration and collect data that will help them improve its services further. Consequently, this increased the stakes for the first launch.

How did Slack do it

CEO Stewart Butterfield revealed that on the first day of the launch, Slack welcomed 8000 new users which rose to 15000 at the end of the second week. The credit for this initial success, he explains, went primarily to social media.

Social media helped Slack deliver its PR pieces through its genuine users. This led to a snowballing effect because people interacted with people.

Slack recorded over 18 million active users in 2020.

Although the impact of social media-based word-of-mouth marketing will have different levels of success as it depends on factors such as the type of product and its use cases, you should have a social media marketing strategy to spread the word.

Suggested Read: Leveraging VoC-driven AI Insights to Build Revenue-generating Products

2. Superhuman: Finding product-market fit

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‍ Superhuman is a premium email service for busy teams and professionals who need more of everything; speed, usability, and personalization. Apart from superb design, Superhuman processes and executes any request within 100ms.

Rahul Vohra built Rapportive in 2010 — a plugin that adds social profiles to Gmail which was later acquired by LinkedIn . This gave Vohra an intimate view of email and quickly realized that things will progressively get worse.

In his words, “I could see Gmail getting worse every single year, becoming more cluttered, using more memory, consuming more CPU, slowing down your machine, and still not working properly offline.” 

He also brought attention to the number of plugins people used, “And on top of that, people were installing plugins like ours, Rapportive, but also Boomerang, Mixmax, Clearbit, you name it, they had it. And each plugin took those problems of clutter, memory, CPU, performance offline, and made all of them dramatically worse.”

Vohra had one question in his mind — how different would the email experience be if it was designed today instead of 12 years ago?

‍ Superhuman was born to give professionals the email experience that they have been long waiting for. Smooth, easy on the eyes, and most importantly, blazingly fast.

But, there was one elephant in the room.

The idea of building a better email service than the existing players sounded great. However, going against some of the biggest brands of Silicon Valley required more than a bad personal experience with Gmail. 

The Superhuman team needed evidence that such a product is actually desirable.

Superhuman’s Challenge: Establishing product-market fit

The team at Superhuman was competing against the email services of Apple, Google, and Microsoft which made the product-market fit quite crucial.

But how do you know whether you have achieved product-market fit?

How did Superhuman do it

Vohra and his team came up with an innovative idea to measure product-market fit by testing crucial hypotheses and focusing on the right target audience.

Superhuman had two hypotheses :

  • People are dissatisfied with Gmail and how slow it is.
  • People are also dissatisfied with third-party email clients and how buggy they were.

In a product management case study , Vohra explained how to find the right audience — the users who would be ‘very disappointed’ if they could no longer use your product. After identifying them, all you have to do is build the product as they want it.

3. Medium: “Highlights” feature

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Evan Williams co-founded Blogger and Twitter which has helped millions of people share their thoughts with the world. Although both platforms became quite popular, they still couldn’t deliver the best reading experience to their users. Blogger allowed readers to browse topics by authors only and Twitter made it difficult for authors to aptly describe themselves.

He quickly recognized the need for a publishing platform that delivers a diverse experience for the readers and allows the authors to speak their hearts.

That’s how Medium was born. It enabled readers to browse articles by topics and authors, helping them to gain different perspectives on any particular subject. It also allowed everyone from professional programmers to amateur chefs to share their insights with the world as they wanted it.

The developers slowly added more features to Medium such as tags, linked images, social cards, and sharing drafts as it evolved through the years.

One of the many notable features of the platform is the “Highlight” feature — where you can select any particular post section and treat it as a mini-post. You can comment on the Highlight or tweet it, which is handy for both personal revision and sharing interesting snippets with others.

Suggested Read: Want to become a Product Coach?

Medium’s Challenge: Determining whether “Highlights” added value

Medium faced a challenge while determining a metric that can give them an accurate assessment of the desirability of this feature. In other words, they needed a metric that would tell them whether the “Highlights” feature made user interactions better and more rewarding.

How did Medium do it

The team at Medium solved the challenge by shifting their focus to one crucial metric rather than multiple vanity metrics such as organic visits and retention time which signifies how much value your users are getting out of your product based on retention rate. 

For Medium, it was Total Time Reading (TTR) . It is calculated by estimating the average read time which is the number of words divided by the average reading speed (about 265 WPM) and adding the time spent by the reader lingering over good paragraphs by tracking scrolling speed.

4. Ipsy: Managing distribution 

case study for product

Michelle Phan started her journey as a YouTuber who recognized the importance of makeup in someone’s self-expression. She has been sharing beauty tips and makeup tutorials with her audience since 2007. 

While on a trip to Thailand, she observed how little girls scrambled to pay for makeup samples in front of vending machines. Five years later, she launched a subscription-based Glam Bag program — where the customers will receive 4-5 deluxe-sized samples of makeup products.

MyGlam, as it was known back then, quickly gained over half-a-million monthly subscribers which created one of the biggest online beauty communities.

Phan quickly realized what she wanted to do — to build a brand for women who wanted to share their perspectives on beauty and meet like-minded people with similar interests and styles.

Ipsy , which comes from the Latin root “ipse” meaning “self”, was created by Phan, Marcelo Camberos, Jennifer Goldfarb, and Richard Frias to expand the user experience.

Although Phan knew how to convert viewers into paying customers, executing a marketing strategy by scaling it up was challenging.

Ipsy’s Challenge: Managing a content distribution strategy

The first makeup tutorial by Michelle Phan has now over 12 million views. Videos like that helped Phan get her first subscribers on her MyGlam program.

This shows the importance and impact of influencer-led content on revenue for businesses in the beauty industry.

However, running an influencer content distribution strategy involves collaborating with multiple passionate influencers. It was challenging to find like-minded influencers who will promote only one brand. Moreover, when working with influencers, it's important to implement effective content moderation to make sure the posted content aligns with your goals.

Phan and her team had a simple solution for this.

How did Ipsy do it

Phan and Spencer McClung, EVP of Media and Partnerships at Ipsy, partnered with beauty influencers like Bethany Mota, Promise Phan, Jessica Harlow, and Andrea Brooks who were already subscribed to MyGlam to create content exclusively for Ipsy.

In a case study analysis, McClung revealed that it put Ipsy on a content-based growth loop where the content was created by both the influencers and customers for the beauty community.

Sponsored content for products by influencers helped them increase their reach and helped Ipsy get more loyal customers. This growth loop gained Ipsy over 3 million monthly subscribers .

Suggested Read: Pivoting equals failure?🤯

5. Stitch Fix: Mastering personalization

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Katrina Lake, the founder of Stitch Fix , realized back in 2011 that apparel shopping needed an upgrade. eCommerce failed to meet the expectations of the shoppers and retail shops were falling short in terms of options.

In an interview with The Cut , she revealed "Searching online for jeans is a ridiculously bad experience. And I realized that if I imagined a different future, I could create it."

After realizing that no one has merged data and fashion shopping, she set out to make a difference. She started a personal styling service out of her apartment in 2011 when she was pursuing her MBA from Harvard.

Lake relied on SurveyMonkey to keep track of her customer’s preferences and charged $20 as a styling fee. In late 2012 Eric Colson, then the VP of data science and engineering at Netflix, joined Lake on her journey of crafting the future of retail.

Lake and Colson wanted to give their customers much more than just personalized recommendations.

Stitch Fix’s Challenge: Building a personalized store

Stitch Fix wanted to give their customers more than just personalized recommendations — they wanted to build a personalized store for them where everything they look at, from clothes to accessories, matches their flavor.

But everyone’s body dimensions, preferences, budgets, and past choices are unique which can make building a personalized store difficult.

The team at Stitch Fix found a simple yet effective solution for this challenge.

How did Stitch Fix do it

Katrina Lake, CEO of Stitch Fix, revealed in a case study that personalization is crucial for the onboarding, retention, and monetization of customers.

When signing up, Stitch Fix asks you a few questions about your fashion choices and picks clothes that look the best on you. Furthermore, the collections in your personal store will keep improving as it continuously learns more about your personal preferences.

Also, there is no subscription fee which makes Stitch Fix a great option for occasional shoppers. Suggested Read: Canva’s Success Tale in the World of Design

6. Pinterest: User retention

case study for product

Ben Silbermann started his tech career at Google’s customer support department. Although he loved the company and believed in its vision, he quickly became frustrated as he wasn’t allowed to build products.

With support from his girlfriend (now wife) Divya and a college friend Paul Sciarra (co-founder), Ben created an app called “Tote” in 2009 which was described as a “catalog for the phone”. Tote allowed users to catalog their favorite items and will be alerted whenever they were on sale so they can make a purchase.

However, the users used it to share their collections with each other instead. Ben recalled how he collected insects as a kid and loved sharing his collection with others. He recognized how people, in general, love to do that.

And, just like that, Pinterest was born where users can “pin” whatever they are interested in and add it to their personal collections.

Pinterest quickly became a hit and entered the global market.

Despite huge success within the US, Pinterest struggled to retain users globally. The team realized that the primary reason users churned is that something stopped them from getting the product’s core value — building personal collections.

Pinterest’s Challenge: Helping customers quickly realize the core value

There are many things that can prevent a user from accessing a product’s core value and one of them is internal friction within the product.

Pinterest’s product folks zeroed in on the one feature that was the gateway to the product’s core value — the “Pin It” feature.

Users outside the US simply couldn’t relate to the term, even though all it did was save the item they like to their personal collection.

How did Pinterest do it

The “Pin It” feature of Pinterest is linked directly to its brand identity. Casey Winters, former growth product lead at Pinterest, suggested changing it to “Save”, particularly in areas outside of the US.

As of the third quarter of 2022, it has over 445 million monthly users all over the world exploring various “ideas” to build collections for sharing with their friends.

Casey concludes in the product management case study that checking whether the users are getting your product’s core value is pivotal in solving most of your growth challenges.

Key Takeaways

Case studies for product management contain in-depth insights that help product teams improve their approach toward their product’s ideation, analysis , development, and commercialization.

The six product management case study examples we reviewed above give these crucial insights:

  • Slack : Don’t forget to use social media for marketing your product before its launch.
  • Superhuman : Focus on the users that will be “very disappointed” if they can’t use your product anymore to achieve product-market fit.
  • Medium : Track the one metric that tells you whether your users are getting value from your product rather than vanity metrics such as organic traffic.
  • Ipsy : Partner with influencers to educate your target audience on how to get the most out of your product.
  • Stitch Fix : Learn about what your users want and recommend them just that.
  • Pinterest : Continuously experiment by changing multiple variables to uncover new growth opportunities.

To put these lessons into practice, you need to provide your team with the right tools that help them interact with your users, learn about their preferences, monitor their usage data, plan the next steps, and manage product development effectively.

Zeda.io is a product management super-app that allows you to do just that. You can run your entire product management process , from ideation to delivery, in one place. Zeda.io comes with over 5000 integrations with Zapier, enabling you to hit the ground running in no time.

Start your free trial today . Also, looking for the latest trends in AI, UX, product management, and startups? Join our biweekly newsletter now! We distill complex topics into actionable insights just for you. Hit the 'Subscribe' button and never miss out on these valuable updates. Act now – because in the fast-paced world of tech, staying ahead matters! Subscribe here.

  • What is a product management case study?

Answer: A product management case study is a detailed analysis of how a product was developed and iterated over time for maximum success. These studies help product managers learn from others and improve their own approach toward product management.

  • How do you prepare a product management case?

Answer: You can prepare a product management case study in four steps — understand customer needs, monitor the stages of development, identify the factors that affected the course of product development, and extract takeaways.

  • What are the 3 major areas of product management?

Answer: Discovery — recognizing the need for a product, planning — creating a roadmap to plan the product’s development, and development — the various sprints through which a product is developed are three major areas of product management.

  • What are the 7 steps of product planning?

Answer: Concept development, competitive analysis, market research, MVP development, introduction, product lifecycle, and sunset are the seven steps of product planning.

  • What are the 5 dimensions of product management?

Answer: Reliability, usability, functionality, maintainability, and efficiency are the five dimensions of product management.

  • What are the 4 P's of product management?

Answer: Product, price, place, and promotion are the 4Ps of product management which represent four crucial aspects product teams should simultaneously focus on while developing a product. 

  • What are the 5 phases of the product management process?

Answer: Idea generation, screening, concept development, product development, and commercialization are the five phases of the product management process .

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Unraveling Product Management Success: In-Depth Analysis of 10 Case Studies

  • August 25, 2023
  • product management

Product management, a dynamic blend of creativity and strategy, shapes groundbreaking innovations from abstract ideas. There’s no better way to comprehend this intricate dance than by diving into real-world case studies. In this blog, we emba rk on a journey through ten illuminating case studies, dissecting each phase and challenge that architects product management triumphs. From monumental missteps to resounding victories, each case study forms a mosaic of insights, demonstrating the path from ideation to market supremacy. These insights are further enriched as we link them to frameworks rooted in product management, product marketing , and strategic innovation.

These case studies illuminate the intricate art and strategic science of product management. Each story narrates a journey through innovation, iteration, user-centricity, and strategic adaptability, underpinned by frameworks integral to product management, product marketing, and strategic innovation. From empathetic design to responsive data-driven decisions , these studies form a compendium of strategies that drive product success. Whether in the realm of technology, travel, or consumer goods, the essence of product management resonates across diverse landscapes. As we navigate through these case studies in simple steps, we glean insights that guide both budding enthusiasts and seasoned professionals through the labyrinthine corridors of innovation, igniting the spark for the next wave of transformative products.

Key Takeaways:

  • Understanding customer needs drives innovation, evident in Apple’s iPhone and Airbnb’s personalized experiences.
  • Strategic frameworks like Lean Startup (Tesla’s Model 3) and Blue Ocean Strategy (Airbnb) guide successful evolution.
  • User feedback refines products, seen in Facebook’s News Feed redesign and Uber’s pricing strategy.
  • Balancing innovation with familiarity propels mass adoption, exemplified by Tesla’s Model 3.
  • Data shapes effective strategies, illustrated by Google’s algorithms, Netflix’s personalization, and Uber’s pricing approaches.

Case Study 1: Apple's iPhone - Orchestrating Innovation

Step 1:  Market Gap Analysis and Opportunity Identification (Problem-Solution Fit)

Apple’s iPhone journey began by identifying a yawning market gap: consumers desired an all-in-one device. This echoes the Problem-Solution Fit framework, encapsulating the essence of understanding customer pain points and providing tailor-made solutions.

Step 2:  Design Thinking and Iterative Prototyping (Design and Development)

Apple’s iterative approach to iPhone design embodies Design Thinking. By empathizing with user needs, ideating features, and rapidly prototyping, they ensured a product that resonated with real-world usage.

Step 3:  Agile Development and Rapid Testing (Agile Methodology)

Agile development was pivotal in iPhone’s realization. Frequent feedback loops, incremental development, and rapid testing aligned with Agile’s core principles, allowing Apple to pivot based on real-time insights.

Step 4:  Branding and Storytelling (Product Marketing)

Apple’s iconic iPhone launch wasn’t just about a product; it was a masterclass in storytelling. Their branding prowess and emotive narratives exemplify Product Marketing’s essence – conveying a product’s value through relatable stories.

Step 5:  Continuous Enhancement and User-Centric Iteration (Lean Startup)

Post-launch, Apple’s commitment to user-centricity mirrored the Lean Startup approach. Regular updates, user feedback incorporation, and iterative refinements transformed the iPhone into a product that evolved in tandem with user needs.

Case Study 2: Netflix's Content Personalization - Algorithms in Action

Step 1:  Data-Driven Insights and Customer Segmentation (Market Segmentation)

Netflix’s content personalization was sparked by data-driven insights, forming the foundation of effective market segmentation. The case study aligns with the principle of understanding diverse user segments and tailoring experiences accordingly.

Step 2:  Machine Learning and AI Integration (AI and Machine Learning)

Netflix’s predictive algorithms personify the integration of AI and Machine Learning. These algorithms, fueled by user data, offer personalized content recommendations at scale, showcasing the power of AI-driven personalization.

Step 3:  User-Centric Interface and Gamification (User Experience Design)

By designing a user-centric interface and incorporating gamification elements, Netflix amplified the User Experience Design philosophy. Their approach resonates with making interactions intuitive, engaging, and aligned with user preferences.

Step 4:  Feedback Loops and Agile Improvement (Agile Framework)

Netflix’s iterative enhancement process is an embodiment of the Agile framework. By encouraging user feedback, promptly adapting based on insights, and iteratively enhancing the platform, they embraced Agile’s ethos of flexibility.

Case Study 3: Tesla's Model 3 - From Vision to Mass Market

Step 1:  Disruptive Innovation and Blue Ocean Strategy (Disruptive Innovation)

Tesla’s Model 3 journey echoes the Disruptive Innovation framework. By creating an affordable electric vehicle for the mass market, they disrupted the automotive industry and ventured into a blue ocean of opportunity.

Step 2:  Lean Production and Minimum Viable Product (Lean Production)

Tesla’s lean production tactics mirror the Lean Production framework. By emphasizing efficiency, minimizing waste, and focusing on a Minimum Viable Product (MVP), they streamlined their manufacturing process.

Step 3:  Scalability and Operations Excellence (Operational Excellence)

Tesla’s emphasis on scalability and operational excellence aligns with the Operational Excellence framework. By refining processes, optimizing supply chains, and maintaining stringent quality control, they ensured seamless growth.

Step 4:  Innovation Ecosystem and Open Innovation (Open Innovation)

Tesla’s approach to autopilot features exemplifies Open Innovation. By tapping into external expertise and welcoming user inputs, they expanded their innovation ecosystem beyond internal boundaries.

Step 5:  Sustainable Growth and Value Chain Analysis (Value Chain Analysis)

Tesla’s journey from disruption to sustainable growth aligns with Value Chain Analysis. By optimizing each value-adding activity, they established a competitive edge while sustaining long-term growth.

Case Study 4: Airbnb's Platform Evolution - Cultivating Experiences

Step 1:  Customer Journey Mapping and Pain Point Identification (Customer Journey Mapping)

Airbnb’s evolution stemmed from mapping customer journeys and pinpointing pain points. By understanding user frustrations with traditional accommodations, they crafted a solution that resonated.

Step 2:  Rapid Prototyping and MVP Development (Minimum Viable Product)

Airbnb’s iterative evolution echoes the Minimum Viable Product approach. Rapid prototyping, embracing feedback, and building on the MVP allowed them to evolve the platform effectively.

Step 3:  Trust Building and Reputation Management (Reputation Management)

Airbnb’s focus on building trust among users aligns with Reputation Management principles. By nurturing a positive brand perception and managing user reviews, they established credibility and loyalty.

Step 4:  Global Expansion and Market Entry Strategy (Market Entry Strategy)

Airbnb’s global expansion reflects a well-executed Market Entry Strategy. Adapting to local cultures while preserving core offerings exemplifies the importance of understanding diverse markets.

Step 5:  Community Building and Network Effects (Network Effects)

Airbnb’s success thrived on harnessing Network Effects. Their initiatives for fostering community engagement created a positive feedback loop, amplifying user engagement and the platform’s value.

Case Study 5: Google's Search Engine - Algorithmic Prowess

Step 1:  Competitive Analysis and Market Positioning (Competitive Analysis)

Google’s journey commenced with competitive analysis, establishing a unique market  positioning . This strategic move underscores the importance of differentiating oneself in a crowded landscape.

Step 2:  Algorithmic Design and Innovation Framework (Innovation Framework)

Google’s introduction of the PageRank algorithm epitomizes  innovation frameworks . By introducing a groundbreaking approach to ranking web pages, they reshaped the landscape through innovative thinking.

Step 3:  Continuous Improvement and Kaizen Philosophy (Kaizen Philosophy)

Google’s iterative evolution embodies the Kaizen philosophy. By focusing on continuous improvement, incremental changes, and user-centricity, they sustained a competitive edge.

Step 4:  Monetization Strategies and Business Model Canvas (Business Model Canvas)

Google’s monetization through AdWords aligns with the Business Model Canvas. Identifying partners, customer segments, and revenue streams exemplifies crafting a holistic monetization strategy.

Case Study 6: Amazon's Prime Membership - Enriching Ecosystems

Step 1:  Customer Persona Development and Empathy Mapping (Empathy Mapping)

Amazon’s Prime journey initiated with crafting customer personas and empathy mapping. Stepping into users’ shoes, they devised an offering that catered to their desires and expectations.

Step 2:  Ecosystem Expansion and Blue Ocean Strategy (Blue Ocean Strategy)

Amazon’s expansion of Prime reflects Blue Ocean Strategy. By tapping into uncharted territories like streaming and e-books, they enriched their ecosystem, creating unprecedented value.

Step 3:  Data-Driven Decision-Making and KPI Measurement (KPI Measurement)

Amazon’s data-driven approach aligns with KPI measurement. Tracking key performance indicators, analyzing user behavior, and adapting offerings underscored the power of  data-driven decision-making .

Step 4:  Innovation and Disruptive Business Models (Disruptive Business Models)

Amazon’s introduction of Prime Day and Whole Foods discounts mirrors disruptive business models. By redefining industry norms, they sustained innovation and customer engagement.

Case Study 7: Coca-Cola's "New Coke" Fiasco - A Lesson in Perception Management

Step 1:  Market Research and Customer Surveys (Customer Surveys)

Coca-Cola’s reformulation of “New Coke” stemmed from extensive market research and surveys. This phase underscores the significance of gathering  consumer insights  and sentiments.

Step 2:  Change Management and Stakeholder Alignment (Change Management)

The response to “New Coke” highlighted the importance of change management. Ensuring alignment among internal stakeholders and managing transitions smoothly was pivotal.

Step 3:  Crisis Management and Reputation Recovery (Crisis Management)

Coca-Cola’s swift reversion to the original formula showcases effective crisis management. Acknowledging mistakes and reverting to a familiar product salvaged their brand reputation.

Case Study 8: Facebook's News Feed Redesign - Sculpting User-Centric Experiences

Step 1:  User Persona Development and User-Centered Design (User-Centered Design)

Facebook’s redesign journey commenced with user persona development and user-centered design. Focusing on user needs and preferences resulted in an interface aligned with user expectations.

Step 2:  Iterative Prototyping and Rapid Testing (Iterative Prototyping)

Facebook’s iterative approach mirrors the iterative prototyping framework. Creating prototypes, incorporating feedback, and refining designs ensured a seamless and user-friendly interface.

Step 3:  Ethical Design and Human-Centered AI (Ethical Design)

As concerns about user well-being grew, Facebook’s ethical design approach emerged. This phase highlights the importance of crafting technology that respects human well-being.

Step 4:  Storytelling and Emotional Branding (Emotional Branding)

Facebook’s storytelling approach echoes emotional branding. By weaving narratives that evoke emotions, they deepened their connection with users and fostered engagement.

Case Study 9: Microsoft's Windows 8 - Balancing Innovation and Familiarity

Step 1:  Ideation and Blue Sky Thinking (Blue Sky Thinking)

Microsoft’s Windows 8 journey began with blue sky thinking – embracing innovative ideas. This phase underscores the significance of bold thinking to reshape industries.

Step 2:  User Testing and Usability Iteration (Usability Iteration)

User testing and usability iteration exemplify Microsoft’s approach. Incorporating user feedback and iterating based on insights ensured a product that met user expectations.

Step 3:  Change Management and Internal Buy-In (Internal Buy-In)

The Windows 8 case highlights the importance of internal buy-in during change management. Gaining stakeholder support and managing transitions are vital for successful innovation.

Step 4:  Learning from Failure and Agile Mindset (Agile Mindset)

Microsoft’s response to user feedback reflects an agile mindset. Embracing failures as learning opportunities and adapting swiftly aligns with the principles of agility.

Case Study 10: Uber's Surge Pricing Strategy - Navigating Economics and User Perception

Step 1:  Demand-Supply Analysis and Pricing Optimization (Pricing Optimization)

Uber’s surge pricing strategy began with analyzing demand and supply dynamics. This phase emphasizes the importance of pricing optimization to balance economic viability and user sentiment.

Step 2:  Communication Strategy and Transparent Messaging (Communication Strategy)

Uber’s enhancement of their communication strategy was prompted by user confusion. Transparent messaging is vital for managing user expectations and preventing negative perceptions.

Step 3:  Ethical Pricing and Value Proposition (Ethical Pricing)

Uber’s approach to balancing profitability and ethics aligns with the Ethical Pricing framework. Maintaining a compelling value proposition even during surge pricing showcases a customer-first mindset.

Step 4:  Data-Driven Decision-Making and Continuous Improvement (Data-Driven Decision-Making)

Uber’s responsiveness to user behavior and feedback reflects data-driven decision-making. Analyzing user patterns and continuously adapting pricing strategies aligns with data-centric approaches.

Frequently Asked Questions

2024 estimate: Considering the current trajectory and projected growth, we can speculate that the average product manager salary in India for 2024 could be somewhere between ₹15 lakhs and ₹35 lakhs per year.

Product Manager salaries tend to increase with higher seniority levels. For instance, an Assistant Product Manager might earn ₹12.9 Lakhs, while a Chief Product Officer can command a salary of ₹1.2 Crores.

Some of the leading tech companies in India, such as Google, Microsoft, Amazon, and Meta, offer competitive Product Manager salaries, with figures exceeding ₹50 Lakhs per annum.

Location plays a significant role in determining Product Manager salaries. Cities with a thriving tech ecosystem like Bangalore and Hyderabad tend to offer higher salaries.

Specialized skills, such as Agile Software Development, Product Strategy, and Go-to-Market Strategy, are highly rewarded in the field of Product Management.

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7 Product Management Case Studies To Live and Learn By

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Product manager interview case study examples, bonus: two more resources you didn’t know you needed.


You will have some successes and make some mistakes. That is ok. The point is to learn from your mistakes, adapt and continuously improve.

For any product manager working in an Agile environment, this philosophy works pretty well with the iterative approach that Scrum and its related methodologies encourage. But, it is also worth learning from others who have been ‘doing’ in environments similar to yours. 

Why make avoidable mistakes when you can learn from what’s worked well for other product managers?

To help out with that, we’ve put together a collection of product management case studies. 

Want to learn from other product managers with remote teams? Looking for tips on the best way to prioritize ? Then we have you covered.

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.css-uphcpb{position:absolute;left:0;top:-87px;} 7 product management case studies and examples of product management in action

Roadmaps and prioritization case studies.

Where better place to start than the holy grail of product management excellence, roadmaps and prioritization techniques?

Prioritization and roadmapping may be interdependent, but they still serve very different functions. Your roadmap is ‘when you will build’ and your prioritization list tends to be ‘what you will build’ within that time frame. These two product management case studies focus on how teams used airfocus to improve their processes and productivity.

Aligning your roadmap and agreeing to your prioritizations is a mission-critical component of successful product teams. Our client, Mirrorweb , is an archiving solution provider that assists its clients with compliance requirements — and is a fantastic case study of how roadmapping and prioritization can make a product team more effective. 

Jamie Hoyle, the VP of Product needed to achieve two key objectives:

Visualize project management trade-offs and effort.

Make quantitative product decisions collectively and collaboratively.

Jamie chose airfocus based on a few stand-out features:

Easy to update and share roadmaps . This was an improvement from their previous situation, where their roadmap was updated monthly. 

Scoring matrix. This ranks features by relative effort and customer value. Bonus: It works in real-time, and you can customize your settings based on feedback loops.

New features, technical debt and client requests can be attributed to the roadmap to easily measure impact.

With airfocus, the Mirrorweb team was able to work with greater clarity and communication, despite moving into a fully remote set-up.

Then there’s NAMOA Digital , an end-to-end process management software solutions provider. NAMOA Digital’s team faced similar challenges related to roadmaps and prioritization. André Cardoso and the rest of his business solutions team knew that they had to solve a few key issues, including:

Lack of a strategically structured and prioritized request list.

No process for deciding where to invest the team’s resources. 

Missing an efficient and collaborative prioritization process.

No easy method to share roadmap decisions or align the whole organization with an agreed product strategy .

Andre was using excel formulas to create his prioritization criteria and kanban boards for workflows. By switching to airfocus , he was able to simplify and optimize the product management process with these key features:

Consolidated roadmap and prioritization list in an easy-to-access tool.

Customizable prioritization. Set your own total priority calculation with adjustable criteria, making deciding what to build next a breeze. Teams can contribute to the business goals or criteria.

Prioritization Framework

Ask any world-class PM , and they’ll tell you that product strategies are a framework , not a ‘vision’. Frameworks are more useful when they are tangible and that’s why your product strategy should work to inform your roadmap, objectives, key results ( OKR ) and ultimately your backlog too.

Tech travel company, Almundo, transformed into a product-driven company with product-led growth by defining its strategy first. Their Head of Product, Franco Fagioli, approached setting the product strategy in a pragmatic way by asking the right questions: 

What is our organization’s purpose?

Where is our playground? Think segment, vertical, and channels.

How will we succeed? Define your approach by picking your Porter strategy . Will lower cost, differentiation, or focus be more valuable for your product, for example?

What capabilities do we need now? What skills will be required to deliver against the strategy and who do you know you can provide them?

What systems do we need? Are you going with Slack or Teams? What will be your Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system?

An insight for Almundo’s team was to recognize that the answers to these questions existed at different levels within their organization. Almundo's three levels needed to be merged into one framework. 

Corporate level

Strategic Group level

Individual Business level

Your team can tweak this approach according to the complexity of your set-up. In Almundo’s case, the team chose an iterative approach that combined the inputs into one roadmap. The roadmap covered their objectives, key results (OKR) and backlog.

So what does this product management case study teach us about product strategy?

Define your North Star . Start at the top and go through each level.

Prioritize and define . Keep OKRs minimal. A good guide is to stick to three objectives for the next quarter. Don’t add any KRs that you don't really need. Think like Mari Kondo.

Quarterly planning meetings . To start, these will cover future plans. Once you have the first quarter behind you, you can include learnings and results.

Picture 2

When you have a clear strategy in place, take a look at the elements related to delivering on that strategy . As you probably noticed, having good tools can make or break the creation and implementation of your strategic goals.

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Remote product management case study.

Oriflame is a long-standing airfocus client . They are a remote-working beauty brand with a presence in 60 countries. Although this global spread can add value in some ways, Product Managing Director, Joakim Wissing, was struggling to communicate his product strategy across a business that was divided into silos.

By implementing airfocus, he solved his two key issues:

A lack of cohesion and inconsistent understanding of the product strategy .

A reactive approach to project prioritization.

airfocus offered Joakim and his team solutions they couldn't get from their existing software.

Setting business values. Leaders can compare the value and costs of projects.

Strategic remote collaboration. Teams can think ahead by planning the year’s priorities with remote games of Priority Poker . The results are integrated into one system that makes them easy to share, access and update.

Integration. airfocus has two-way Azure DevOps integration. This means that features, epics and stories are continuously synced and remotely accessible.

Increased transparency. Agile methodologies tend to function best in organizations that have a culture of transparency and good communication. Great tools will help your organization increase these critical components.

Product prototyping case study

Whether you are doing your first prototype to test market fit or using prototypes to test out new features, it is worth checking in on how other teams approach this phase.

For Agile teams, one of the best product management case studies is the prototyping method used by the team working on a prototype for the Barbican, a highly-regarded arts and culture center in London.

The team worked over one sprint of two weeks to produce a prototype that combined the Barbican’s scattered ecosystem of various event advertising apps and a booking website . Their objective was to solve existing problems by creating one native app/website with all event information and ticket booking.

While the team had no distinct role definitions, Emily Peta, a UX designer , managed the workflow and the process stages. With one sprint to work with, the team still made sure to follow a comprehensive process that covered a number of crucial stages:

What Is Rapid Prototyping

Competitor analysis

First, Emily’s team explored existing solutions that they could adapt for quick wins.

Keep your product strategy in mind, however, and remember what your brand stands for.

Remember Instagram trying to be TikTok? That was not a good look (and it wasn’t well received).

Product and user definition

The team then conducted ten user interviews and screening surveys to get an understanding of what people wanted from an exhibition app. Their affinity diagram highlighted three distinct phases:

Before: Users want to look for interesting exhibitions and book to see them.

During: Everything users want to do once they arrive at the exhibition.

After: Users want to share photos and leave reviews.

Considering their time constraints, they wisely focused on the ‘during’ phase and chose to answer one question: ‘How can we improve the experience of the user during an exhibition?’

To start finding solutions to this question, Emily and her team created:

One user persona (and while this is a good start, depending on your audience, you will likely need more than one).

Outcome statement. A good outcome statement should provide answers to these loose categories:

Next up, the team mapped out the user flow for the persona. This is an important high-level flow, so don’t skip it out. This user flow was used to plan the Minimum Viable Product (MVP) features along with a few other inputs and prioritization games like Crazy Eights. The outcome here was a focused list of features to start prototyping.

Technical requirements

Before moving into prototyping, it helps to consider the technical requirements that might affect your product. In this case, to meet the Barbican’s ‘during’ requirements, the solution needed to use Bluetooth and GPS for people on the go, so the decision was made to build an app and not a website.

Speeding through this stage — or worse, not doing it at all — can quickly send the development process off course.

Prototyping and testing

Finally, Emily and her team were ready to create low-fidelity mockups, testing them with users and then iterating based on the feedback. This is not a purely linear process, so look at it as a feedback loop: iterate, iterate, iterate but know when to stop.

Once the team was satisfied that the lo-fi prototype was good to go as an MVP, they mocked it up in InVision as a high-fidelity, interactive prototype that could be used for further testing and briefing build teams.

This is probably one of the best times to embrace the ‘fail fast’ philosophy. Being precious about prototypes defeats the purpose. Be ready to make mistakes and improve based on your learnings.

Customer/user feedback case study

It’s never too early to start listening to customers and/or users, and there are a whole bunch of ways to do this at different stages. For any team that has a product in the market already, real-time user analytics is super important to feedback into your decision-making processes.

Gumtree, an established trading website, has a wide range of products and customers. They needed a robust, real-time reporting tool to help them understand the requirements of so many different user types.

Sax Cucvara, Gumtree’s analytics manager chose Qualaroo based on the tool's ability to provide:

Segmentation . Gumtree was able to segment users by category, location and interest.

Easy implementation. The team could set up granular surveys in no time, getting real-time results to feedback back into feature iterations.

Customer feedback is important, so make sure you are getting quality feedback regularly. Tools like airfocus Portal and AI Assist , can make collecting and analyzing feedback much easier and less time-consuming.

Customer Feedback Strategy

Backlog prioritization case study

Rounding off our list of product management case studies, we’re back to the story of an airfocus client and what other teams can learn from them.

As any product manager knows, prioritizing your backlog is just as important as prioritizing your roadmap. Getting these aligned and in an easy-to-share format can save your team time and effort.

Our client, Flowe, is a digital bank subsidiary of Italy’s Banca Mediolanum. Marco Santoni is the data product manager on their Data Platform team and manages the internal product from features to analytics.

One of Flowe’s key challenges came from the Azure DevOps system's inability to prioritize their backlog. They frequently had over 150 ‘new’ items at any given time and no objective way to prioritize the tickets. After looking into a few tools, Marco went with airfocus because it offered:

Seamless integration with Azure DevOps. You can import existing roadmaps.

Priority Poker . Teams and stakeholders can collaboratively prioritize their backlog against three KPIs: development effort, business value, and productivity.

Real-Time results for ‘quick wins’ and ‘don't dos’ are based on prioritized scoring.

By implementing airfocus, the Flowe team can present their roadmap to the entire company weekly. This aligns everyone against a common goal and ensures increased transparency.

Product management is a team game. Having a transparent and collaborative approach is even more important in the current remote working era. airfocus facilitates easy and open collaboration across teams and geographies.

Interested in streamlining your processes and turning objective prioritization into a company-wide goal? Chat to our team for a demo.

When interviewing for a product manager position , you'll often be asked about various case studies you were involved in. Of course, it's good to have a few stories on hand and to know what kinds of questions to anticipate during these interviews. 

Here are a few product manager interview case study questions you might get.

Interview and Feedbacks

How would you prioritize these features for this product?

You may be asked how you would prioritize certain features for an imagined or real product. For example, say a new smartphone is coming out, and the goal is to launch with three new features. 

How do you determine which feature to complete first, second, and third, and which can be sacrificed to finish the others? 

If you run into this sort of question, it's important to ensure you have all of the relevant information, such as the target demographic, what has made the product successful in the past, etc. So ask questions, or imply that you would collect the answers to these questions and then work from there. 

How would you suggest we launch this product in a new region?

Another question you might be asked during a product management case study for PM interview is how you would launch a product in a new region . Again, this question pertains to a real-world example, so it's important to have a solid answer prepared. 

It can be helpful to start by collecting more information from the interviewer or explaining what information you would collect. Then, formulate a strategy . That strategy could include specific features you would introduce, marketing campaigns you would engage in, and more. 

How would you improve our in-app messenger?

Sometimes, you may be asked something very specific, like how you would improve an in-app feature that already exists. As you may have guessed, you want to glean as much information from the interviewer as possible or state which information you would collect. 

Then, list some potential strategies based on your experience. What kinds of features would you launch or remove ? Would you prioritize performance, response times, etc.? How would you manage a budget? Lean on your past knowledge and experience to help you answer the specific question at hand.

Want to know about solutions to future problems that you didn’t even know exist yet? We can help you out with even more product management case studies for that. Dig in here.

Starting a new product management job and wondering how to approach your first few months?

Then check out our 30-60-90 day guide today.

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How to write effective case studies for your software product

How to write effective case studies for your software product

Case studies are one of the best ways to communicate product value to potential customers.

A well-done case study:

  • Creates trust (recommendations from third parties are always more reliable than what the company itself claims)
  • Provides social proof —in a situation where a potential customer isn’t sure what to do, they assume that others around them have more knowledge
  • Gives more information about the product—you can’t fit everything onto your features page
  • Creates a sense of “I can relate to this”, if the case study is for a company in the same space
  • Allows you to target your marketing better towards much narrower customer groups, meaning a much more personalized experience

However, good case studies take time and commitment. You can’t just put together a case study based on any customer, in any format, and at any time.

Here are some tips for effective case studies that you can use for targeting, marketing communications, customer success, search optimization, and more.

Create niche studies for separate target groups

Even if your business has one specific main target group, it still probably has different verticals of customers under it. At the very least, you definitely have various strong use cases for your product.

For example—if your main target group is SMBs, you still have:

  • SMBs that do retail
  • SMBs that do online sales
  • SMBs that do software

…and so on.

The effectiveness of case studies comes largely from the relatability aspect of them.

Imagine doing research for a software solution you need. If you immediately see a case study for another company with a use case nearly identical to yours, you will:

  • Get a lot of extra information without having to reach out to the company
  • Be immediately assured that the product is suitable for your specific use case

And, on the flip side, if you’re doing research and the available case studies are wildly different from what you need, it might be a red flag for you.

This means that the most effective case studies are the ones that are the most heavily tailored for your most desired target group(s).

There’s no point in doing a case study for edge case customers who you aren’t actively pursuing.

Try to figure out all the different main use cases that exist within your ideal customer target group, and build case studies for all (or most) of them.

This way, you can build the most in-depth rapport with your ideal customers. It’s great ammo for effective success/sales processes, and saves you time on tailoring communication on the spot.

Choose your case study candidates wisely

Besides making sure you have a good range of different case studies, it’s also important to be picky about who the selected ones are.

You obviously value all of your customers. However, some of them are definitely more useful than others when it comes to communicating your value.

After you have picked the target groups you’d like case studies for, make sure you pick customers who:

  • Use the product often and have used it recently. This guarantees that they’re up to date with any new features you have, the current design, recent changes, etc. Having an outdated opinion isn’t very useful.
  • Have seen solid results from using your product. Oftentimes, the customers who have been most impressed with your product will let you know about it by reaching out. Make a list of these people as soon as you communicate with them, for easy reaching out later.
  • Are truly enthusiastic about your product—again, these people usually reach out and express their joy.
  • Are at least relatively well-known in their space (if possible).

Whereas most users are efficient at being your customers, they might not be efficient at communicating your product value to the outside world.

Pick and choose the people who are most qualified, excited, able, and constructive, and you’ll be able to create the most informative and valuable case studies.

Focus on value first

Case studies communicate nothing if the only message is “yes, this product is “good””.

It’s important that your case studies focus on the value your product has offered a customer—and therefore can offer to others, too.

For example, Canny’s case studies consist of three parts—challenge, solution, and results.

Here’s what that looks like in the case study for ReadMe , one of our customers:

The challenge describes what the company was struggling with before they chose Canny.

case study for product

The solution explains how Canny solved the issue they were having before.

case study for product

The results highlight the real value the customer has seen from using Canny.

Case studies should be well structured

The most important thing here is, again, focusing on value. Value is what customers are signing up for and handing their money over to you for.

The more you can emphasize that in your case studies, the better. Ideally, you would be able to show clear ROI with actual numbers—e.g “increased conversions by x”.

It’s a simple principle of social proof—“If another company like mine is getting value from this product, so can I”.

Pay attention to formatting and design

Case studies are an excellent source of information, but they need to be easy to digest.

With the abundance of information already available for any product out there, nobody has time to read through pages of text walls in addition.

Try to format your studies in an easy-to-consume way:

  • As with any piece of content, use headings and bulleted lists to break up text
  • The three-step solution we mentioned above is a good start for sectioning your proof
  • Use as many easy-to-understand visuals as possible

A few additional tips

Since case studies are mostly meant for creating a feeling of recognition, add the company’s “profile” in an easy to spot place.

This way, people browsing the studies will know if they’re in a similar position as the highlighted company, even if they haven’t heard of it before.

Make browsing case studies easy

Make the most important things stand out for quick browsing. If someone is just glancing over the page, they’ll be drawn to the highlights of the case study.

This includes strong statements, direct quotes that make a point, and any other value “evidence” one-liners straight from the customer.

Highlight the important parts of your case studies

Add plenty of CTA’s—your case study pages should still be built for conversion.

Make sure to add plenty of CTA's to your case studies

Give your potential customers easy access to start a trial or use the product if they decide to.

Spend some time and effort on creating impactful case studies

As much as you would like to get some social proof out there ASAP, waiting a little and putting effort into case studies is worth it.

Mediocre studies on not-so-ideal customers aren’t going to be detailed or useful enough, nor provide the proof of value you’re looking for.

Focus on planning for and discussing your target audiences, providing a variety of cases, and optimizing design and copy.

You’ll have proof of value out there for everyone to see, and save some time for yourself and your potential customers.

Canny free trial

Elen Veenpere

Marketer at Canny. Elen enjoys drinking unnecessary amounts of coffee, typing words, and filling out marketing spreadsheets.

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Awesome post! Keep up the great work! 🙂

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Thanks for the heads up on the benefit of product case studies.

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The Ultimate Product Design Case Study Template

Learn how to write a product design case study that tells the story of your work and shows off your skills. Use our case study template to get started!

case study for product

Written by Dribbble

Published on Oct 26, 2022

Last updated Mar 11, 2024

As a product designer, you might spend most of your time on user research, functionality, and user testing. But if you want to grow a successful product design career, you also need to present your work in a compelling way. This guide explains how to write a product design case study that makes other people want to hire you. It also includes several examples of amazing case studies to inspire you along with tips from senior designers and mentors from the Dribbble community.

What is a product design case study?

A product design case study is an in-depth analysis of a particular product or project, aimed at showcasing your design process, challenges, and outcomes. It usually includes information about who was involved in the project, the goals and objectives, research and ideation processes, design decisions and iterations, and the final product’s impact on the user and the market.

A product design case study is an in-depth analysis of a product or project, aimed at showcasing your design process, challenges, and outcomes.

Case studies provide a comprehensive understanding of the product design process, from the initial ideation to the final launch, highlighting the key factors that led to its success or failure. Product design case studies also showcase your design skills to prospective clients and employers, making it an important part of your product design portfolio .

What is the goal of a product design case study?

If you’re a designer growing your career, the main goal of your product design case studies is to share your design thinking process with hiring managers or prospective clients. Adding at least one case study to your product design portfolio can help you convince someone that you have the creativity and technical skills needed to solve their problems.

It’s one thing to list on your product design resume that you’re capable of designing high-fidelity prototypes, but it’s another to show exactly how you’ve helped other businesses overcome design-related challenges. A well-written case study shows design managers that you have experience with prototyping, animations, wireframes, user testing, and other tasks, making it easier to land a product design interview , or even better, a job offer.

What makes a good product design case study?

To make your case study as appealing as possible, make sure it checks all the right boxes.

A great product design case study:

  • Tells a story
  • Makes text and visuals come together to show how you added value to the design project
  • Shows that you made important decisions
  • Gives readers an understanding of your thought process
  • Clearly defines the problem and the result
  • Shows who you are as a designer

ux design case study example

Product design case study template ✏️

Ready to start your next case study? Use our product design case study template created by Lead Product Designer @KPMG Natalia Veretenyk . Natalia is also a design mentor in Dribbble’s Certified Product Design Course helping new and seasoned product designers build their skills!

1. Project overview

Provide some background on the client featured in your case study. If you didn’t actually work with a client and are showcasing a course project, you can still provide context about the product or user you are designing for. Explain the design problem and describe what problem you were trying to solve.

Here’s an example: “ABC Company was selling 10,000 subscriptions per month, but its churn rate was over 35% due to a design flaw that wasn’t discovered during usability testing. The company needed to redesign the product to reduce its churn rate and increase user satisfaction.”

2. User research

Your case study should include some information about the target users for the project. This can help prospective clients or employers feel more comfortable about your ability to design products that appeal to their customers.

user research product design case study

To include user research in your case study, start by explaining the methods used to collect data. This could be through surveys, interviews, user testing, or other methods. You should also explain the tools used to analyze and interpret the data, such as persona development or journey mapping .

user flow product design case study

You can also include information about the target audience itself. This can include demographic information like age, gender, location, education, and income. You should also mention any other relevant information about the user base, such as their interests, habits, or pain points.

user persona product design case study

3. Ideating, wireframes, & prototyping

In this section, describe how you brainstormed ideas, created wireframes, and built prototypes to develop your product design. Be sure to explain the tools and techniques you used, such as sketching, whiteboarding, or digital software like Figma or Adobe XD. Also, highlight any challenges you faced during this process and how you overcame them.

Include multiple images here to show the evolution of your design, showing the first and second rounds of iterations.

wireframes product design case study

4. Visual design

Next, explain how you translated your wireframes and prototypes into a visually appealing design. Discuss your design choices, such as color schemes, typography, and imagery, and explain how they support the user experience. Include high-quality visuals of your final design and any design system or style guide you created. Lead Product Designer & Design Mentor Natalia Veretenyk recommends showcasing 4-10 main key mockup screens.

visual design product design case study

5. Usability testing

Write a short introduction to the usability testing you conducted and summarize your usability test findings. Explain the methods you used to conduct user testing, such as remote testing, in-person testing, or A/B testing. Describe the feedback you received from users and any changes you made to the design based on that feedback. If you didn’t have time to make any changes, write notes on what you might try next.

user testing product design case study

6. Outcomes and results

In this final section, you should summarize the impact of your design on the user and the business. Write up what you learned throughout the project. Insert 1 or 2 sentences summarizing the impact of your design on the user and the business. Include any relevant metrics, such as increased user engagement, higher conversion rates, or improved customer satisfaction.

As a bonus, you can also reflect on the design process and any lessons learned. This shows prospective clients and employers your ability to learn from your experiences and continuously improve your design skills.

Product design case study examples

If you need a little inspiration, check out the product design case study examples below. The designers did a great job explaining their design decisions and showing off their skills.

Instabook App by Tiffany Mackay

Tiffany Mackay’s Instabook case study starts out strong with a concise description of the client. She also includes a clear description of the design challenge: creating a social platform for authors, publishers, and readers. The case study includes wireframes and other visuals to show readers how Mackay developed new features and refined the tool’s overall user experience.

  • View the full case study

product design case study wireframes

Crypto App by Brittney Singleton

The Crypto App case study is an excellent example of how to create a case study even if you don’t have much paid experience. Brittney Singleton created the Crypto App as a project for one of Dribbble’s courses, but she managed to identify a problem affecting the crypto marketplace and come up with a solution. Singleton’s case study contains plenty of visuals and explains the decisions she made at each stage of the project.

crypto app design case study

PoppinsMail by Antonio Vidakovik

Antonio Vidakovik’s case study has some of the best visuals, making it a great example to follow as you work on your portfolio. His user flow charts have a simple design, but they feature bright colors and succinct descriptions of each step. Vidakovik also does a good job explaining his user interface design decisions.

product design case study example

Super Walk by Micah Lanier

Micah Lanier offers a textbook example of an effective UX case study. It starts out with a quick overview of the client and a description of their problem. Micah also provides a detailed overview of the steps he took to identify user pain points, brainstorm solutions, and test several iterations before delivering a finished product. The Super Walk case study also includes plenty of visuals to show readers how the product evolved from the beginning to the end of the design process.

product design case study wireframes

To the Park by Evangelyn

Evangelyn’s case study is another example of how you can show off your skills even if you don’t have years of professional experience. She created the To the Park app as a part of Dribbble’s Certified Product Design Course, so she had plenty of opportunities to create appealing visuals and conduct user testing. Her product design case study explains exactly how her design solves the initial challenge she identified.

dog walking app product design case study

How many case studies should I include in my product design portfolio?

If you have minimal experience, aim for two or three case studies. Like many junior product designers, you can use projects from a product design course you’ve completed if you don’t have a lot of professional experience. More experienced product designers should have up to five. Too many case studies can be overwhelming for recruiters, so don’t feel like you need to include dozens of projects.

Grow your product design portfolio 

To get more product design jobs , try adding at least one product design case study to your portfolio website. Case studies include real-world examples of your work, making it easier for prospective clients and employers to assess your abilities. They’re different from resumes because they show people exactly what you can do instead of just listing your skills, making it more likely that you’ll get hired.

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Top 10 Product Case Study Examples with Templates and Samples

Top 10 Product Case Study Examples with Templates and Samples

Well-crafted case studies can have an immense influence over clients and showcase the success of your products - but how do you create the ones that standout? Are you an aspiring professional, looking to leave a lasting impression through your product case studies? Look no further! Here is your solution ! 

Prepare to be amazed as you uncover startling statistics: companies using case studies effectively in their marketing strategy may experience up to 70% more conversions. Here we present the Top 10 Product Case Study Templates , with examples and samples to inspire and assist your journey.

If you are looking for project business case studies , read our blog to learn more!

Embark The Ladder of Success with Our High-End Product Case Study Templates

With SlideTeam's carefully curated templates designed to maximize engagement and visual appeal, you have everything you need to craft captivating case studies that captivate your target audience. Keep reading to learn about the leading case study templates in detail!

Template 1: Product Case Study Analyst Performing Research Business Automobile Electronic

Professionals in the automobile sector will benefit significantly from this comprehensive template, offering a systematic framework for analyzing goods in the automotive electronics market.

Anyone from product analysts to market researchers to business consultants to those curious about the automotive electronics market might benefit from this template. This template can help you communicate your results clearly, whether you're doing an internal study for your company or making a presentation for customers or stakeholders.

Download now and improve your knowledge of product case study analysis in the automotive electronics industry. 

Product Case Study


Template 2: Case Study Analysis for a Soft Drink Product

Have you ever wondered what goes into a comprehensive soft drink case study analysis? This template reveals the secrets of successful soft drink brands.

The problem statement outlines the soft drink product's issues. It discusses measures to overcome them. Improve your soft drink offering using the template's intelligent ideas. "About Us" gives context for the case study.

Marketing specialists may analyze their soft drink product's market performance and critical initiatives and create expansion ideas. Discover the secrets of successful soft drink products by downloading them now!

Case Study Analysis for Soft Drink Product

Template 3: New Product Management Techniques Strategy Case Study Product Development Strategy

This template inspires and educates professionals and amateurs by fostering product management and development. It helps you discover new product development methods within your industry. It includes a detailed case study of the problems, methods, and results of product development plan execution. It shows how companies can manage brand and customer management.

This template is helpful in engaging customers. It has three phases for strategy, product development, and portfolio management, offering effective results. Why wait?

Case study – product development strategy

Template 4: A business case study for automobile product

If you are a business owner in the automobile segment, there is no doubt you may face difficulties in developing innovative and cost-efficient products. NOT ANYMORE! Our next-gen template provides a compelling narrative to address these hurdles. 

By engaging in this case study template, you'll gain insight into the problem-solving process, understand implemented solutions, and evaluate remarkable results achieved. With topics including challenge , solution, outcomes, technology, problem, and client, this template makes an invaluable resource available for instant download. 

Business Case Study for Automobile Product

Template 5: A case study for financial market product

Are you ready to decipher a successful automobile product company case study? This template unlocks the secrets of auto product success. This template covers the issue, solution, results , and technology. It analyzes the issue and shows how the solution helped the customer.

The template helps marketing teams, and sales professionals identify problems and solutions that produce results. Don't waste this resource! Get this template to amaze your audience with stunning images and powerful outcomes. 

Head to our blog and discover the power of financial case study templates for remarkable impact.

Case Study for Financial Market Product

Template 6: Case Study For Production Services One Pager Sample Example Document

You are a production services company that has found itself with an obstacle. Your achievements and success stories are great to showcase but are having difficulty being effectively presented to their target audience. That was until you came up with this AMAZING template.

The template covers a financial market case study in one step. The framework helps marketing teams assess how life events and vacations affect financial market items, allowing tailored advertisements.

Case Study for Production Services

Template 7: Stakeholder Product Delivery Case Study

Jeff Bezos once said, "We see our customers as guests to a party, and we are the hosts. It's our daily job to make every important aspect of the customer experience a little bit better." 

This philosophy becomes even more significant during this Product Delivery Case Study template. The template includes a detailed case study of three delivery phases. It shows how product owners overcome their obstacles in terms of customer service. The case study examines how delivery practices affect stakeholders, presenting lessons and recommended practices.

Product developers, shippers, and managers may learn about delivery methods and issues. The template helps project teams meet stakeholder expectations and deliver products smoothly.  Download to captivate users. 

Stakeholder product delivery case study

Template 8: Product Development Plan Case Study Product Development Strategy

Are you a successful business looking to navigate the complexities of product development? This template highlights the brand's issues, strategy, and results. The case study shows how the brand satisfied customers and grew their product.

Product managers may improve their practices by studying effective product development techniques. The template may help them identify brand difficulties and create market-positioning strategies. Don't delay! Download to unlock success through strategic innovation.

Case study – product development strategy

Template 9: A case study for product launch advertising services ppt powerpoint topics

Launching a product successfully requires more than just a great product; it also demands strategic advertising services. In that case, our template is best. Each case study portion breaks out the issues, solution, focused approach, and successful pricing methods.

It lets you exhibit real-world events, problem-solving, and customer success. It works for startups, existing enterprises, and advertising agencies. It helps you demonstrate the value and effectiveness of your product launch advertising services to customers, stakeholders, and internal teams. Download and implement a practical approach that makes all the difference.

Case Study for Product Launch Advertising Services

Template 10: New Product Development Proposal For Case Study One Pager Sample Example Document

Walt Disney once said, "If you can dream it, you can do it." This statement perfectly aligns with this template case study details . It covers project description, budget and outcomes, and timeframe. The project description describes the new product's goal, characteristics, and market. 

The budget and results section covers project finances and expected outcomes and benefits. Finally, the timeline shows project milestones and deadlines. Internal stakeholders, decision-makers, and investors who need a brief but complete knowledge of the proposed new product should use this form. Download to present your new product development idea clearly and aesthetically. 

Case study for new product development proposal

Unleash Innovation with Us

The availability of top 10 product case study examples with templates and samples provides invaluable resources for businesses and professionals. These SlideTeam templates stand out as excellent options for showing success stories. 

Don't miss the chance to enhance client case studies by reading our blog on must-have templates .

Use these slideshow-quality presentation pieces to captivate audiences through compelling case studies using SlideTeam templates!

FAQs on Product Case Studies

What is a product case study.

Product case studies provide an in-depth examination and examination of a particular product's development, marketing, and performance. They give insight into how a product was conceptualized, its challenges during production, strategies implemented for its success, and outcomes realized, often including details regarding the target market, competition, features of the product offered for marketing campaigns, and customer feedback. They serve as invaluable resources for businesses and professionals seeking insight into effective product strategies while learning from real-life examples.

What should be included in a product case study?

Product case studies provide an in-depth examination and analysis of one specific product's development, marketing, and performance from its initial concept to market launch and beyond. They examine every stage in its lifecycle from conceptualization through market launch. Product case studies provide valuable insights into the development process, the challenges encountered, and strategies implemented to overcome them. Businesses and professionals can benefit from studying successful product case studies to gain valuable knowledge about target markets, competition, features of products or features of effective marketing campaigns, customer feedback, and more. 

How can product case studies benefit businesses and professionals?

Product case studies offer numerous benefits to businesses and professionals. First, they are real-life examples of successful product strategies so others may gain insights from proven approaches. Case studies give businesses an in-depth view of market trends, customer preferences, and competitive landscapes. They also showcase challenges faced during the product development process that were overcome, serving as valuable lessons for future endeavors. Product case studies increase credibility and trust by showcasing past achievements and drawing in potential customers and stakeholders.

What role do templates and samples play in creating impactful product case studies?

Templates and samples play a crucial part in crafting influential product case studies. By providing a structured framework and format that guides the presentation of information, ensuring consistency and clarity, templates can help save both time and effort by offering pre-designed layouts, graphics, and placeholders that allow users to focus on content creation without spending hours making drafts from scratch. Samples serve as references showing successful case studies that can serve as sources for inspiration in storytelling techniques that work - businesses and professionals can utilize these to streamline the creation process.

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Table of Contents

The most common product manager case study question types.

  • December 30, 2020

Richard Chen

case study for product

Congratulations on getting a Product Manager interview and making it to the case study round. Getting this far along the process is a real accomplishment, although it’s nowhere near the finish line. You have got to dominate the case study round first! To ace your Product Manager case study questions, first, you have to know what to expect. Given the plethora of companies and resources online, it might be tough to navigate your way to the right types of questions to solve when prepping for your next case study interview.

After mentoring more than a thousand members and helping them land the Product Manager job of their dreams, we have noticed a few trending patterns in the case studies they were given. While every company has its style when it comes to interviewing, there are certain types of questions that we continuously see appear in case study interviews.

In this article, we categorize these questions by what they ask you to do and how you should approach them. Here are the four common types of Product Manager case study questions that you should expect in your case study interview, ordered from the most common to least common:

  • Product Design Questions
  • Product Strategy Questions

Estimation and Analysis Questions

Scheduling/operational questions, product design case study questions.

If there is one thing we know about Product Manager case study interviews, it’s that you’ll get a product design question, regardless of where you interview. This should be no surprise to you as the Product Manager’s primary duty is to develop unique products that address the needs and desires of their target market.

Some companies will ask you to whiteboard your response within minutes while others will give you a week to turn your ideas into professional deliverables. Regardless, you’ll face product design questions.

Interviewers could ask these questions in many different ways. Here are eight common kinds of product design questions you should be expecting:

  • Design a product to help users find doctors on Facebook. ( Facebook )
  • How would you improve Google Maps? ( Google )
  • You’re a part of the Google Search webspam team: How would you detect duplicate websites? (Google)
  • Name any product you love and any product you despise and explain your reasoning for both cases. ( Amazon )
  • We aim to generate 100K monthly recurring customers with our product XYZ. What product or customer offerings would you create to help the team reach their goal? (Walmart)
  • You work for a mobile photo-sharing app that sees many users posting photos at shops and restaurants. The leadership team would like to figure out a way to monetize this organic relationship. What would you build? (Venmo)
  • You’re the Product Manager of a team that focuses on financial products for our drivers. You’re tasked with designing a financial product (or suite of products) that addresses our drivers’ needs in Brazil. ( Uber )
  • Go to our website and sign up as a Hiring Manager. Identify three places where the customer experience could be better. (Upwork)

Designing Everyday Products

Believe it or not, product management is not limited to complex software products. Every object you’ve encountered went through some sort of product management and design process!

So, in your case study interview, don’t be surprised if you encounter a couple of questions like these:

  • How would you redesign your shower?
  • How would you design an elevator for a 100-floor building?
  • How would you design sunglasses for babies?

Thinking about the problems faced by users is the key to answering these questions .

How to Answer Product Design Case Study Questions

Designing a new product out of the blue with a limited time might sound intimidating, but it’s not impossible.

Start by questioning the product that you were just asked about. Ask your interviewer for more constraints and understand what kinds of assumptions you should make before jumping into prototyping. Many candidates who receive take-home assignments think it’s impossible to ask your interviewer questions, but this is actually the most important first step to take in approaching your case study . Before you begin forming your own answers, you need to get as many details from them as you can.

Once you clarified the assumptions, think about the kinds of users this product would be serving. What are their needs? What are they actively looking for? Are there any existing products that satisfy these needs? The critical skill to demonstrate while addressing product design case study questions is customer empathy. You have to understand what the customer wants and design your product or feature accordingly.

After you define your target persona, think about all the features and metrics to measure the success of these features. Keep in mind that whatever you come up with is open for improvement. You want to show your interviewer that you can think beyond the MVP.

As you can see from the broad spectrum of questions above, you might be asked to design a product from scratch or to improve an existing product. Some questions will explicitly tell you to focus on a specific OKR, while others will leave everything ambiguous to challenge you to think more.  For some extra insight and examples, watch our case study instructor Roman Kolosovskiy solving a popular Facebook product design question:

Product Strategy Case Study Questions

Product strategy questions started trending recently as many companies seek intuitive Product Managers who can take ownership beyond the scope of the product they were hired to work on.

Unlike product design questions, strategy questions require you to think about the bigger picture. You’ll either be asked to find ways to make a product (and hence define success for the product) or to complete the overall organization more successfully.

Here are five of the most frequently asked product strategy questions to prep for:

  • If you were Google’s CEO, would you be concerned about Microsoft? (Google)
  • How would you improve product/feature X (where X is something that the company is currently working on or selling)?
  • How would you improve Google Maps? (Google)
  • How would you set goals and measure success for Facebook notifications? (Facebook)
  • How would you monetize Facebook messenger? (Facebook)
  • How would you determine the right price and method to promote product XYZ, and why? (Amazon)
  • Imagine you’re a PM that works with big data. Now what? (Microsoft)

How to Solve Product Strategy Case Study Questions

Remember: no product is created in a single iteration. Even the most perfect product has room for improvement. To solve these questions, you need to be well informed about the company and its products/services. Here are some of the main points you should be addressing with your response to strategy questions:

  • How does a particular product contribute to the company’s overall business?
  • What businesses, markets, or products should the company focus on to reach its targets?
  • What metrics should the company focus on to be successful?

Consider the company’s business model, competitors, and the recent developments in that industry. The essential skill you need to demonstrate here is analytical thinking. You should identify the key OKRs to define success for your product and organization. These questions also test your prioritization skills.

Note that these questions will most likely appear during the interview itself as it’s quite challenging to prepare deliverables for them. Like product design questions, they are very ambiguous. The only way to solve them entirely is by narrowing them down first with questions.

Many companies ask estimation questions during the case study round . If you are wondering how these questions assess your product management skills, you can consider them a method for the interviewers to understand how comfortable you are making decisions with limited data.

Long story short, they want to see how you use data to derive the KPIs you need for your product. Here are seven examples of estimation questions you might face:

  • How many queries per second does Gmail get? (Google)
  • As the Product Manager for Google Glass ‘Enterprise Edition’, which metrics would you track? How do you know if the product is successful? (Google)
  • How much revenue does YouTube make per day? (Google)
  • How would you go about estimating the number of gas stations in the USA? (Microsoft)
  • How would you track user engagement in an app, and what KPIs would you use to improve it? (Microsoft)
  • How would you measure the success of the Netflix recommendation engine? (Netflix)
  • Ride cancellations shot up 4.5% week-over-week (WoW). How would you investigate what’s going on? (Uber)

Most of these questions will require you to calculate how many users would use a product that the company is currently providing or thinking of producing, how much revenue a product would bring to the company, what the market acquisition percentage would be, etc.

These questions are mostly asked during the interview. To solve them without internet access is only possible by learning the fundamental values of the company beforehand. This includes the revenue it makes or the approximate number of users it has. You should also be able to calculate their critical KPIs.

Operational questions are scarce, but we have seen more companies lately relying on them to assess the candidates’ ability to turn ideas into deliverable tasks.

A significant aspect of product management is stakeholder management, and these questions challenge you to distribute work items to the related stakeholder or team member. You are also asked to come up with a realistic delivery schedule. Your knowledge of Agile principles — especially for software products — is also essential.

If you need to review agile principles, check out this video:

Note that for most operational case study questions, the interviewer will require you to write a detailed delivery schedule and write user stories and tasks.

Here are two examples of case study questions to get you familiar with the task:

  • Write the Jira ticket(s) for engineering for the idea you want to execute. (Upwork)
  • Outline a brief (1-2 page) launch plan that would cover the activities and tasks needed to launch the feature successfully. Be sure to touch on both internal and external stakeholders, and include potential launch goals. (Stitch Data)

Need More Case Study Advice?

Or if you need a hand with the job-hunting process as a whole, let us help you. We’re scheduling free 20-minute career coaching sessions with our in-house team. Give us a call and learn how Product Gym can help you ace every round of the Product Manager interview.

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Hacking The Case Interview

Hacking the Case Interview

Product manager case study interview

Have an upcoming product manager case study interview and don’t know how to prepare or answer these challenging case study questions?

In this comprehensive article, we’ll show you an intuitive, robust way to crush your product manager case study interviews even if you have no prior business or product experience.   We’ll also share with you the exact resources to learn product manager case study interviews the fastest way possible.

If you find this article helpful, you’ll love our product manager interview book . It’ll teach you how to answer 98% of every possible type of product manager interview question you could get asked in just a few hours of reading.

What is a Product Manager Case Study Interview?

A product manager case study interview is a 15 to 45-minute interview in which you are placed in a hypothetical business situation and asked to strategize, design, improve, or grow a particular product. It is a special type of interview question used to evaluate candidates in all product roles.

A product manager case study interview begins with the interviewer giving you a broad, ambiguous business or product question. Examples of questions you may see include:

  • How would you design a product that does a particular function or serve a particular purpose?
  • How would you improve a particular product?
  • How would you improve sales for a particular product?
  • How should we respond to the actions of a competitor?
  • Is there a company we should consider acquiring?
  • Should we enter a new market?

Typically, companies will ask these questions for a particular product that the company sells. However, companies may use other, more well-known products instead if their products are too technical, complicated, or obscure.

What are the Different Types of Product Manager Case Study Interviews?

There are four major types of product manager case study interview questions: product design, product improvement, product growth, and product strategy questions.

Types of product manager case study interview questions

Product Design Case Study Interview

Product design case study interviews ask how you would design a particular product or service. Examples of product design case study questions include:

How would you design an alarm clock for the blind?

  • How would you design a smart refrigerator that helps users reduce food waste?
  • How would you design a mobile application for children to learn a new language?
  • How would you design a user-friendly interface for a voice-controlled virtual assistant device?
  • How would you design an interactive museum exhibit to engage visitors in learning about ancient civilizations?

Product Improvement Case Study Interview

Product improvement case study interviews ask how you would improve an existing product or service. Examples of product improvement case study questions include:

  • How would you improve the iPhone?
  • How would you improve Google Maps?
  • How would you improve Spotify?
  • How would you improve the microwave?
  • How would you improve the check-in process at a hotel?

Product Growth Case Study Interview

Product growth case study interviews ask how you would grow sales for an existing product or service. Examples of product growth case study questions include:

  • How would you increase the number of Netflix subscribers?
  • How would you increase the number of daily active users on Instagram?
  • How would you increase customer engagement on Tik Tok?
  • How would you increase revenue for LinkedIn?
  • How would you increase profit for Amazon?

Product Strategy Case Study Interview

Product strategy case study interviews ask how you would make strategic business decisions regarding a product, service, or for the company overall. Examples of important strategic decisions include:

  • Deciding how to respond to a competitor
  • Deciding how to price a product
  • Deciding whether to acquire another company
  • Deciding whether to enter a new market
  • Deciding whether to launch a new product

Why Do Companies Use Product Manager Case Study Interviews?

Companies use product manager case study interviews to simulate problems that product managers face daily, evaluate how candidates think, and predict on-the-job success.

1. Simulate challenges that product managers face daily

Product manager case studies closely simulate the problems that product managers face in their role. By presenting candidates with real world scenarios, companies gain valuable insight into how candidates react when faced with a challenging, ambiguous, or broad problem.

These simulations provide a glimpse into how the candidate may actually perform as a product manager. Through product manager case study interviews, companies assess candidates' readiness to tackle the diverse array of challenges inherent in product management roles, ensuring they possess the necessary skills and mindset to excel.

2. Evaluate how candidates think

Conducting product manager case study interviews allows companies to evaluate not only what candidates know, but also how they think. By presenting candidates with hypothetical scenarios or problems to solve, companies gain insight into their thought processes, analytical abilities, and approach to decision making.

This assessment goes beyond assessing technical knowledge or specific skill sets, focusing instead on candidates' problem solving capabilities, creativity, and critical thinking skills.

3. Predict on the job success

Product manager case study interviews play a pivotal role in predicting candidates' on-the-job success by providing a glimpse into their ability to apply their knowledge and skills in practical contexts.

By evaluating candidates' performance in simulated scenarios relevant to the role, companies can gauge their potential to drive product success, collaborate with cross-functional teams, and deliver tangible outcomes.

Candidates that do well in product manager case study interviews signal a readiness to tackle the challenges of product management, minimizing hiring risks and increasing confidence in their ability to contribute meaningfully to the company’s objectives.

What Do Product Manager Case Study Interviews Assess?

Product manager case study interviews assess: problem solving skills, communication skills, product vision and strategy, creativity and innovation, and industry knowledge and expertise.

Product manager case study interview skills

Problem solving skills

Product manager case study interviews quickly assess a candidate's problem solving skills. These case studies simulate real world challenges, allowing hiring managers to observe how candidates approach complex problems, break them down into manageable components, and develop viable solutions.

By evaluating a candidate's ability to think critically, creatively, and analytically, companies gain insight into their capacity to navigate the different challenges faced as a product manager.

Communication skills

Effective communication is a crucial skill for product managers who must interact with diverse stakeholders across an organization. Product manager case study interviews provide an opportunity to evaluate a candidate's ability to articulate their thoughts clearly, convey complex ideas succinctly, and engage stakeholders effectively.

Strong communicators can convey product vision compellingly, aligning stakeholders around a shared objective. They can build rapport and trust, facilitating seamless teamwork and driving successful product outcomes.

Product vision and strategy

Central to the role of a product manager is the ability to formulate a compelling product vision and strategy. Product manager case study interviews allow companies to assess a candidate's capacity to think strategically, envision the future trajectory of a product, and develop a product roadmap.

Through articulating a clear product vision, defining measurable objectives, and outlining a coherent strategy, candidates demonstrate their strategic acumen and ability to translate abstract concepts into actionable plans.

A strong understanding of market dynamics, customer needs, and competitive landscape informs a robust product strategy, enabling candidates to devise innovative solutions that resonate with target audiences and drive growth.

Creativity and innovation

In an increasingly competitive landscape, companies seek product managers who can infuse creativity and innovation into their product development process. Product manager case study interviews provide a way to evaluate a candidate's ability to think outside the box, challenge conventional wisdom, and generate novel ideas.

Candidates are tasked with solving hypothetical problems or brainstorming innovative features, offering insights into their creative problem solving skills and ability to push boundaries.

By encouraging candidates to explore unconventional solutions, companies identify individuals who can drive product differentiation and deliver transformative products that captivate users and outpace competitors.

Industry knowledge and expertise

A deep understanding of the industry landscape is essential to being a great product manager. Product manager case study interviews allow companies to assess a candidate's industry knowledge, domain expertise, and familiarity with relevant market trends and technologies.

Candidates are expected to demonstrate their understanding of industry dynamics, customer behaviors, regulatory considerations, and emerging technologies that may impact product development.

How to Solve Product Manager Case Study Interviews

For each type of product manager case study interview question, we’ve detailed the exact steps you should follow to deliver an outstanding answer and impress your interviewer.

How to Solve Product Design or Improvement Case Study Interviews

When asked how you would improve or design a product, resist the urge to list the first few ideas that come to your head. Instead, follow this systematic approach to demonstrate to the interviewer how you think about the product improvement and design process.

There are six main steps to solving product design or improvement case study interviews.

How to solve product design or improvement case study interviews

1. Define the goal

It is difficult to design or improve a product unless you have a specific and clear goal in mind. What are you trying to achieve?

The way you design or improve a product will change drastically depending on what you are trying to achieve. So, it is important that you confirm with the interviewer what the explicit goal is.

Are you trying to increase the number of monthly users? Are you trying to increase revenue per user? Is the goal to increase customer engagement? All of these different goals have drastically different solutions.

2. Identify a customer segment to target

The goal of this step is to focus and narrow down the scope of product improvement or design to one specific customer segment.

There are two reasons why you should do this.

One, customers can have a wide range of needs and preferences. Trying to improve or design a product that would benefit every single customer can be very challenging.

Two, by focusing on a specific customer segment, you can develop product improvements and designs that are more specific and tailored to the segment’s needs. You will avoid suggesting product ideas that are generic and not impactful.

Therefore, start by listing the different customer segments that come to mind. Select one segment and provide a reason why you are focusing on that segment.

You might choose a segment because they are the largest segment or you might pick a segment if their needs are underserved.

3. Select a pain point to focus on

Brainstorm a list of pain points for the selected customer segment. These can be unmet customer needs or features of the product that customers find frustrating, time-consuming, or difficult to use.

Select one pain point and provide a reason why you are focusing on it. You might select a pain point if it is the most common, the most severe, or the most practical to solve for.

4. Brainstorm product improvements or designs

Now that you have chosen a pain point to focus on, brainstorm a list of different ways to solve for that pain point.

Try to have at least 3 – 5 different ideas. Include a few ideas that are creative and unconventional. This demonstrates originality and out-of-the-box thinking.

If you are having difficulty generating enough ideas, you can use the SCAMPER framework to help you brainstorm ideas.

SCAMPER stands for substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put to another use, eliminate, and reverse.

  • Substitute : Replace an element or feature with something else
  • Combine : Merge different elements or features to create something new
  • Adapt : Alter an existing idea to better fit a new context or need
  • Modify : Make changes to the attributes, such as size, shape, color, or other characteristics
  • Put to another use : Find new applications for an existing idea
  • Eliminate : Remove unnecessary components or features
  • Reverse : Change the order or perspective of elements or features

5. Assess which idea is best

For this step, create a list of criteria to assess your different ideas. Common criteria include:

  • Magnitude of impact
  • User experience
  • Ease of implementation

Select the most important criteria based on the nature of the product and the pain point. Afterward, assess each of your product ideas based on the list of criteria you have developed.

You can assess your ideas either quantitatively or qualitatively.

The most common way to quantitatively score ideas is to give them one, two, or three points for each criteria. The idea that has the highest total number of points will be chosen.

Some criteria may be significantly more important than others. In this case, you can consider weighting the point values differently. For example, if the magnitude of impact is by far the most essential criteria, you can double the point value. Each idea will be given two, four, or six points for this criteria.

In assessing your ideas qualitatively, talk through how each idea performs on the criteria you have selected. Choose the improvement or design that has the most positive assessment overall.

6. Explain how you would test this

After you have selected your best idea, suggest how you would test whether this product improvement or design works. Specify what metrics you would want to measure to determine this.

This step is not always necessary, but it demonstrates to the interviewer that you can think like a product manager. Product roles involve a lot of testing and iterating on features and improvements.

A/B testing is the most common way to test a new product feature or design. In A/B testing, you compare the performance of two variations of a product against one another.

Typically, you would run an experiment in which one group of customers is given the original or older product and another group of customers is given the new and improved product.

After defining the right metrics to measure performance, you can determine which version of the product performs better.

How to Solve Product Growth Case Study Interviews

They key to solving product growth case study interviews is to have a comprehensive growth framework where you can systematically list and talk through all of the major ways to grow.

A case study framework is a tool to structure and break down business problems into smaller components.

You can think about growth through two major categories, organic growth and inorganic growth. These two categories form the foundation of our growth strategy case framework.

Product growth case study interview framework

Organic growth

The most common type of growth that companies pursue is organic growth, which is growth driven by expanding output or engaging in internal activities. In other words, the company is growing through its own capabilities and efforts.

Organic growth can be segmented into growth through existing revenue sources and growth through new revenue sources.

Growth through existing revenue sources is either driven by an increase in quantity of units sold or by an increase in average price per unit sold.

To increase the quantity of units sold, a company can:

  • Improve their product
  • Decrease prices
  • Sell through new distribution channels
  • Target new customer segments
  • Expand into new geographies
  • Invest more in marketing and sales
  • To increase the average price per unit sold, the company can:
  • Increase prices for their products
  • Focus on selling higher priced products

Remember that changing prices will impact quantity of units sold, so it is important to look at the net effect price changes have on revenue.

To drive growth through new revenue sources, a company can:

  • Launch new products
  • Launch new services

 Inorganic growth

Inorganic growth, on the other hand, is growth driven by acquisitions, joint ventures, or partnerships.

The first way that a company can grow inorganically is by acquiring another company. This gives the acquiring company all of the revenue that the acquisition target generates. In addition, there may be revenue synergies that the acquiring company can realize.

Acquiring a company gives the acquiring company access to the acquisition target’s distribution channels, customers, and products. The acquiring company may be able to increase revenues by cross-selling products, up-selling products, or bundling products together.

In a joint venture, two or more companies enter a business arrangement in which they pool together resources and share risk in accomplishing a particular task. Each company in the joint venture is responsible for profits, losses, and costs associated with the project.

A partnership is an association between two or more companies that provides some kind of benefit to each partner. This is slightly different from a joint venture because in a partnership, companies do not necessarily have to combine resources or efforts. They just need to be associated with each other.

How to Solve Product Strategy Case Study Interviews

When answering a product strategy question, you should create a framework to structure your thoughts rather than saying the first few ideas that come to mind.

As a reminder, a framework is a tool to structure and break down business problems into smaller components. The answers to the questions in your framework will help you answer the overall product strategy question.

There are six steps to creating outstanding frameworks to answer product strategy case study interview questions.

1. Memorize eight robust business categories

There are eight broad business categories that are frequently looked at when making product strategy decisions.

By memorizing these eight categories, you’ll have an easier time creating an outstanding framework rather than having to create frameworks from scratch each time.

Product strategy case study interview framework

These eight business categories are:

  • Market: market size, market growth rate, average profit margins in the market, market trends or changes (e.g., technology, regulation)
  • Competition: number of competitors, market share of competitors, competitive advantage of competitors, trends or changes happening among competitors
  • Company: products and services, strengths, competitive advantages, capability gaps, weaknesses, growth trajectory, synergies
  • Product: product benefits, product drawbacks, product differentiation, product lifecycle stage
  • Customer: number of customer segments, characteristics of each segment, attractiveness of each segment, customer needs and preferences, customer purchasing behaviors
  • Profitability: revenue, costs, breakeven, return on investment, payback period
  • Alternatives: alternative markets, alternative products, alternative partnerships or strategic alliances, alternative acquisition targets, alternative investments, alternative strategies
  • Risks: major risks, likelihood of risks, severity of risks, mitigation of risks

For each of these broad business categories, we’ve included a few potential topics to give you a sense of what each category means or encompasses.

You will only need to memorize the eight broad business categories. You do not need to memorize all of the potential topics under each.

2. When asked a strategy question, ask for a few minutes to structure your thoughts

When given a product strategy case study interview question, ask for a few minutes to structure your thoughts. Almost every time, the interviewer will give you time to develop a framework.

3. Mentally run through the eight business categories and select the 3-4 most relevant ones

Next, mentally run through the eight business categories that you’ve memorized and select the 3-4 most relevant ones.

3-4 is the ideal number of categories for your framework. It is the right balance of comprehensiveness and simplicity.

Any fewer than 3-4 categories and your framework may not be comprehensive enough. You may be missing critical questions that are necessary to answer the strategy question.

Any more than 3-4 categories and your framework becomes too large and complicated. You also risk having redundancies in your framework.

4. If you are unable to select 3-4 relevant business categories, think of your own business categories to include

If you are unable to get 3-4 categories in your framework after running through the memorized list of business categories, then it is time to think of your own business categories to include.

This happens more commonly when given atypical or unusual product strategy case study interview questions.

Remember, the eight broad business categories you memorized work for the vast majority of strategy questions, but does not cover all of them.

5. Add specific questions under each business category you’ve selected

Once you have identified the 3-4 major categories in your framework, add sub-bullets or questions underneath each of them to add more detail.

6. Walk the interviewer through your framework and answer

When you’ve finished developing your framework, walk your interviewer through it.

At the end of each major category, give your opinion on which answer or recommendation it supports.

Once you’ve walked the interviewer through your entire framework, you should have an overall answer to the product strategy case study interview.

Product Manager Case Study Interview Examples

We’ve compiled a few product manager case study interview examples with complete answers below. These examples should give you a good sense of what outstanding answers sound like.

Product Manager Case Study Interview Example #1

How would you improve YouTube?

For this question, I’ll assume that the goal of the improvement is to increase user engagement on the platform, which can be measured as the amount of time a user spends on YouTube.

First, I’ll think through the different customer segments and pick one to focus on. Three customer segments immediately come to mind:

  • Entertainment seekers are users that are bored who are looking for interesting videos to watch to pass the time
  • Information seekers are users looking to learn a new skill or acquire information on a topic
  • Music seekers are users looking for background music or sounds to play while they are doing something else

Out of these segments, I will focus on entertainment seekers because this segment probably makes up the most significant portion of YouTube’s user base.

Next, I’ll identify a pain point to focus on. Entertainment seekers have a few different pain points:

  • The discovery process they go through to find entertaining videos takes time and effort
  • Entertainment seekers find long videos dull and too slow to watch
  • They get irritated when videos have clickbait titles that do not live up to expectations.

Among these pain points, I’m going to focus on the tedious video discovery process because it is probably the biggest pain point for these users.

Now, I will brainstorm a few ideas on how to make the video discovery process easier.

  • YouTube could recommend videos based on videos that friends have seen. Since friends tend to have similar interests and tastes, these videos will likely be entertaining to entertainment seekers
  • YouTube can have a continuous, curated video feed such that users do not have to search for the next video. Users can click on a skip button to immediately jump into the following video, which will be curated by an algorithm based on video history
  • YouTube could send a curated playlist to the user each day. These videos would be selected by an algorithm based on video history

I will assess each of these ideas on their impact, user experience, and ease of implementation.

The first idea, recommending videos based on videos that friends have seen, would have minimal impact if the user does not have friends that use YouTube frequently.

Additionally, this idea does not change the user experience much because entertainment seekers would still need to decide whether to watch a recommended video. The upside of this idea is that it would not be difficult to implement.

The second idea, having a continuous, curated video feed, could have a tremendous impact. It removes the burden of decision-making from entertainment seekers because YouTube videos are automatically played.

The user experience is also an improvement because the user only needs to click a skip button when they are bored. The downside of this idea is that developing a good algorithm could require substantial investment.

The third idea, sending a curated playlist to the user each day, would have some impact on users. The decision making process is slightly simplified because the user receives a shorter list of videos to choose from. However, once the playlist is finished, the user would still need to look for more videos on their own. 

Additionally, the user experience is not ideal. Getting an email or notification every day can be annoying. The upside of this idea is that it is the most straightforward to implement.

 Based on my assessment, the continuous, curated video feed seems to be the most promising. 

To test this idea, I would develop a minimal viable product and use A/B testing to assess the performance of this feature.

One customer group would be given access to this feature while another customer group would not. I would measure the difference in minutes of video consumption between the two groups for one month to determine if user engagement has increased.

Product Manager Case Study Interview Example #2

For this task, let’s assume that the goal is to design an alarm clock that works reliably in waking up the user and is as easy to use as possible. 

Additional alarm clock functionalities, such as checking the weather or listening to the radio, will not be considered.

The customer segment has already been defined, the blind.

There are four use cases that we need to design for:

  • Setting an alarm
  • Checking to see if the alarm has been set
  • Waking up the user
  • Checking the time

For each of these use cases, we can brainstorm a few potential ideas and evaluate the pros and cons for each to decide which design is optimal for our goals.

To set an alarm:

  • Design a voice assistant (e.g., similar to Siri or Alexa): This is quicker than a touchpad and can easily set an exact alarm time to the second. Additionally, the voice assistant can repeat the time set out loud so that the user knows the correct time has been set. However, there could be dictation issues for people with accents and this can only be done when the environment is relatively quiet.
  • Design a braille touchpad: This would complicate the alarm clock by adding additional buttons. It would also take a longer time to set an alarm. The user would also need to take an additional step to check that the alarm has been set correctly once entered.

To check if the alarm has been set:

  • Design a voice assistant that can answer the question of whether the alarm has been set: The user would not need to walk to the alarm clock to check if the alarm has been set. However, this needs to be done in a relatively quiet environment.
  • Design a button that when pressed will play the time, the alarm set time, and whether the alarm is on/off: This provides all the information the user needs, but time-consuming as the user will need to hear all of the information each time. The user also needs to walk to the alarm clock to use this.
  • Design a button that when pressed, vibrates if the alarm has been set: This communicates the information more quickly, but the user still needs to walk to the alarm clock to use this.

To wake up the user:

  • Use visuals: If the user is blind, they likely won’t be able to see anything, especially if they are asleep.
  • Use sound: This is what almost all alarm clocks use.
  • Use touch: The alarm clock can vibrate to wake the user. However, it is unclear if this would reliably wake up the user.
  • Use smell or taste: This is a very unconventional approach to designing an alarm clock. Users probably don’t want to be forced to smell or taste something. It is unclear whether the taste or smell would be strong enough to reliably wake up the user.

To check the time:

  • Design mechanical braille buttons that change by the minute: This seems complicated to design and would likely increase the cost of the alarm clock. 
  • Design a button that says the time out loud when pressed: This is less complex than designing mechanical braille buttons that change by the minute. However, the user still needs to walk to the alarm clock to check the time.
  • Design a voice assistant to say the time out loud when asked: The user would not need to walk to the alarm clock to check the time. However, this can only be done in a relatively quiet environment.

Based on this, it seems that a voice assistant alarm clock that wakes up users with sound would be most suitable for our user.

Product Manager Case Study Interview Example #3

Our company operates in the e-commerce space, primarily focusing on fashion and apparel. We're considering building a virtual fitting room feature that allows customers to virtually try on clothing items before making a purchase. How would you approach the decision of whether to invest in and build this new virtual fitting room feature?

There are four major factors to consider when deciding whether to build this new product feature:

1. Customer needs and preferences: Does this product feature resonate with customers?

  • Do customers have a need for a virtual fitting room?
  • Will customers actually use this feature?

2. Company capabilities: Does our company have the capabilities to develop this product feature?

  • Do we have the expertise or technological capabilities to develop this feature?
  • Do we have sufficient resources to develop this feature? (e.g., people, time, capital) 

3. Competition: Will developing this product feature help distinguish ourselves from competitors?

  • Do competitors have a virtual fitting room product feature?
  • How good are competitors’ virtual fitting rooms? (e.g., user experience, value provided to customers)

4. Profitability: Will building this new product feature be profitable?

  • What are the expected costs of developing this product feature?
  • What is the expected increase in revenue? (e.g., how much will conversion rate increase, how much will refunds decrease)

Product Manager Case Study Interview Example #4

Our company manufactures smart home security systems and we’ve recently launched a new model with advanced AI-powered features. How do we increase our market share and customer base?

There are four major ways to increase our market share and customer base for this smart home security system product:

1. Develop targeted marketing

  • Identify specific customer segments that are most likely to benefit from the product
  • Develop tailored marketing campaigns to highlight the unique advantages of our new model

2. Form strategic partnerships

  • Form partnerships with prominent players in the smart home ecosystem
  • Integrate the security system seamlessly into broader home automation solutions

3. Enhance customer experience and advocacy

  • Prioritize exceptional customer support and post-purchase experience
  • Implement a referral program to encourage existing customers to refer friends and family

4. Engage with the community

  • Actively participate in online communities, forums, and social media groups focused on smart home technology and security
  • Provide valuable insights and thought leadership at major smart home conferences or conventions

Product Manager Case Study Interview Frameworks

There are several product manager case study frameworks that candidates may find helpful to be familiar with. These include the: 4P’s framework, design thinking framework, growth framework, product development lifecycle framework, and SWOT analysis framework.

Product manager case study interview frameworks

4P’s Framework

The 4P’s framework is a fundamental marketing framework used to analyze and develop marketing strategies for products or services. It consists of four elements, each representing a different aspect of marketing strategy:

  • Product : Analyze the product itself, including its features, functionality, design, and user experience. Consider how well the product meets user needs and differentiates itself from competitors
  • Price : Assess the pricing strategy, including pricing models, pricing tiers, discounts, and promotions. Consider factors such as value proposition, cost structure, and willingness to pay
  • Place : Evaluate the distribution channels and placement strategy for the product, including online platforms, retail stores, and partnerships. Consider how to reach target customers effectively and efficiently
  • Promotion : Examine the marketing and promotional tactics used to raise awareness and drive sales of the product. Consider advertising, public relations, social media, and other promotional channels

Design Thinking Framework

The design thinking framework is a human-centered approach to problem solving and innovation that is used to address a wide range of challenges and opportunities involved with product or service design.

It involves a structured process that encourages empathy, creativity, and collaboration to develop solutions that are user-centered, feasible, and viable. Here's how the design thinking framework is typically used:

  • Empathize : Empathize with users to understand their needs, motivations, and pain points. Conduct user interviews, surveys, or observations to gain insights
  • Define : Define the problem space, synthesizing research findings into clear problem statements or user personas. Articulate the specific challenges or opportunities
  • Ideate : Brainstorm and generate creative solutions to the defined problem, encouraging divergent thinking and exploring a wide range of possibilities
  • Prototype : Develop low-fidelity prototypes or mockups to visualize and communicate ideas, soliciting feedback from stakeholders and users
  • Test : Gather feedback on prototypes through user testing or validation experiments, iterating based on user insights and refining solutions

Growth Framework

The growth framework, also known as the AARRR framework, is a framework used to analyze and optimize the various stages of the customer lifecycle. It is commonly applied in growth marketing and product management to drive user acquisition, activation, retention, revenue, and referral.

Here's a breakdown of the growth framework:

  • Acquisition : Identify strategies for attracting new users or customers to the product, such as advertising, content marketing, SEO, or partnerships
  • Activation : Focus on strategies to convert new users into active and engaged users, such as onboarding processes, personalized messaging, or product tours
  • Retention : Explore tactics to keep users coming back to the product and increase their lifetime value, such as email marketing, loyalty programs, or product improvements
  • Revenue : Analyze opportunities to monetize the product, including pricing strategies, upselling, cross-selling, or subscription models
  • Referral : Consider ways to encourage existing users to refer new users to the product through word-of-mouth, referral programs, or social sharing

Product Development Lifecycle Framework

The product development lifecycle framework is used to guide the stages through which a product evolves from conceptualization to retirement. It outlines the key phases and activities involved in bringing a product to market and managing it throughout its lifespan.

Here's an overview of the product development lifecycle framework:

  • Ideation : Generate and evaluate ideas for new products or features, considering user needs, market trends, and business goals
  • Research : Conduct market research, user research, and competitive analysis to validate ideas and gather insights for product development
  • Design : Define product requirements, create wireframes or prototypes, and design the user experience and interface
  • Development : Oversee the development process, working with engineers and designers to build and test the product
  • Launch : Plan and execute the product launch, including marketing campaigns, communication strategies, and rollout plans
  • Post-launch Iteration : Monitor product performance, gather feedback from users, and iterate on the product based on insights and data

SWOT Analysis Framework

The SWOT analysis framework is a strategic planning tool used to identify and analyze the internal strengths and weaknesses as well as external opportunities and threats facing a business, product, or project.

SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Here's how each component of the SWOT analysis framework is used:

  • Strengths : Identify internal factors that contribute to the success of the product or business, such as unique features, strong brand reputation, or talented team members
  • Weaknesses : Identify internal factors that hinder the success of the product or business, such as limited resources, technical constraints, or competitive disadvantages
  • Opportunities : Identify external factors or market trends that present opportunities for growth or innovation, such as emerging technologies, new market segments, or changing consumer behaviors
  • Threats : Identify external factors or challenges that pose risks to the product or business, such as competitive threats, market saturation, regulatory changes, or economic downturns

Product Manager Case Study Interview Tips

Below are our best ten tips for nailing your product manager case study interview:

1. Understand the Problem

Take the time to thoroughly understand the problem presented in the product manager case study interview. Break it down into its component parts, clarify any ambiguities, and identify the key objectives and constraints.

2. Ask Clarifying Questions

Don't hesitate to ask   clarifying questions during your case study interview if anything is unclear or if you need more information to solve the case effectively. This demonstrates your ability to gather relevant information and ensure you're addressing the right issues.

3. Define Your Approach

Before diving into the solution, outline your approach to solving the problem. Walk the interviewer through the different steps you plan on taking. Describe the framework or methodology you'll use.

4. Think Creatively

Be creative and think outside the box when brainstorming solutions. Don't limit yourself to conventional approaches. Consider innovative ideas that could differentiate the product and provide unique value to users.

5. Prioritize Solutions

Not all solutions are created equal. Prioritize your ideas based on their potential impact, feasibility, and alignment with the objectives of the product manager case study interview. Focus on high impact solutions that address the most critical aspects of the problem.

6. Consider Trade-offs

Recognize that there may be trade-offs involved in any solution. Consider the pros and cons of each option, and be prepared to justify your decisions based on the trade-offs you've made.

7. Communicate Clearly

Articulate your ideas and solutions clearly and concisely. Use structured frameworks, visual aids, and data to support your arguments and make your reasoning transparent to the interviewer.

8. Collaborate Effectively

Product management is a collaborative role, so demonstrate your ability to work effectively with others. Solicit feedback from the interviewer, incorporate their opinions and perspectives, and communicate openly throughout the product manager case study interview.

9. Showcase Your Analytical Skills

Use data and metrics to support your decisions, solutions, or hypotheses. Analyze any data provided, draw meaningful insights, and use them to inform your decisions.

10. Practice product manager case study interviews

Like any skill, product manager case study interviews require practice in order to excel in them. Therefore, practice doing product manager case studies with a partner under timed conditions. Seek feedback from others to identify areas for improvement. Familiarize yourself with the products and services of the company that you are interviewing for.

How to Prepare for Product Manager Case Study Interviews

There are six steps to preparing for product manager case study interviews: understand what a product manager case study interview is, learn the right strategies, practice a few cases by yourself, practice with a partner, practice with a current or former PM, and work on your improvement areas.

1. Understand what a product manager case study interview is

The first step to preparing for product manager case study interviews is to understand exactly what case study interviews are.

After you are familiar with what product manager case study interviews are, it is important to know what a great case study interview performance looks like. This will help you learn product manager case study interview strategies more quickly in the next step.

Before continuing onto the next step, you should be familiar with:

  • The object of a product manager case study interview
  • The types of questions you could get asked
  • What a great product manager case study interview performance looks like

2. Learn the right strategies

Now that you have all the background information needed to succeed in product manager case study interviews, the next step is to learn the right strategies to build good interview habits.

It is much more efficient to learn the right product manager case study interview strategies the first time than to learn poor strategies and try to correct them later.

The quickest, most efficient way to learn these strategies is to read through our comprehensive product manager interview book . This book provides strategies on exactly what to do and say for over 10+ types of product manager interview questions, such as product design, marketing, estimation, strategy, execution, behavioral, and technical questions.

Before moving onto the next step, you should at least have strategies for the following types of product manager case study questions:

  • Product design case study interview questions
  • Product improvement case study interview questions
  • Product growth case study interview questions
  • Product strategy case study interview questions

3. Practice a few product manager case study interviews by yourself

Once you have learned the right strategies, the next step is to practice doing a few product manager case study interviews by yourself.

When practicing product manager case study interviews, it is typically better to practice with a partner than to practice by yourself. Practicing with a partner better simulates the actual product manager interview experience.

However, when you are just starting out, it is better to do the first few cases by yourself because it’ll help you become familiar with the structure and format of product manager case study interviews much more quickly.

 You also won’t have to waste time finding a partner and waiting for a time when they will be available to give you a mock interview.

4. Practice product manager case study interviews with a partner

The next step in preparing for product manager case study interviews is to practice doing cases with a partner. There are many aspects of case study interviews that you won’t be able to improve on unless you practice live with a partner.

When practicing product manager case study interviews with a partner, make sure that you are spending enough time after the mock interview to deliver feedback. Most of your learning and improvement will come from these valuable feedback sessions.

Do not move onto the next step until you have done at least 5 to 10 cases and are beginning to feel more comfortable with product manager case study interviews.

5. Practice with a former or current product manager

At this point, I strongly recommend asking former or current product managers to give you a mock interview. This will significantly help improve your performance on product manager case study interviews.

Doing a practice interview with a former or current product manager is highly beneficial because they know exactly what great answers sound like and can give you high-quality feedback to help improve the quality of your answers.

You can find former or current product managers among your friends, classmates, colleagues, and your broader LinkedIn network.

6. Work on your improvement areas

The last step in preparing for product manager case study interviews is to work on strengthening your improvement areas. Examples of common improvement areas or deficiencies include:

  • Developing a comprehensive and structured framework or approach
  • Generating creative and innovative ideas
  • Using appropriate logic to make decisions
  • Considering trade-offs and alternatives
  • Communicating clearly and concisely

Try to work on improving one thing at a time. This will be much more effective than trying to improve on all of your weaknesses at once.

Recommended Product Manager Case Study Interview Resources

To prepare for product manager case study interviews, we highly recommend checking out our comprehensive product manager interview book, Hacking the PM Interview , which is available on Amazon in both eBook and paperback formats.

In this book, we’ll teach you exactly how to ace your product manager interviews and secure offers from top companies such as Google, Meta, Microsoft, Amazon, and Apple.

Whether your interview is months away or even tomorrow, this book will teach you the most effective, robust PM interview strategies in the least amount of time.

We’ve eliminated all filler material found in other books and provide you with everything you need to know in a clear and direct way.

With this shortcut guide, you will:

  • Learn how to answer 10+ types of product manager interview questions, such as product design, marketing, estimation, strategy, execution, behavioral, and technical
  • Uncover how to differentiate yourself from the thousands of other candidates competing against you
  • Improve your PM interview skills quickly with the included practice problems and solutions
  • Save yourself hundreds of hours of interview prep time

Dominate your PM interview

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What Are Product Management Case Study Interviews?

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Carlos González De Villaumbrosia

Updated: May 6, 2024 - 10 min read

What is a product management case study interview?

A case study interview, also known as a case interview, is a tool used by many companies to assess a candidate’s analytical, creative, and problem-solving skills. Similar to coding interviews for engineers, they allow the interviewers to simulate a situation that allows your skills to be put into practice.

Quite simply, you’ll be given a situation, and asked to make suggestions or come up with a hypothetical solution or improvement.

In product management, this can be about any number of things. The realm of product managers is vast, and covers many different aspects of product development. As product managers sit at the intersection of business, technology, and design, you could be asked case questions under these umbrellas.

This means that you could be given a case question based on product design, monetization, market research, user segmentation, trends, data, technical development, go-to-market , prioritization…pretty much anything product managers are into!

Example case study interview questions

What’s your favorite product? How would you improve its design?

Which company do you think we should acquire next?

How would you go about launching our product in an emerging market, say, India?

What new feature would you build for Instagram?

How to ace a case study interview

Blog image 1: Product Management Case Study Interviews

The product design case interview

No, the interview isn't going to hand you a Wacom tablet and ask you to mock up an entire product on the spot! Instead, you’ll be asked to think through some solutions to pretty common design problems. Things like:

How would you improve our in-app messenger?

If we tasked you with making our user interface more inclusive of those with disabilities, how would you approach that?

How would you redesign our homepage to make it more appealing for X demographic?

We’re finding that X number of users don’t make it through the entire onboarding process. What would you do/design to fix that?

The key when being asked a question about how you’d improve the company’s product is not to insult it too heavily. Remember, the people who built it are in the room with you, so if you come in hot with “well, for starters, your homescreen is absolutely hideous and needs a complete do-over”, you’re not going to endear yourself to them. A product manager is a diplomat, so be as diplomatic as possible.

Instead of focusing on how you’d fix what you see as glaring problems, try to come up with something that adds to the product. “I think a chatbot in your user onboarding process would help people to navigate through the process. Here’s where I’d implement it…”

How to ace it

Give your hypothesis: Because everything in product starts with why .

Lay out your approach : Briefly summarize what your approach would be, given your hypothesis. Include things like the research you would need to do, and the preparation the team would need to make.

Identify the user: Companies want user-driven product managers, so definitely make sure you know which user you’re building for.

Describe the solution : How would you actually build the solution? No need to get too technical if that’s not where your skills lie. If that’s the case, talk about how you’d lead the engineering teams to build the solution.

Suggest testing: If you’ve got 2 ideas and you’re not sure which one is better, describe both and talk about the test you’d run to discover which one to roll with.

Prioritize features : Show off your prioritization skills if you’re suggesting more than one feature.

Suggest features for an MVP and plans for a V1 launch:

Finish off by helping the interviewers to visualize what the finished MVP would be like, as well as the plans you’d have for a full release later down the line.

The business-thinking case interview

Blog image 2: Product Management Case Study Interviews

Business thinking is vital for product managers, as you’re the person that ties what’s being built to the needs of the business. This is why you may be presented with a business problem, so that the interviewer can assess your thought process, and how you approach product strategy.

Business case questions may include things like:

Management wants to build X because a competitor has launched something similar. How would you respond?

If we wanted to move more into the B2B market by launching X, what would you do first?

How would you increase customer adoption for the feature we released last month?

We want to become more product-led in our growth strategy. What recommendations would you make in terms of pricing structure/increasing customer adoption?

Establish market characteristics : This is especially important if your case question is a go-to-market question. If you’re not sure what the market characteristics are, talk about what you would find out before starting the work.

Layout your approach: Briefly summarize what your approach would be.

Prioritize your actions: If you’ve been asked for a step-by-step approach, talk about why you’re doing things in that order.

Provide analysis : Business decisions require a heavy amount of analysis, so be sure to include some competitor/customer/market analysis.

Make recommendations: Talk about the end result in a business sense. Instead of getting into the weeds of feature building etc, give a step-by-step approach of how you’d take a new feature to market, or make business-oriented improvements to a product.

Remember that a business-thinking case question requires an answer that would make C-suite happy. Try to think through your answer for the eyes of management. Think about what brings most business value, and tailor your answer around that.

The technical interview

Here, by technical interview, we don’t necessarily mean the tech interviews that engineers can expect to go through. It’s very rare for product managers to be asked technical questions in an interview, unless they’re specifically applying for a technical product manager role. You’ll usually get some warning in advance that your technical prowess will be tested, either by the recruiter or a hiring manager.

The chances of being given an in-depth technical case interview (aka, a coding interview) are rare, so you’re more likely to be asked a few general questions to gauge your technical ability.

Things like:

What’s your experience with X or Y technology?

Do you feel comfortable managing a team of engineers?

Can you explain the most technical project you’ve worked on?

These are questions that you should be able to answer in the room, because they’re based on your direct experience. So you don’t need to put any special level of preparation into their answers.

You may also be asked some technical questions that allow you to show off your technical knowledge, but are open-ended enough that you can still answer even if you’re not very techy. The goal is to gauge how much technical know-how you already have, not to embarrass you and put you on the spot for not having a computer science degree.

These questions might include:

What feature do you think we should build next? How should we approach building it?

Would you build X solution in-house, or would you outsource development elsewhere?

What partners do you think we should integrate with next? (eg. Slack, Trello)

These are questions that you can approach in your own way, from a technical perspective if you come from that background, or from a people-management/design/business perspective if you don’t.

Product managers and tech skills…what’s the deal?

Blog image 3: Product Management Case Study Interviews

It’s highly unlikely that you’ll be asked to go through a technical interview, as product managers aren’t the ones who physically build the product. They provide the direction and the insights, and the engineers provide the solutions and the finished product. So what’s gained by seeing how well you can code?

Well, some roles are more technical than others, so obviously in these roles you’d need either a computer science degree or a proven record of technical work, like an engineering background.

But for a regular product manager, you’re less likely to be given a technical case interview, and more likely to just be asked a few very general questions to gauge your knowledge.

1. Give yourself time to think

The worst thing you can do is panic, and rush in with an answer. It’s OK to give yourself time to think. An interview is not a first date, and silences don’t have to be awkward! So pause, and give yourself time to consider your answer before you start.

That’s much better than giving a sub-standard answer that you can’t take back. The interviewer will expect you to need a moment to gather your thoughts, so don’t stress.

2. Hack: The McKinsey case study

Now, you’re bound to go off and do plenty more research on case study interviews, wanting to find out everything you can. So let us give you this secret hack: check out materials for McKinsey case interviews .

“But I want to work at Facebook/Google/Amazon!” we hear you say. “Why would I prep for McKinsey?”

McKinsey is one of the most difficult interviewers out there. Reviews by some previous interviewees makes it seem like the process was designed to help choose the next ruler of Westeros. Their standards are incredibly high, and their case interviews are something that people prep weeks, even months in advance for.

This has a double result for you. One, there are swathes of resources out there specifically to prep for this behemoth of a case interview. Two, if you can give a McKinsey-standard answer to a case interview, you’ll outshine the competition easily!

3. Practice ahead of time

While you can’t be totally sure what you’ll be asked in a case interview, you can still prepare.

The smart thing to do is to practice case interview questions ahead of time. The way to do this is to pick apart the job posting you’re interviewing for, and identify what the main responsibilities are.

Case interview preparation is absolutely essential for acing product manager interviews, as you’re bound to be asked a hypothetical question sooner or later in the interview process.

4. Don’t feel pressured to give a perfect answer

Companies know how much time, research, and information goes into making informed product decisions. So if they’ve asked you to propose a new feature for their product as part of your interview, they’re not looking for something they can actually implement from you. They just want to see how you think, and what your analytical and problem-solving skills are. It’s also a test of your communication skills, seeing how you present yourself and your ideas.

So don’t pressure yourself into giving an answer that’s on par with the work their existing product managers do. That’s like beating yourself up for not running as fast a Usain Bolt when you do your first ever 5K.

Prepping for product manager interviews?

We’ve got you covered! Check out these great resources:

Master The Product Manager Interview Playlist : We’ve collected together our best talks on acing the Product Management interview, from a look behind the scenes of recruitment, to how to break into the industry. Check out the entire playlist here , or enjoy this sample from Google’s Product Manager…

The Ultimate List of Product Manager Interview Questions: Prepare yourself for every kind of question you could ever hope to be asked in a product manager interview!

Product School resources: If you really want to deep-dive into the best interview techniques, and become the master of any interview you walk into, you should check out the resources we have in our community. We’ve got cheat sheets, templates, and more!

Hired — How to Get a Great Product Job: Tailored guide-to-go for product manager positions in top tech companies. As this book will show you,  some of the most successful product transitions originated from people in music production or finance, with full-time jobs or with no prior experience. The collection of stories of Product Management transition will show you how it’s done.

Updated: May 6, 2024

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How AI Can Change the Way Your Company Gets Work Done

  • Marc Zao-Sanders

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Using AI to help you carry out tasks better and faster can fuel new growth in your organization.

AI offers many ways to enhance a company’s overall internal capabilities and skills. AI can be used to infer skills from employee profiles and their activity. AI can be used to classify learning content and make it more applicable and accessible for the whole workforce, as well as making learning more personalized to each individual. AI can be used to summarize, recommend, and augment learning content. GenAI, in particular, can be used by the world’s billion knowledge workers to boost performance, right in the flow of work. Research shows that GenAI can get knowledge work done 25% faster and 40% better. This article covers several ways that corporations, teams, and individuals can drive internal growth by enhancing organizational capabilities. Early signs are that double-digit growth via GenAI is eminently possible.

Most growth models and strategies — such as the Ansoff Matrix and McKinsey’s 7S Framework — are focused on external expansion: Grow by launching new products, by entering new markets, and by doing both at once. Yet growth can also come from within, by developing internal  capability.

  • Marc Zao-Sanders is CEO and co-founder of filtered.com , which develops algorithmic technology to make sense of corporate skills and learning content. He’s the author of Timeboxing – The Power of Doing One Thing at a Time . Find Marc on LinkedIn or at www.marczaosanders.com .

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ACI Case Study : Physical Domain get disassociated from EPG upon removal of last Static Port Binding from NXOS CLI

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Bias-Free Language

The documentation set for this product strives to use bias-free language. For the purposes of this documentation set, bias-free is defined as language that does not imply discrimination based on age, disability, gender, racial identity, ethnic identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality. Exceptions may be present in the documentation due to language that is hardcoded in the user interfaces of the product software, language used based on RFP documentation, or language that is used by a referenced third-party product. Learn more about how Cisco is using Inclusive Language.


This document describes the impact of deleting all static port bindings from APIC CLI for a leaf switch when domain validation feature is enabled on ACI.


Basic understanding of Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI) configuration and Domain Validation feature.

More information on Domain validation feature in ACI can be found at,

https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/software/aci-data-center/221206-understand-aci-enforce-domain-validation.html#:~:text=13%201%2C19-,Enforce%20Domain%20Validation%3A%20Enabled,NOT%20programmed%20on%20the%20interface .

Setup and Topology

In this setup you are going to ue two different ways to program Vlan on the ACI Leaf switch interfaces

  • Attachable Access Entity Profile  (AAEP) attached to Leaf01 ports Interface Policy Group (IPG) has been configured with Endpoint Policy Group (EPG) Mapping.
  • AAEP attached to Leaf04 port IPG does not has any EPG mapping however " Static port binding" is performed through CLI to push Vlans.

Two Leaf - 01 and 04 ,

Model: N9K-C93180YC-FX

  • Version- 16.0(3e)
  • IPG Policy: ipg_1
  • aaep1 (Used for Leaf 01)
  • system-cdp-enabled
  • system-lldp-enabled
  • IPG Policy: ipg_2
  • aaep_static ( Used for Leaf04)
  • Leaf Interface Selector:Leaf_101_interface_profile
  •  ipg_1
  • Leaf Interface Selector:Leaf_104_interface_profile
  •  ipg_2
  • Switch Profile: Leaf_101
  • Leaf_101_interface_profile
  • Switch Profile: Leaf_104
  • Leaf_104_interface_profile
  • Tenant: abc-tn , Application Profile: abc-ap, EPG: epg-1, BD: bd-1
  • Physical Domain: abc-dom , Vlan Pool: Static : abc-vlan-pool(150-152)
  • Domain sample-dom is mapped to EPG epg-1


In this lab you are going to observe the "Impact" of deleting static port bindings from NXOS ® CLI. The behaviour in this document is going to show you " When you remove all static port mappings from NXOS ® CLI(CLI Only), the APIC is going to remove physical domain from the EPG". As per the current CLI design a clean-up occurs for Physical Domain to EPG association upon removal of the last Static port. This is a for maintaining an optimal configuration and avoid overlapping vlans in certain scenarios. The same is not relevant to the configurations done via GUI/API.

This behaviour can only impact the ACI Fabric s where the configuration design involves deployment of both Static port attachments and EPG to AEP association mixed under the same EPG, which is uncommon.

If physical domain is removed from EPG and domain validation feature is enabled in the fabric, APIC is going to remove all the vlans from the EPG interfaces.

This issue has already been addresses in  Cisco bug ID  CSCwj74262 Changes to the current expected behaviour regarding config clean-up under the CLI config)

Steps Involved

Step1. Ensure Domain validation is enabled.

If domain validation has been disabled in the scenario, no impact  is seen as removing physical domain association from EPG and this is not going for an  VLAN removal from Leaf Interfaces.

Step2. Vlans are programmed on Leaf 101 due to AAEP to EPG mapping.

Step3 . Vlans not programmed for Leaf 104 as no static mapping is done.

Step3. NXOS ® style config on Leaf 104 from APIC CLI

Step4. Validate on APIC fvIfConn MO is created

Step5. Deleted config from node 104

Step6. Domain got removed due to clean-up script triggered at the backend when config is removed through CLI.

Domain Mapping

Step7. Vlan programming removed due to Enforce validation feature (As domain is not associate to EPG, vlans are not be pushed)

Revision History

Revision Publish Date Comments

TAC Authored

Contributed by Cisco Engineers

  • Piyush Kataria TAC

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  • Application Policy Infrastructure Controller (APIC)

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A Case Study of Volcanic Soil Embankment Failure Triggered by Soil Softening Due to Water Infiltration and Water Seepage in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia

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  • First Online: 11 July 2024
  • pp 1619–1635
  • Cite this conference paper

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  • Albert Johan 11 ,
  • Andy Sugianto 11 &
  • Paulus P. Rahardjo 12  

Part of the book series: Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering ((LNCE,volume 395))

Included in the following conference series:

  • International Conference on Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development

In the development of residential facilities in contoured areas, cut-and-fill work is often required. For cost savings, fill works around the volcanic area usually use local material which is dominated by volcanic product material. Volcanic material is not suitable for embankment because the soil material is non-durable due to loss of the cementation bonds during water infiltration, so it is vulnerable to experiencing soil softening and can cause slope failure. To gain further understanding, a comprehensive study about volcanic embankment failure in Bandar Lampung—Indonesia was carried out. This study comprises site observation, field data collection, laboratory testing, and numerical modeling using finite element method for the slope reinforcement analysis. In the end, this study aims to provide a better understanding of the volcanic embankment failure mechanism and the method of slope reinforcement for volcanic embankment failure.

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Botts M (1986) The effects of slaking on engineering behavior of clay shales. PhD thesis, University of Colorado

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The author would like to thank PT Geotechnical Engineering Consultant for the data that has been provided so an assessment of the volcanic embankment failure in Bandar Lampung can be conducted comprehensively.

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Albert Johan & Andy Sugianto

Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung, Indonesia

Paulus P. Rahardjo

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President of Vietnamese Society for Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical Engineering (VSSMGE, Hanoi, Vietnam

Phung Duc Long

Master program in Infrastructure Engineering (MIE), VNU Vietnam-Japan University, Hanoi, Vietnam

Nguyen Tien Dung

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Johan, A., Sugianto, A., Rahardjo, P.P. (2024). A Case Study of Volcanic Soil Embankment Failure Triggered by Soil Softening Due to Water Infiltration and Water Seepage in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia. In: Duc Long, P., Dung, N.T. (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development. GEOTEC 2023. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 395. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-9722-0_109

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Today, I will visually take you through how recruiters evaluate a portfolio case study . This a portfolio review of Bre Huang’s case study titled Uber Scooters Platform. I chose this case study because despite being an entry level project, it is presented really well. Let dive in. Avoid text heavy sections.

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Case Studies

Empowering artistic visions in animation.

  • Customer: Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design (MOME)
  • Location: Budapest, Hungary
  • Watch the testimonial video here
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Founded in 1880, Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design (MOME) is a prestigious institution with a rich history of nurturing artistic talent and pushing the boundaries of design and visual arts. Situated in Budapest, a city renowned for its dynamic animation community and global recognition for its exceptional expertise in film special effects, MOME is at the forefront of animation education, featuring a rich tradition in stop-motion 2D and 3D animation.

MOME's commitment to excellence extends across various programs, including graphic design, animation, industrial design, and media art. Beyond learning just the technical skills, the university fosters independent perspectives and cultivates individual artistic voices, all while embracing emerging technologies such as AR, VR, and MR. The university aims to prepare graduates to be innovative leaders of the future.

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In the dynamic landscape of animation, MOME faces the challenge of keeping pace with evolving technologies and industry standards. The demand for realistic and immersive animations, particularly in areas like facial expressions and body language, requires robust hardware and software solutions capable of handling large datasets and computational power to produce high-quality 3D animations.

"We are focusing on the personal artistic approach of our students, so after graduate they can become directors, VFX directors, video game developers,” says Anna Gyulai, Artist-teacher at MOME.

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Workstation that renders heavy animations To empower students with cutting-edge technology, MOME has integrated the iPon Creator Advanced Workstation Powered by ASUS in its animation course. Equipped with ProArt B760 motherboard and ProArt GeForce RTX™ 4070 Ti graphics card, the workstation offers unparalleled performance for high-end creative projects like 3D design. The workstation's powerful cooling system ensures uninterrupted operation during long rendering sessions, while its sleek design and efficient processing capabilities have not been unnoticed by faculty and students alike.

“Having a powerful PC to drive students' projects really helps us as students work on more and more complex animation projects,” says Gyulai.

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Monitors to present powerful animation graphics MOME utilizes ASUS ProArt monitors to provide students with immersive and color-accurate viewing experiences. The ASUS ProArt Display PA278CGV, a 27-inch full HD monitor, comes with 144Hz refresh rate. The students enjoy using this monitor for smooth visuals as part of their 3D or other animated projects. As a second monitor, the ProArt Display PA279CRV offers 99% DCI-P3 and Adobe RGB color gamut. The 4K HDR display enables students to deliver industry-standard projects with ultimate precision and color accuracy. Both monitors feature different connectivity options, allowing students to seamlessly integrate additional tools such as pen displays into their workflows. "I like that we have two ASUS monitors, because it is important to have different viewports with different shading options when you’re working on a 3D scene,” says Patrik Pencz, Animation MA student at MOME.

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After ASUS ProArt solution adopted in the animation courses, it has played an essential role in the educational journey of MOME. With its vast range of capabilities, the students can tackle increasingly intricate animation projects with confidence. Moreover, as an established part of the workflow and tools used in the professional industry, ASUS ProArt ensures that the students are well-prepared for their future in animation.

“With the help of the workstation and the ASUS ProArt monitors, they can expand the quality of design tasks and implement real-time renders and real-time feedback at a much higher technical level," concludes László Brovinszki, the Head of BA Animation

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#baghjanburns: crisis at oil india ltd.

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On May 27, 2020, a blowout occurred in Well No. 5 at Baghjan (Assam); the well, owned by Oil India Ltd., caught fire on June 9, 2020. For almost five and a half months, the company tried to douse the 200-foot high flame but failed to do so. Finally, on Day 173, Oil India Ltd succeeded in capping the well. Biswajit Roy, Director (Human Resources and Business Development), was tasked with investigating the nature and cause of the crisis. Roy pondered on the nature of the crisis: Had it been purely technical or stakeholder-induced? What had led to the chaotic condition? Could things have been done differently?

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Nutrition companies, parents clash in court over cause of infant intestinal disease

The companies say no published study's ever concluded their products cause NEC.

Chance Dean was alive for just 25 days.

Yet his tragic story has reverberated in hospitals around the country, impacted the stock price of two multinational corporations, and ignited a high-stakes legal clash over a pernicious disease that kills hundreds of babies a year in the United States.

Born two months early and weighing less than four pounds, Chance spent all his days under close medical supervision in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) near his family's home in Southern Illinois.

His mother, Jasmine Watson, was unable to produce enough breast milk to fully nourish Chance and his fraternal twin brother, Chase. She initially opted to have her sons fed with a combination of her own milk and human breast milk from donor banks.

As Chance and his brother were being prepared for transfer to a hospital where donor milk was unavailable, doctors began transitioning them on Day 12 to a formula designed specifically for premature, low-birthweight infants, in addition to Watson's breast milk, which was fortified to adequately support their nutrition.

On Day 22, Chance took a sudden turn for the worse.

"He just seemed like he just didn't feel good," Watson, 25, said in an interview. "It seemed like he was uncomfortable."

Doctors diagnosed Chance with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, pronounced "neck"), a devastating illness of the intestines that primarily affects premature infants. The disease led to three urgent surgeries in an unsuccessful effort to save his life.

At 9:43 p.m. on March 28, 2020, Chance died in the arms of his mother.

"In that moment, I felt like the only thing that I could do for him was be there," Watson said. "I held him the entire time until his heart stopped beating."

Chance's twin, who received the same formula at the same time, did not develop NEC.

Four years later, a photograph of Chance -- in a tiny blue knit cap -- was displayed for jurors as "Plaintiff's Exhibit 887" at the St. Clair County Courthouse in Belleville, Illinois. Watson alleged in a civil lawsuit that Chance's NEC developed because of the switch from donor breast milk to a cow's milk-based formula made by Mead Johnson, a global pediatric nutrition company.

"The reason we're here in this courtroom is because Chance Dean never made it out of the hospital," Watson's lawyer Sean Grimsley said in his opening statement. "He died because he was given formula manufactured and sold by defendant Mead Johnson."

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Phyllis Jones, a defense attorney for Mead Johnson, stepped up to tell jurors that Watson's lawyers were unjustifiably pinning the blame for Chance's death on the formula. "It's an easy answer, but it's not the right answer." Jones said. "It's not the answer that the evidence will ultimately support in this case."

"Four different neonatologists at two different hospitals made the decision that preterm infant formula … was the right option for Chance Dean to keep him growing, to keep him developing," Jones said.

After a three-week trial, the jury decided that the company was negligent and had failed to adequately warn Watson that the incidence of NEC is higher in formula-fed premature babies. The jury awarded Watson $60 million to compensate for her loss and for the suffering Chance endured.

"For good reason, we believe this is the largest compensatory damages award ever in St. Clair County and stands as one of the most substantial in Illinois state history," Watson's lawyers wrote in a press release following the verdict.

Mead Johnson , in a statement from its UK-based parent company Reckitt Benckiser, said it was "surprised and deeply disappointed with the verdict" and vowed to "pursue all options" to have it overturned.

"It is important to note that this is a single verdict in a single case and should not be extrapolated," the statement said. "We continue to believe that the allegations from the plaintiff's lawyers in this case were not supported by the science or experts in the medical community."

The company told ABC News that the verdict "sets a dangerous precedent that interferes with the practice of medicine and the patient-doctor relationship."

'Warning moms'

The Watson case, which concluded in March, was the first of its kind to go to trial. Interest in the proceedings was so expansive that an overflow courtroom was opened to accommodate all the lawyers from around the country who came to observe.

That's because there are more than a thousand similar lawsuits in the U.S., involving over 7,000 families whose premature babies died or suffered serious injuries from NEC -- with the first NEC case against formula-maker Abbott, Mead Johnson's chief rival, scheduled to go to trial Monday in St. Louis.

The lawsuits allege the cow's milk-based preterm infant formulas made by Mead Johnson and Abbott cause or substantially increase the risk of premature infants contracting NEC, when compared to babies who are fed a diet of their mother's own milk or donated breast milk.

"Our allegation is that these formula manufacturers should be, at minimum, warning moms, doctors, dietitians, nurses, and hospitals of the risk of this horrendous disease that comes with switching preterm infants from a human milk to a cow's milk-based formula," said Ben Whiting, a partner at Keller Postman, a national law firm that represents Watson and hundreds of other plaintiffs suing the companies.

Over the past three years, claims against one or both formula-makers have been filed in state courts from Connecticut to California. Hundreds more are pending in federal court. Plaintiffs argue that the companies have long been aware of the risks but have failed to provide adequate warnings to parents and their medical providers.

"We were never given any information about additional risk with formula," said Brent Rheinecker, whose premature baby daughter Willa died from NEC four years ago. Brent and his wife Elizabeth filed suit against the formula makers in Madison County, Illinois. Their case has not yet been set for trial.

"We never want another family to go through what we did. We never want another child to go through what our baby did. Her life was so short," Elizabeth Rheinecker said.

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In their legal complaints, lawyers for the families suing Mead Johnson and Abbott cite several scientific studies spanning three decades that have reported a higher occurrence of NEC in formula-fed preemies. The magnitude of the risk, however, varies widely in the scientific literature -- from no significant difference to as much as three to ten times greater. Still, no study to date has shown that formula causes NEC.

Recent research, published in January in the Journal of the American Medical Association, followed 483 extremely preterm infants and found that babies in a preterm formula group gained weight more rapidly than those fed only with nutrient-fortified human donor milk -- but that over twice as many formula-fed babies (9.0% compared to 4.2%) developed NEC compared to those fed only with donor milk. Health care providers say this is not enough to show a conclusive cause, but enough for scientists to continue to study the association. At the same time, some premature babies who were never given formula went on to develop NEC, suggesting that human milk is not completely protective.

"What we're trying to do is to make sure that moms and doctors have the complete information that they need in order to make the best decision possible that they can for their preterm babies," Whiting said. "The pain and suffering that these babies go through with this NEC is absolutely enormous. The way that it tears families apart -- even if you're a strong mom like Jasmine Watson -- is significant."

The lawsuits targeting the preterm formulas do not allege that the products are contaminated. The litigation is unrelated to Abbott's baby formula recalls in 2022, which led to nationwide shortages.

'An essential part of the medical toolkit'

Mead Johnson and Abbott, direct competitors in business, have been largely aligned in defending their respective preterm formulas, which they describe as "essential, safe, life-saving nutrition products" that have been successfully administered in NICUs for decades, according to court filings. The companies contend the mass litigation is itself "causing fear among parents" and "endangering the relationships" between parents and their physicians.

"No published study has ever concluded that defendants' products cause NEC," attorneys for the companies wrote in a joint filing in federal court. "Despite plaintiffs' recent campaign against these products, NICU medical teams -- including in the world's best hospitals -- continue to administer them as an essential part of the medical toolkit for treating these most fragile of patients."

Amy Gates, a pediatric nutrition specialist who serves as Mead Johnson's medical director, said in an interview after the Watson verdict that plaintiffs' attorneys are "taking advantage" of the emotional impact that comes with the loss of a child.

"My fear is that we lose sight of the science and we allow emotion to win. And if that happens, there will be thousands of preemies who will be at risk," Gates said. "Not every baby can sustain himself on just breast milk. And loss of access to these life-saving products would be a tragedy."

The two companies have also argued that because their preterm formulas are used almost exclusively under medical supervision in hospital settings, they should therefore be considered by courts in the same manner as prescription medications and medical devices, where a legal principle known as the "learned intermediary doctrine" often applies. The logic of the doctrine is that medical professionals -- the learned intermediaries -- are best positioned to know the risks and benefits of a particular treatment and to communicate that to patients.

Three courts, however, have rejected that argument, declining to apply the doctrine to preterm infant formula, because - as one judge wrote - "it is not a recognized prescription medication or medical device."

MORE: Texas hospital is reportedly 1st in US to use holograms for doctor-patient visits

"At the end of the day, it's the formula manufacturer -- it's their product. And so they are the ones that actually know the risks of using their own product," Whiting said.

The presiding judge in the Watson case, in a pretrial ruling, rejected the learned intermediary defense and later instructed the jury -- over Mead Johnson's objections -- that the company had a duty to warn "the consumer, like Jasmine Watson, about the dangers of its products," according to court records.

Mead Johnson contends that jury instruction severely undercut their defense. The company argued at trial that it had no legal obligation to warn Watson or other patients, because the doctors who administer preterm formula already know about the risks of NEC.

"These patients are cared for by highly trained neonatologists and dietitians and clinical staff that know what they're doing," Gates said. "They fully understand the risks and benefits of everything they do for these patients."

But Watson's lawyers argued that testimony from doctors at trial indicated they did not fully appreciate the degree of risk allegedly associated with preterm formula.

"The doctors in this case talked about how there was a slight increased risk of NEC by switching to the formula, when in fact it's a significant risk," Whiting said. "And the doctors, they are not omnipotent. They don't know everything there is to know about everything that's out there. And that's why at the end of the day, the legal duty on the manufacturers is to make sure to do everything that they can to make sure that the mom knows about the risk. And one of the ways they can do that is by giving a better warning to the doctors."

'A tragic disease'

NEC is a life-threatening intestinal disease predominantly impacting young neonates born prematurely, though it affects older and full-term babies in less common instances. Many infants recover, but the condition can lead to death or lifelong medical issues in the most severe cases.

"Babies who are born preterm, particularly those that are born with a birth weight less than three pounds, or who are very low birthweight, are at risk of a number of complications related to prematurity. That doesn't just include NEC. It can also include their lungs and their brain," said Dr. Ravi Patel, a neonatologist at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta.

Patel, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Emory University, has been studying NEC for 14 years.

"It involves the sudden development of intestinal inflammation, and in severe cases, it can go on to where the tissue dies, and babies need surgery," Patel said. "NEC is a tragic disease. But most people have never heard of NEC and don't know what it is, even though it is a major contributor to neonatal mortality."

The exact number of infants who have had NEC is unknown, but research shows the incidence of NEC has declined over the last 20 years. One recent study published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery found that on average, there were about 3,000 cases a year from 2006 to 2017. Despite similar declines in mortality rates, data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows that from 2017-2021, over 300 infants died from the disease each year, on average.

The cause of NEC is unknown, though it is believed to be a combination of multiple risk factors, the most important being premature birth and very low birthweight. Other possible factors include "the makeup of bacteria in the intestines, not enough blood flow or oxygen to the intestines, and an infant's diet," according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

"NEC is a multifactorial disease. It's not just any single factor we can pinpoint to why babies develop NEC," Patel said. "We know that babies who only get breast milk are still at risk."

Though a definitive cause of NEC has not been determined, it has been shown that the use of breast milk can be protective.

PHOTO: Jasmine Watson sits with her partner, Cedric Dean, and their son Chase, 4.  Pictured on the pillow is Chance Dean, who died from NEC in March, 2020.

"One of the best ways to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis is by breastfeeding," said Patel, who is not involved in any of the litigation related to NEC. "Our goal is to always provide mother's own milk, but when that's not possible, the feeding choices involve donor milk as an option. And donor milk has been shown, particularly in recent studies, to lower the risk of NEC."

An AAP policy statement in 2012 noted that "feeding preterm infants human milk is associated with a significant reduction (58%) in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis" and recommended that "all preterm infants should receive human milk." When mother's own milk is unavailable "pasteurized donor milk, appropriately fortified, should be used," the statement said.

Donor milk comes from mothers who have pumped more breast milk than they need. That milk is then collected and processed by networks of volunteers. Donor milk and maternal breast milk are typically fortified with extra calories and nutrients to meet the unique needs of premature infants in NICUs. Studies have also indicated that the pasteurization process -- which kills bacteria and viruses that might be in the donor milk -- may reduce many of the protective components of human milk.

"Overall, pasteurized donor milk is nutritionally suboptimal to a mother's own milk," according to an AAP clinical report published in 2021.

The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and its 33 milk banks dispensed nearly 10 million ounces of donor milk to 1,500 hospitals in 2023, the organization announced in February, but added that "the need for donor human milk continues to grow."

An analysis by the CDC found that donor milk was unavailable for very-low-birthweight infants at 13% of advanced care NICUs, based on data from 2020. "Availability of donor milk at hospitals might be affected by supply from milk banks, cost, and reimbursement, which can vary by state and payment source," the report said.

"Because donors' milk is a limited resource, some babies do need formula to provide adequate nutrition," Patel said. "We want to provide nourishment to babies, to make sure that they grow, that they get bigger, and ideally, that they can go home with their families.

"And those nutrition decisions are made at the bedside between clinicians and families, taking in the context of the unique circumstances of each baby," he added.

'Can't be replicated'

Attorneys for Mead Johnson argued during Watson's trial that the reason for differences in NEC rates is "not because formula is harmful. It's because formula doesn't protect in the same way that breast milk does. It doesn't include the same protective factors."

"We at Mead Johnson acknowledge that mother's breast milk, in particular, is unique in its biologic protections that can't be replicated," Gates said. "Not every baby has access to breast milk. And there are many reasons why babies need alternatives and supplements. And we believe that access to safe and nutritious formula is extremely important. And loss of that access could put thousands of preemies at risk."

The verdict in Watson's lawsuit propelled the burgeoning legal dispute into international headlines and jolted the companies' stock prices. Reckitt lost billions in market value following the jury's decision in March, while Abbott shares dipped about 4% over two days.

Reckitt's CEO, Kris Licht, told analysts during an earnings call in April that the company had "no plans to stop providing the product, as that would be detrimental to the care of preterm babies and their families."

MORE: Here's what you need to know as Google expands its health care AI

"I can tell you that we are spending a lot of time thinking about how to best navigate the litigation; how to prevail in the litigation," Licht said.

The trial's outcome also prompted a cautionary public statement from the NEC Society, a nonprofit patient-led advocacy group, urging against abrupt changes to neonatal care based on a single jury's findings.

"Neonatal feeding decisions should be made at patients' bedsides, not in courtrooms," the organization said. "Verdicts like the Watson case may prompt ICUs to reconsider their approaches to feeding neonatal patients, but not necessarily in a way that better protects infants from NEC."

Peter Pitts, a former U.S. Food and Drug Administration official, in an opinion article published in the Washington Times, argued that the litigation presents "a direct threat to the lives of America's preterm infants."

"Once again, tort lawyers, sensing a big payday, have put greed before civic duty by putting at risk one of our most at-risk populations - premature infants," wrote Pitts, the founder of the nonprofit Center for Medicine in the Public Interest.

'I would have made a different decision'

Watson said that she could not recall anyone talking to her about an elevated risk of NEC before her two sons were transitioned to formula and transferred to the hospital that did not use any donor breast milk.

"If I had known the risk of giving my children this formula, absolutely, I would have made a different decision," she said. "I don't want any other parents to ever have to go through that. I want them to know that you can ask questions. Make sure you understand."

Two months after the conclusion of Watson's case, Mead Johnson filed a motion for a new trial, arguing that the judge erred by precluding the company from presenting evidence of potential contributing causes of Chance Dean's death, including an alleged accidental laceration or abrasion of his liver during the second of his three surgeries. The company also contends the jury instructions "erased the important role of physicians in making decisions for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit."

case study for product

Watson's attorneys argue in response that the company's motion is "unfounded, and should be quickly denied so Mead Johnson can be finally held accountable for its actions, and so Chance Dean's family can finally get the justice and closure they deserve," according to court records.

"Despite the lengthy adversarial process and the resulting lawful jury instructions, Mead Johnson wants to lay blame for the jury's verdict at the feet of this Court and not its own negligence or its own failure to warn," Watson's lawyers wrote.

The court has set a hearing on Mead Johnson's post-trial motion for later this month.

Meanwhile, the first NEC case against Abbott is scheduled to go to trial on Monday, with the plaintiff, Margo Gill, alleging that her daughter suffered long-term health consequences from NEC, which she blames on the company's preterm infant formula. Abbott has denied the allegations.

"These cases seek to advance a theory promoted by plaintiffs' lawyers that has no basis in science and is not supported by the medical community. The allegations are without merit," said Scott Stoffel, a vice president of public affairs for the company.

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Product Management Case Study Interview Preparation Guide

Preparing for a product management case study interview can seem daunting. With the right preparation strategy, anyone can master this critical PM interview component.

First, we'll demystify case study interviews and their role in assessing PM candidates. Then you'll learn step-by-step techniques to solve case studies, along with sample responses. By the end, you'll have a game plan to confidently showcase your product thinking.

Introduction to Product Management Case Study Interviews

Product management case study interviews are an important part of the interview process for aspiring product managers. In these interviews, candidates are presented with a business case scenario and asked to analyze the situation, identify key issues, and propose data-driven solutions.

Preparing for PM case study interviews requires dedicating time to understand what these case studies entail, as well as practicing sample cases. With the right preparation, candidates can confidently demonstrate their skills in areas like product strategy, analytical thinking, and communication.

Understanding the Role of Case Studies in PM Interviews

Product management case studies aim to simulate real-world scenarios a PM could face. Interviewers use case study questions to evaluate how candidates would:

  • Analyze ambiguous business situations
  • Identify the key issues and problems
  • Research potential solutions
  • Use data and metrics to support decisions
  • Communicate recommendations effectively

Essentially, case study interviews enable hiring managers to assess if a candidate can think strategically and make product decisions like an experienced PM.

Rather than testing specific subject knowledge, case studies evaluate a candidate's structured problem-solving abilities. Preparing for these interviews is therefore critical for aspiring product managers.

The Importance of Preparation for Product Management Success

Taking time to prepare for PM case studies interviews is an investment that pays dividends in the long run. Preparation builds three key success skills:

  • Structured analytical thinking: Practice analyzing sample cases to develop a methodical approach to solving problems. Break down issues, research multiple solutions, use data to decide, and clearly communicate recommendations.
  • Product management knowledge: Understand PM strategy frameworks to analyze case details from a product perspective. Recognize how elements like market conditions, user needs and tech constraints affect product decisions.
  • Communication abilities: Construct logical narratives that explain your analysis and recommendations. Prepare to answer follow-up questions on the feasibility, impact and priorities of your proposed solutions.

With these core skills developed through case study preparation, candidates can tackle product management roles with the strategic thinking required to succeed. The time invested is well worth the career advancement and leadership opportunities that follow.

How to prepare for case study interview for product manager?

Here are 4 key things you should do to prepare for a product management case study interview:

Understand the case study you are getting

  • Do research on the company and product. Understand the product's key features, target users, business model etc.
  • Read up on similar products in the market. Compare features, pricing models, USPs etc.
  • Product management case study interview questions often relate to the company's actual products/services. Having this context will help you think through the case.

Know who will be ingesting your case study

  • Understand if your interviewers will be from product, marketing, technology or strategy roles.
  • Align your approach and terminology to their background and expectations. A PM would look for different things vs a marketer.

Set barriers and clarify assumptions

  • Clearly call out any assumptions you make due to lack of information.
  • Highlight limitations and barriers that would impact proposed strategies. Interviewers want to see this critical thinking.

Apply the open-ended or narrow strategy

  • For open-ended case studies, take a broad approach and think through multiple alternatives.
  • For narrow case studies, go deep into analysis before making focused recommendations.

Following this product management case study interview prep approach will demonstrate strong analytical and critical thinking skills expected from PM candidates. Use the tips to tailor your case study interview preparation.

How do you write a case study in product management?

When writing a case study for a product management interview , the key is to demonstrate your structured thinking and ability to analyze data to drive decisions. Here are some tips:

Establish market characteristics

  • Gather information on market size, growth trends, customer segments, competitive landscape, etc. This context sets the stage for your analysis.
  • For go-to-market case questions, focus more on understanding customer needs, pain points, and willingness to pay.

Layout your approach

  • Briefly explain how you would structure your analysis given the case data and timeline. For example:
  • Customer discovery
  • Competitor benchmarking
  • Financial modeling
  • Prototyping and testing

Prioritize your actions

  • Walk through your proposed approach in sequence, explaining why you are taking certain actions first.
  • For example, you may start by deeply understanding customer needs before developing product prototypes.

The key is to demonstrate a structured, data-driven approach to product decisions. Share your logic and assumptions clearly. Use cases and examples to illustrate key points.

Integrate feedback loops to iterate on product-market fit . Avoid big bang launches without validation.

By following this framework, you can showcase strong product management skills - even without prior PM experience!

How do you prepare for a case study interview?

Here are some key ways to prepare for a product management case study interview:

Review sample cases and outline your answers

  • Search online for product management case study interview examples. Review the case details and business context thoroughly.
  • Outline your approach to analyzing the case. Think through how you would frame the key issues, gather data, develop hypotheses, test solutions, present recommendations, etc.
  • Draft sample responses to common case questions like "How would you design the product features?" or "What metrics would you track?" Refine your answers to demonstrate strong analytical and problem solving skills.

Practice mental math to work with quantitative data

  • Case studies often involve numerical data analysis. Practice doing quick mental calculations to efficiently process statistics like revenue, user growth rates, conversion percentages, etc.
  • Build intuition for metrics - e.g. is a 5% conversion rate good or bad? Getting comfortable working with numbers will help you have more productive discussions.

Review brain teasers and practice solving them

  • Many case interviews incorporate business brain teasers to evaluate your logical thinking. Search for popular brain teasers and practice solving them under time pressure.
  • Identify patterns in how you approach open-ended problems. Brainstorm multiple creative solutions and highlight your problem-solving process.

Practice case interviews with friends

  • Set up mock case interviews with friends also applying for product management roles. Take turns being the interviewer and interviewee.
  • Treat practice interviews seriously - have the interviewer give real-time feedback on your structured thinking.
  • Iterate on your interview approach to sharpen your ability to clearly communicate complex ideas and solutions.

With diligent preparation across these areas, you'll feel more confident tackling a product management case study interview. Reach out for any other tips!

How do I prepare for a product management interview?

Here are 4 key ways to prepare for a product management interview :

  • Study your frameworks - Get familiar with important PM frameworks like the Product Development Lifecycle, Opportunity Assessment, and Prioritization. Understand how and when to apply them. Resources like Product Gym's PM Program have case studies to practice.
  • Research the "Four Mindsets of Product Management" - The four mindsets are user focus, business focus, technical focus, and team leadership. Prepare stories from your experience that demonstrate these mindsets.
  • Become a product management nerd - Immerse yourself in PM best practices. Read blogs, listen to podcasts, and connect with other PMs. Resources like Product Management Case Studies and Product Design can level up your knowledge.
  • Don't be shy about asking your network for help - Reach out to friends, colleagues, mentors who have PM experience. Ask for their tips, practice interviews, feedback on your stories. Leverage your network.

The key is structured preparation across frameworks, mindsets and soft skills. Resources like Sample Questions and interview tips are helpful. With practice, research and help from your network, you can ace your PM interview.

Dissecting Product Management Case Study Interview Questions

Product management case study interviews aim to evaluate a candidate's analytical thinking, problem-solving abilities, communication skills, and overall fit for the product management role. Here are some of the most common types of PM case study interview questions you may encounter:

Challenges in Product Design and How to Navigate Them

Product design case studies focus on the ideation, prototyping, and testing involved in bringing a new product to market. Some examples of product design case study questions include:

  • How would you design an app to allow travelers to easily book flights, hotels, rental cars, and other travel arrangements all in one place? Walk through your thought process from idea generation to prototyping and user testing.
  • Our company is looking to launch a smart home device. How would you approach the product design process? Outline key considerations around hardware components, software capabilities, target consumer segments, pricing strategy, and go-to-market plan.

To tackle these types of case studies, structure your thought process using a framework like the double diamond design process. Clarify the problem you are trying to solve, ideate potential solutions, describe how you would prototype and test your ideas, and determine how to measure success once launched. Discuss tradeoffs you may need to make regarding features, pricing, and timeline. Provide realistic examples if possible.

Strategizing for Product Success: A Look at Product Strategy Case Studies

Product strategy case studies deal with high-level strategic issues like market positioning, growth opportunities, and competition. Some examples include:

  • Our food delivery app has solid market share in urban areas. How would you expand into suburban and rural markets? Consider pricing, driver supply, restaurant availability, and marketing tactics.
  • Our e-commerce site seems to have hit a plateau in terms of new customer acquisition. How would you analyze why and determine new strategies for growth?

For these types of case studies, leverage frameworks like Porter's Five Forces to analyze the competitive landscape. Outline the Total Addressable Market (TAM) and serviceable markets to quantify growth potential. Use data to back up your recommendations around pricing, partnerships, marketing channels, and positioning. Discuss risks and provide contingency plans.

Mastering Quantitative Analysis in PM Case Studies

Quantitative PM case studies require breaking down and analyzing numerical data to drive insights and strategy. Examples include:

  • Our food delivery app is seeing higher customer churn over the past few months. Based on the provided customer usage data, what insights can you draw about why customers are churning, and what would you recommend to address it?
  • We are considering a subscription pricing model for our software rather than a per-seat licensing model. Using the attached financial data, analyze the pros and cons of this pricing change and whether you would recommend for or against it.

For analyzing numerical data, leverage methods like cohort analysis, A/B testing analysis, pricing models, ratio analysis, and forecasting. Structure your thought process, analyze the data to draw insights about root causes, conceptualize solutions or strategic recommendations, and determine how you would measure success if implemented. Quantify the market opportunity and expected business impact to build a compelling case.

Preparing for the variety of PM case studies noted above takes practice over time. Work through examples, learn relevant frameworks, sharpen your quantitative abilities, and hone your communication skills. With diligent preparation, you can master the PM case interview and demonstrate your ability to strategically solve problems.

A Structured Approach to Solving PM Case Studies

A framework all PM candidates should follow when working through a case study.

Clarifying the Case Study Prompt: The First Step to Success

When presented with a product management case study interview prompt, it is crucial to take a moment to clearly understand the key details. This includes clarifying any ambiguous information by asking thoughtful questions of the interviewer.

Be sure to identify the product management case study interview goals and constraints provided in the prompt before beginning your analysis. Understanding these guides will enable you to tailor your response appropriately.

For example, key goals may relate to increasing revenue, improving user retention rates, or reducing customer support cases. Constraints could include budget limitations, technical capabilities, or timelines.

Taking the time upfront to comprehend the case study setup will pay dividends in structuring an effective response later on. Don't rush this step!

Why Structuring Matters: Organizing Your Case Study Response

With a clear understanding of the product management case study interview prompt established, the next step is organizing your response. This is where outlining an agenda slide can be invaluable.

An agenda slide visually sequences the main points you intend to cover in your response. This demonstrates to your interviewer that you can methodically break down the complex problem presented in the case study.

Typically, an effective agenda slide for a PM case study interview will include:

  • Clarifying questions
  • Key assumptions
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Qualitative analysis
  • Recommendations

Walking through each agenda item in a structured manner lends credibility to your thought process. It also ensures all critical aspects are covered before presenting your final recommendations.

Skipping this organizing step often leads responses feeling disjointed or lacking strategic insight. So take the time to outline your game plan!

Analytical Super Hack: Systematic Analysis for Insightful Conclusions

With your response structured, you can now dive into systematically analyzing the details presented in the product case study examples .

A helpful framework here involves first conducting quantitative analysis based on any numerical data provided - user numbers, conversion rates, revenue metrics, etc. Identify trends in the data and form hypotheses about what could be driving observed outcomes.

Next conduct qualitative analysis based on descriptions of user pain points, customer feedback quotes, persona details, etc. Look for common themes that either validate or disprove your hypotheses.

Finally, synthesize your quantitative and qualitative analyses to uncover powerful insights that will inform your recommended solutions. Don't jump straight to the recommendations without backing them up with analytical rigor!

Following this structured analytical approach demonstrates the strategic thinking and attention-to-detail that PM interviewers are looking for. So don't forget this super hack!

Essential PM Metrics and Concepts for Case Study Mastery

Optimizing user funnels in product management.

Understanding user funnels is critical for product managers. A funnel visualizes the customer journey from initial awareness to becoming an engaged user. Key metrics include:

  • Acquisition : The number of new users acquired over a period. This measures the effectiveness of acquisition channels.
  • Activation : The percentage of new users who have a meaningful first experience with the product. This indicates whether the onboarding flow is working.
  • Retention : The percentage of users who continue using the product over time. This quantifies engagement and stickiness.

To optimize funnels, product managers should:

  • Set goals for each metric and prioritize improvements
  • Analyze data to identify drop-off points in the funnel
  • Run experiments to reduce friction and improve conversion

For example, if activation rate is low, we could A/B test tweaks to the onboarding flow. Getting the funnel right is key for sustainable growth.

The Art of Market Sizing for Product Managers

There are two main approaches to estimating total addressable market (TAM):

  • Top-down : Start with the total spending in an industry, then segment by product category and buyer persona. Apply adoption rate assumptions.
  • Bottom-up : Identify target customers, understand their spending habits, then extrapolate to the broader market.

For example, a PM could research the pet care industry TAM, narrow to pet insurance, then apply an adoption curve for their specific product. Or survey potential customers on willingness-to-pay.

Being able to accurately size markets helps prioritize opportunities and forecast growth potential. Assumptions should be validated through customer research.

Exploring Monetization Models in Product Management

There are several common monetization models:

  • Subscription : Users pay a recurring fee for ongoing access, e.g. SaaS apps. Provides predictable revenue.
  • Ad-supported : Free for users, revenue from advertisements. Scales with user base.
  • Transactional : Users pay per transaction, e.g. ecommerce. Revenue aligns with usage.
  • Freemium : Free tier to acquire users, paid tier for advanced features. Upsell opportunity.

Choosing the right model involves evaluating customer willingness-to-pay, competitive landscape, and marginal costs. Testing pricing sensitivity can optimize monetization strategy.

Understanding monetization early helps build business models that work long-term. Pricing should balance value delivered and market standards.

Mastering the Product Manager Case Study Presentation

Designing impactful product manager case study slides.

When designing slides for a product manager case study interview presentation, focus on creating a logical flow that clearly conveys your thought process.

Here are some tips:

  • Lead with the framework. Open by introducing the framework you will use to structure your response (e.g. Market Sizing, 5 Cs, Pros/Cons). This sets expectations.
  • Use simple, readable slides. Avoid cramming slides with too much text or complex graphics. Use bullet points, headings, and simple charts to communicate key points.
  • Map the framework to slides. Devote individual slides to each part of the framework so your presentation aligns logically.
  • Visualize data-driven points. Use basic charts, graphs, or illustrations to visualize market size analyses, financial models, or user research insights.
  • Summarize key takeaways. Close by recapping your overall recommendation and next steps in a final summary slide.

Effective Verbal Delivery Techniques for PM Interviews

When presenting your case study analysis, focus on speaking clearly while engaging your interviewer:

  • Make eye contact. Look up from your slides frequently and make eye contact with your interviewer rather than reading directly from slides.
  • Speak slowly and clearly. Nerves can accelerate speech, so consciously slow your pace. Enunciate words clearly as well.
  • Use natural gestures. Use hand gestures and facial expressions to help convey your points rather than stiff body language.
  • Gauge reactions and adjust. Observe interviewer reactions and body language. If they seem confused, clarify or provide more context.
  • Be conversational. Pose rhetorical questions and speak conversationally rather than a rigid, scripted delivery.

Strategies for Handling Questions During Your Case Presentation

Fielding interviewer questions smoothly will demonstrate knowledge and build credibility:

  • Listen fully before responding. Let the interviewer finish the entire question before jumping to reply. Repeat back key parts to confirm understanding.
  • Ask clarifying questions if needed. Don't be afraid to ask for clarification if a question is unclear. Break the question down into parts.
  • Provide concise yet comprehensive answers. Respond directly and fully while avoiding excessively long answers. Stick to relevant insights.
  • Admit if you don't know. Don't try to invent answers. If you truly don't know, say so. Offer related experience or insights that could help.
  • Connect answers back to framework. Relate your responses directly back to the parts of the framework covered earlier.

By designing structured slides, delivering insights clearly, and handling questions tactfully, you can showcase your product management skills during case study presentations. With practice, the case interview can become a platform to demonstrate your strategic thinking.

Practice with Real-World Product Case Study Examples

Working through real-world product management case study examples with model solutions is an excellent way to prepare for PM case interviews. Here are two examples to try.

Case Study Example: Food Delivery App Prototype Development

You've been asked to evaluate potential features and conduct usability tests for a food delivery app prototype.

Consider key elements like:

  • Onboarding flow
  • Menu navigation
  • Order placement
  • Driver tracking

Develop a prioritized list of features to test based on expected impact and effort required. Outline your usability test approach focusing on:

  • Testing environment
  • Participant criteria
  • Key tasks to evaluate
  • KPIs to measure

Provide any other recommendations on how to iterate and improve the app experience.

Case Study Example: Crafting a Growth Strategy for a Social Media Platform

A new social media platform wants to compete with incumbents like Facebook and Twitter.

Outline a strategy focused on:

  • Defining the target audience
  • Key platform differentiators
  • Growth channels to activate
  • Engagement and retention tactics

Include quantitative projections on addressable market size and multi-year growth trajectories. Provide examples of tactics to drive growth through both product development and marketing initiatives.

Resources for Comprehensive PM Interview Preparation

Overview of useful sites, books, and courses for continuing your PM interview preparation.

Leveraging RocketBlocks and Product Gym's PM Program

RocketBlocks and Product Gym's PM Program are two specialized platforms focused on preparing aspiring product managers for case study interviews.

RocketBlocks provides customized case prep based on your background and goals, with detailed explanations and frameworks around consumer tech PM interviews. Their platform offers 100+ cases, 1,500+ mocks, and customized study plans to help you practice.

Similarly, Product Gym's PM Program offers a structured 8-week prep course covering all aspects of PM interview preparation. Their training methodology focuses on real interview practice with feedback from senior PMs. Some key components include weekly mentor sessions, mock interviews based on actual PM case studies, and access to an exclusive PM community.

Both RocketBlocks and Product Gym emphasize actually practicing cases rather than just learning concepts. By working through numerous concrete examples and receiving expert feedback, these platforms aim to simulate the actual PM interview experience. This helps prepare aspiring PMs to think on their feet and structure their problem solving approach in a way that impresses interviewers.

Essential Reading: Books and Publications for Aspiring Product Managers

In addition to specialized PM interview prep platforms, reading books and publications focused on product management is invaluable preparation. Here are some top recommendations:

  • Decode and Conquer : Regarded by many as the PM interview bible, this book by Lewis C. Lin provides a comprehensive framework and over 35 actual case walkthroughs. It covers product sense, estimation questions, metrics analysis, product design, and product strategy.
  • Swipe to Unlock : A bestseller by Neel Mehta, Parth Detroja, and Aditya Agashe, this book shares insights from PM interviews at top technology companies. It features a 5-step framework, sample solutions, and tips from senior PMs.
  • Cracking the PM Interview : Focused on product strategy and analytics questions, this book by Gayle McDowell has an extensive overview of PM interview best practices, with detailed examples.
  • PM publications : Industry sites like Mind the Product and Product School regularly feature PM interview advice and case studies, which are quite informative.

Immersing yourself in specialized books and publications helps you internalize key PM frameworks while also learning how to structure your thinking. This level of preparation is what separates average from exceptional candidates.

Concluding Game Plan and Next Steps

To recap, here are some of the most critical skills to develop to prepare for a product management case study interview:

Mastering Core Competencies for PM Interview Success

  • Structuring: Practice breaking down complex problems and organizing information clearly. Use frameworks like MECE to structure your thinking.
  • Quantitative analysis: Brush up on your math and Excel skills. Make sure you can analyze data, create basic models, and communicate insights.
  • Communication: Refine your ability to present ideas concisely. Prepare to answer questions clearly and confidently.
  • Product judgment: Understand how to prioritize ideas and make product tradeoffs. Study examples and practice applying product principles.

Expanding Your PM Knowledge Base: A Continuous Learning Process

Here are some additional things you can do to continue expanding your PM knowledge:

  • Read industry newsletters like The Hustle to stay updated on the latest tech and business trends.
  • Study core SaaS metrics like customer acquisition cost, lifetime value, churn rate, etc. Understand how changes impact growth.
  • Research companies you may interview with. Analyze their products, business models, and competitive landscape.

Consistently building your PM skills and knowledge will help you bring more insight into case study interviews. With the right preparation and practice, you can demonstrate your capabilities when it matters most. ‍

Additional Resources

  • Real-world case studies to help you ace Product Management Interviews
  • Case Studies for Product Management: A Deep Dive
  • Product Teardown by The Product Folks
  • How to make a Product Management Portfolio?

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Different vegetation covers leading to the uncertainty and consistency of et estimation: a case study assessment with extended triple collocation.

case study for product

1. Introduction

  • How is the performance of three products according to the results of the ETC method?
  • Does the ET merging method yield a superior ET product compared to individual products?
  • How does the performance of the ET merging method vary under different vegetation covers?

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. data sources, 2.2. extended triple collocation (etc) method, 2.3. evapotranspiration merging, 2.4. statistical analysis, 2.5. flowchart, 3.1. uncertainties in aet datasets based on etc approach, 3.1.1. spatial consistency of aet products globally, 3.1.2. correlation coefficient distribution of aet products, 3.1.3. best performing et products on each grid, 3.1.4. uncertainty under different vegetation coverages, 3.2. merged et dataset and the trends, 3.3. assessment of aet products and merged et, 3.3.1. assessment of aet products, 3.3.2. uncertainties compared to in situ data under different vegetation covers, 4. discussion, 4.1. evaluation of merged et and individual products, 4.2. the effect of the uncertainty, 4.3. comparison with other studies and application, 4.4. limitations and future works, 5. conclusions, author contributions, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

Click here to enlarge figure

Biome TypesDatasetR MAE
TundraGLEAM0.4774 22.3898 30.8501 0.8916
FLDAS0.5214 28.8692 38.4059 0.8228
MEP0.5463 21.2863 30.9052 0.8731
Merged ET0.5603 18.8669 27.8232 0.8704
ForestGLEAM0.1568 24.3116 29.2547 0.2556
FLDAS0.1032 31.8802 38.9362 0.8553
MEP0.0687 22.5617 29.9345 0.6543
Merged ET0.2527 23.9891 29.0292 0.8614
SavannaGLEAM0.4279 23.5890 33.1950 0.8523
FLDAS0.3318 29.7965 42.0997 0.9003
MEP0.3565 28.4786 36.0082 0.8528
Merged ET0.4352 23.7498 33.0523 0.8777
GrasslandGLEAM0.5806 13.4673 21.2547 0.8039
FLDAS0.6648 11.6636 19.0468 0.7642
MEP0.5596 15.3106 21.4564 0.7289
Merged ET0.6633 11.9154 19.1637 0.8070
ShrublandGLEAM0.0271 21.6798 51.5772 0.5767
FLDAS0.6241 7.6778 11.4932 0.5064
MEP0.2390 16.4039 22.6190 0.5252
Merged ET0.6380 7.1514 11.0493 0.6290
CroplandsGLEAM0.6664 15.1924 21.4366 0.8105
FLDAS0.5567 24.7039 33.2429 0.8043
MEP0.6836 17.8241 24.2335 0.8159
Merged ET0.6002 16.5585 24.1886 0.8574
All typesGLEAM0.5222 18.4798 27.3480 0.8418
FLDAS0.5587 23.8607 32.9354 0.8281
MEP0.5848 18.0764 25.8383 0.8541
Merged ET0.5939 16.4510 24.5225 0.8743
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Share and Cite

Li, X.; Sun, H.; Yang, Y.; Sun, X.; Xiong, M.; Ouyang, S.; Li, H.; Qin, H.; Zhang, W. Different Vegetation Covers Leading to the Uncertainty and Consistency of ET Estimation: A Case Study Assessment with Extended Triple Collocation. Remote Sens. 2024 , 16 , 2484. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16132484

Li X, Sun H, Yang Y, Sun X, Xiong M, Ouyang S, Li H, Qin H, Zhang W. Different Vegetation Covers Leading to the Uncertainty and Consistency of ET Estimation: A Case Study Assessment with Extended Triple Collocation. Remote Sensing . 2024; 16(13):2484. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16132484

Li, Xiaoxiao, Huaiwei Sun, Yong Yang, Xunlai Sun, Ming Xiong, Shuo Ouyang, Haichen Li, Hui Qin, and Wenxin Zhang. 2024. "Different Vegetation Covers Leading to the Uncertainty and Consistency of ET Estimation: A Case Study Assessment with Extended Triple Collocation" Remote Sensing 16, no. 13: 2484. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16132484

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