history of animation assignment

You don’t have to be a cartoonist to have animation be a big part of your life. Animation is everywhere—in our homes, schools, work, and everywhere there’s a screen. And if you grew up in the United States, chances are you’ve witnessed seminal accomplishments in animation history without even knowing it.   Does Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs ring a bell? What about Toy Story…or The Flintstones? These works marked important milestones in animation, an art form that continuously challenges its creators to push technology so artists can to bring to life what the mind can imagine. Let’s celebrate it.

ou don’t have to be a cartoonist to have animation be a big part of your life. Animation is everywhere—in our homes, schools, work, and everywhere there’s a screen. And if you grew up in the United States, chances are you’ve witnessed seminal accomplishments in animation history without even

knowing it. Does Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs ring a bell? What about Toy Story …or The Flintstones? These works marked important milestones in animation, an art form that continuously challenges its creators to push technology so that anything that can be imagined can also be brought to life.

Early ways of showing motion

Archeological artifacts prove that we’ve been attempting to depict things in motion as long as we’ve been able to draw. Some notable examples from ancient times, as well as an example from the European Renaissance, include:

history of animation assignment

Shahr-e Sukhteh

A bronze-age pottery bowl depicts goats leaping (Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran).

30,000 B.C.

Shahr-e sukhteh, vitruvian man.

Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man drawing shows multiple angles, implying movement.

history of animation assignment


With the spread of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America in the 18th and 19th centuries came experimentation with machines that would make images appear to move.

history of animation assignment

Magic lantern

The Magic Lantern is an image projector using pictures on sheets of glass. Since some sheets contain moving parts, it is considered the first example of projected animation.

history of animation assignment


The thaumatrope housed a rotating mechanism with a different picture on each side. When rotated, you saw a combined picture (known as persistence of vision).


The phenakitoscope featured spinning disks reflected in mirrors that made it seem like the pictures were moving.

The zoetrope was a hollow drum that housed images on long interchangeable strips that spin and made the images appear to move.

history of animation assignment

The flip-book, also known as the kineograph, reached a wide audience and is credited with inspiring early animators more than the machines developed in this era.

history of animation assignment


The praxinoscope expanded on the zoetrope, using multiple wheels to rotate images. It is considered to have shown the first prototypes of the animated cartoon.


The early 20th century marks the beginning of theatrical showings of cartoons, especially in the United States and France. Many animators form studios, with Bray Studios in New York proving the most successful of this era. Bray helped launch the careers of the cartoonists that created Mighty Mouse, Betty Boop, and Woody Woodpecker.

history of animation assignment

Humorous phases of funny faces

marks the first entirely animated film, using stop-motion photography to create action.

history of animation assignment


is the first animated film using hand-drawn animation, and is considered by film historians to be the first animated cartoon.

history of animation assignment


history of animation assignment

Felix the cat

Musical Mews and Feline Follies introduced Felix the Cat—often considered the first animated movie star.

Gertie the dinosaur

is considered the first cartoon to feature an appealing character.


featuring Mickey Mouse—becomes the first cartoon with the sound printed on the film, and is the first notable success for Walt Disney Studios, founded in Los Angeles in 1923.

Original Sketch

Rare original layout drawing featuring Mickey and Black Pete from Steamboat Willie.

Original Storyboard

This original page from the script of Steamboat Willie, was found in Walt Disney’s files years after he died.

If you can dream it, you can do it.

isney was born on December 5, 1901, in Hermosa Illinois. He and his brother Roy co-founded Walt Disney Productions, which became one of the best-known motion-picture production companies in the world. Disney was an innovative animator and created the cartoon character Mickey Mouse. He won 22 Academy Awards during his lifetime, and was the founder of theme parks Disneyland and Walt Disney World. As an animator and 

entrepreneur, Disney was particularly noted as a filmmaker and a popular showman, as well as an innovator in animation and theme park design. He and his staff created numerous fictional characters including Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Goofy. Disney himself was the original voice for Mickey. In addition to his Academy Awards, Disney won seven Emmy Awards. Today, there are Disney theme parks around the world, including Tokyo, Paris, and Hong Kong.


During what many consider to be the “Golden Age” of animation, theatrical cartoons became an integral part of popular culture. These years are defined by the rise of Walt Disney (Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Silly Symphonies), Warner Brothers, MGM, and Fleischer (Betty Boop, Popeye).

history of animation assignment

Walt Disney releases Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first animated feature to use hand-drawn animation.

Did you Know?

The voice of the Wicked Queen, was able to achieve  the raspy Old Hag’s voice by removing her dentures.

It took almost two years to come up with  the final renderings of the Seven Dwarfs.

The American Television Era

The animation industry began to adapt to the fact that television continued its rise as the entertainment medium of choice for American families. Studios created many cartoons for TV, using a “limited animation” style. By the mid ‘80s, with help from cable channels such as The Disney Channel and Nickolodeon, cartoons were ubiquitous on TV.


Hanna-Barbera releases The Flintstones, the first animated series on prime-time television.

The Yogi Bear Show, a spin-off of Huckleberry Hound (another Hanna-Barbera production), debuts on national TV.

Best Short Film

The pink phink.

DePatie-Freleng Enterprises wins the Academy Award for Best Short Film for The PinkPhink (of the Pink Panther series) and continues to create shorts for theatrical release.

Fritz the Cat

Fritz the Cat is released—the first animated adult (X-rated) feature film.


Fritz the Cat is released—the first animated  adult (X-rated) feature film.

Modern American Era

The CGI (computer generated imagery) revolutionized animation. A principal difference of CGI animation compared to traditional animation is that drawing is replaced by 3D modeling, almost like a virtual version of stop-motion. A form of animation that combines the two and uses 2D computer drawing can be considered computer aided animation.

history of animation assignment

The Adventures of Andre & Wally B

This short film was the first fully CGI-animated film, created by The Graphics Group, the precursor to Pixar.


The Adventures of Andre and Wally B., the first  fully CGI-animated film short

history of animation assignment

The simpsons

The Simpsons is an American adult animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. It is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American animated program, and in 2009 it surpassed Gunsmoke as the longest-running American scripted primetime television series.

history of animation assignment

American Animated Program

Computer animated feature.

Toy Story, the first fully computer-animated feature film, was released.

Big Hero 6 is the first Disney animated film to feature Marvel Comics characters

Thank you! Your submission has been received!

Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form :(

history of animation assignment

History of animation

by Charlotte Feb 24, 2023

Animation has come a long way since its inception, and its history is as fascinating as it is long. The earliest days of animation go back centuries, but it wasn't until the advent of celluloid film in 1888 that animation began to take shape as a true medium.

Between 1895 and 1920, the cinematic industry saw an explosion of animation techniques, with everything from stop-motion animation with objects and puppets to clay and cutout animation being developed. However, hand-drawn animation, specifically animation painted on cels, remained the dominant technique throughout most of the 20th century, and it became known as traditional animation.

The allure of traditional animation lay in its ability to convey motion and emotion with remarkable fluidity and grace. It was a laborious and painstaking process that required artists to paint each frame by hand, but the results were often nothing short of magical. Many of the greatest animated films of all time, such as Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Fantasia, were produced using traditional animation techniques.

Around the turn of the millennium, computer animation began to emerge as the dominant animation technique in most regions. This new form of animation allowed for a three-dimensional appearance with detailed shading and texturing, and it was used to create some of the most visually stunning films of all time, such as Pixar's Toy Story and DreamWorks' Shrek.

Despite the rise of computer animation, traditional animation has not gone away entirely. Japanese anime and European hand-drawn productions continue to be very popular, and many productions are still recognized as Flash animation. In fact, the first feature movie made on computers, without a camera, was The Rescuers Down Under (1990), but its style can hardly be distinguished from cel animation.

In conclusion, the history of animation is a fascinating tale of human creativity and innovation. From the earliest days of animation to the rise of computer-generated imagery, animators have pushed the boundaries of what is possible and created some of the most beloved and enduring works of art in the process. Whether you prefer the hand-drawn magic of traditional animation or the cutting-edge technology of computer animation, there is no denying the impact that animation has had on our culture and our imagination.

Influence of predecessors

Animated movies have a rich history that dates back to ancient traditions in storytelling, visual arts, and theatre. These forms of entertainment laid the foundation for the development of animation techniques that we know today. Before the emergence of film, shadow play, mechanical slides, and mobile projectors in magic lantern shows were popular techniques with moving images. Similarly, three-dimensional moving figures like masks, costumes, puppets, and automata were widely used in theatrical productions.

Animation is closely related to other visual arts, including illustrated children's books, caricature, political cartoons, and comic strips. These art forms have had a significant influence on the visual style and types of humor used in animation.

The technical principles of modern animation are based on the stroboscopic illusion of motion, which was introduced in 1833 with stroboscopic discs. These discs, with an average of about 8 to 16 images, were usually designed as endless loops for home use as a hand-operated optical toy. Although several pioneers hoped it could be applied to longer scenes for theatrical use, further development of the technique mostly concentrated on combinations with the stereoscope and photography.

The breakthrough of cinematography depended partly on the novelty of a technique that was able to record and reproduce reality in life-like motion pictures. The first years of cinematography saw the emergence of hand-drawn animated pictures as an archaic technique. However, this changed when some artists produced popular and influential animated shorts, and producers embraced cheap techniques to turn popular comic strips into animated cartoons.

Early animated shorts drew inspiration from other art forms such as caricature and political cartoons. Many early animated shorts featured anthropomorphized animals, which were often depicted in political cartoons. These early shorts were also influenced by silent films, vaudeville, and theatre. Animation evolved quickly, and it wasn't long before it was being used to create feature-length films.

The influence of predecessors on animation is still evident in contemporary animated films. Animation continues to draw inspiration from comic strips, children's books, and other art forms, including video games and graphic novels. The evolution of animation has been a rich and fascinating journey, and the influence of predecessors has played a significant role in shaping the art form we know today.

1888–1909: Earliest animations on film

In today's world, animation has become an integral part of our lives, be it in movies, TV shows, or even commercials. But have you ever wondered about the history of animation? In this article, we will take a closer look at the earliest animations on film, starting from 1888 to 1909.

Charles-Émile Reynaud developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, which he patented in December 1888. His 'Pantomimes Lumineuses' series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500,000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. A background scene was projected separately. Piano music, song, and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. Reynaud's first program included three cartoons: 'Pauvre Pierrot' (created in 1892), 'Un bon bock' (created in 1892, now lost), and 'Le Clown et ses chiens' (created in 1892, now lost). Later on, 'Autour d'une cabine' (created in 1894) and 'A rêve au coin du feu' (created in 1894) would be part of the performances.

Despite the success of Reynaud's films, it took some time before animation was adapted in the film industry that came about after the introduction of Lumiere's Cinematograph in 1895. Georges Méliès' early fantasy and trick films (released between 1896 and 1913) occasionally contain elements that somewhat resemble animation, including painted props or painted creatures that were moved in front of painted backgrounds (mostly using wires), and film colorization by hand. Méliès also popularized the stop trick, with a single change made to the scene in between shots, that had already been used in Edison's 'The Execution of Mary Stuart' in 1895 and probably led to the development of stop-motion animation some years later. It seems to have lasted until 1906 before proper animated films appeared in cinemas. The dating of some presumed earlier films with animation is contested, while other early films that may have used stop motion or other animation techniques are lost or unidentified, and thus can't be checked.

By 1897, German toy manufacturer Gebrüder Bing had a first prototype of their toy "kinematograph," which they eventually presented at a toy convention in Leipzig in November 1898. Soon after, other toy manufacturers in Germany and France, including Ernst Plank, Georges Carette, and Lapierre, started selling similar devices. The toy cinematographs were basically traditional toy magic lanterns, adapted with one or two small spools that used standard "Edison perforation" 35mm film, a crank, and a shutter. These projectors were intended for the same type of "home entertainment" toy market that most of the manufacturers already provided with praxinoscopes and magic lanterns. Apart from relatively expensive live-action films, the manufacturers produced many cheaper films by printing lithographed drawings. These animations were probably made in black-and-white from around 1898 or 1899, but at the latest by 1902, they were made in color. The pictures were often traced from live-action films (much like the later rotoscoping technique). These very short films typically depicted a simple repetitive action and most were designed to be projected as a loop - playing endlessly

1910s: From original artists to "assembly-line" production studios

In the 1910s, animation underwent a significant transformation, with the emergence of larger-scale studios leading to a decline in solo artists. Cartoonist Winsor McCay was at the forefront of this change, bringing a new level of detail to his hand-drawn animations that had never been seen before. His 1914 film 'Gertie the Dinosaur' introduced character development in drawn animation and was the first to combine live-action footage with animation. McCay personally hand-drew almost every one of the thousands of drawings for his films, including 'Little Nemo', 'How a Mosquito Operates' and 'The Sinking of the Lusitania'.

Another notable development during this period was the Barré Studio, founded in 1914 by Raoul Barré and Bill Nolan. Barré's introduction of the peg system made it easier to align drawings, while his "slash and tear" technique enabled motionless parts to be left out of each frame, reducing the workload of animators. However, the studio had limited success and eventually closed.

Dudley Buxton and Anson Dyer of the Cartoon Film Company also contributed to animation during the 1910s. Their series of 26 topical cartoons, released as the John Brown's animated sketchbook, made use of cutout animation and covered events such as the shelling of Scarborough by German battleships and the sinking of the Lusitania.

It was also during this time that the first known professional female animator, Bessie Mae Kelley, began her career in 1917. Overall, the emergence of larger-scale studios paved the way for a new era in animation, with the art form moving towards a more assembly-line production style. While this may have led to a decline in solo artists, it opened up new possibilities for collaborative work and more ambitious projects.

1920s: Absolute film, synchronized sound and the rise of Disney

The 1920s was a pivotal decade for the animation industry. During this time, there were many significant developments, including the introduction of synchronized sound in animations and the founding of Walt Disney Studio. The decade also saw the emergence of Mickey Mouse in the 'Steamboat Willie' (1928) animation. Let's delve deeper into some of the key events that took place in the 1920s animation industry.

The 1920s saw the rise of the absolute film movement, which had an impact on the development of abstract animations. Artists such as Walter Ruttmann, Hans Richter, Viking Eggeling, and Oskar Fischinger created short abstract animations that proved to be highly influential. Although this genre remained a relatively obscure avant-garde art form, some of the later abstract animation works by Len Lye and Norman McLaren gained widespread appreciation. The direct influences or similar ideas occasionally found their way into mainstream animation. For instance, the Disney animation 'Toccata and Fugue in D Minor' in 'Fantasia' (1940) was partly inspired by the works of Lye.

In the early 1920s, the Inkwell Studios produced 19 sound cartoons that were part of the 'Song Car-Tunes' series using the Phonofilm sound-on-film process. The series featured the use of the "bouncing ball" above the lyrics to guide audiences to sing along to the music. 'My Old Kentucky Home' (1926) was probably the first film to feature a bit of synchronized animated dialogue, with an early version of the Bimbo character mouthing the words "Follow the ball, and join in, everybody." The Bimbo character was further developed in Fleischer's 'Talkartoons' (1929–1932).

Paul Terry's 'Dinner Time,' from his 'Aesop's Fables' (1921–1936) series, premiered on 1 September 1928 with a synchronized soundtrack featuring dialogue. Terry was urged to add this novelty against his wishes by the new studio owner Van Beuren. Although the series and its main character Farmer Al Falfa had been popular, audiences were not impressed by this first episode with sound.

The earliest surviving animated feature film is the 1926 silhouette-animated 'Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed (Adventures of Prince Achmed),' which used color-tinted film. The animation was directed by German Lotte Reiniger and her husband Carl Koch. Walter Ruttmann created the visual background effects. French/Hungarian collaborator Berthold Bartosch and/or Reiniger created depth of field by putting scenographic elements and figures on several levels of glass plates with illumination from below and the camera vertically above. Later on, this technique became the basis of the multiplane camera.

In the early 1920s, Walt Disney, Ub Iwerks, and Fred Harman worked at the Slide Company, which produced cutout animation commercials. Disney started experimenting with drawn animation techniques in his parents' garage and managed to sell a series that satirized current local topics to the owner of the three local Newman Theatres as weekly 'Newman Laugh-O-Grams' in 1921. With his short-lived company Laugh-O-Gram Films, Inc., Disney, together with Iwerks, Fred's brother Hugh Harman, Rudolph Ising, and Carman Maxwell produced a series of modernized fairy tale cartoons, inspired by Terry's 'Aesop's Fables.'

Disney's Laugh-O-Gram studio eventually went bankrupt, but Disney didn't let that stop him. He and his brother Roy packed up and headed to Hollywood, where they created their first character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. Oswald became very popular,

1930s: Color, depth, cartoon superstars and 'Snow White'

Animation in the 1930s marked a period of innovation and achievement in the film industry despite the adverse effects of the Great Depression. The emergence of early color processes and the use of the multiplane camera contributed to the success of the industry. In 1937, the release of the film 'Snow White' marked a milestone in the animation industry as it was the first full-length traditionally animated feature film.

The first two-strip color process was introduced in Hollywood, and cartoons benefited greatly from the innovation. The multi-colored lithograph technique was not applicable to theatrical release animated films. The cartoon segment of the feature film 'King of Jazz' in 1930 was the first animation presented in two-strip Technicolor. Ub Iwerks worked on the project after leaving Disney to set up his studio. 'Fiddlesticks,' released together with 'King of Jazz,' was the first standalone animated cartoon to boast both sound and color.

When the 'Silly Symphonies' series began in 1929, it was not as popular as Disney had hoped, and he turned to technological innovation to improve the series's impact. In 1932, Disney collaborated with the Technicolor company to create the first full-color animation, 'Flowers and Trees.' The cartoon was successful and won an Academy Award for Short Subjects, Cartoons. Disney had an exclusive deal for the use of Technicolor's full-color technique in animated films. After the exclusive deal lapsed in September 1935, full-color animation became the industry standard.

To create an impression of depth, several techniques were developed, such as the use of multiplane cameras. Lotte Reiniger had already designed a type of multiplane camera for 'Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed.' In Hollywood, the use of the multiplane camera revolutionized the animation industry. Several backgrounds and foreground layers could be moved independently, corresponding to the laws of perspective, resulting in a convincing impression of depth. The stereopticon process also contributed to the creation of depth perception in animated films.

In conclusion, the 1930s marked a period of great innovation and success for the animation industry. Despite the Great Depression, animation continued to flourish, with early color processes and the use of the multiplane camera contributing to the success of the industry. The release of 'Snow White' in 1937 was a milestone in the animation industry, and it was followed by several other successful animated feature films in the years to come.

The 1940s was a decade marked by war, political propaganda, and a series of ambitious attempts to create feature-length animated films. Governments across the world had already used animation in public information films before WWII, but during the war, animation became a common medium for propaganda. Studios such as Warner Bros. and Disney were contracted to create shorts and special animated series, with many popular characters promoting war bonds and encouraging civilians to support the war effort.

Despite the use of animation for propaganda, Japan’s first feature anime, “Momotaro: Sacred Sailors,” was released in 1944, designed for children and inspired by “Fantasia” with hopes of inspiring dreams and peace. The film followed anthropomorphic characters who become parachute troopers, tasked with invading Celebes.

In the US, Disney faced setbacks and cutbacks due to WWII cutting off most foreign markets. Disney's next two features, “Pinocchio” and “Fantasia,” and Fleischer Studios' “Mr. Bug Goes to Town,” were all critically acclaimed but failed at the box office. These setbacks discouraged most companies that had plans for animated features. However, Disney kept faith in animated feature animation, cutting back on costs and releasing “The Reluctant Dragon,” followed by “Dumbo,” which was successful at the box office due to its limited length and economically efficient techniques.

Disney’s next feature “Bambi” returned to a larger budget and a lavish style but was not well-received during its initial run and lost money at the box office. Despite this, Disney continued to create package films and combinations with live-action, including “Saludos Amigos” and “The Three Caballeros.” Only a few other American animation studios managed to release more than a handful of features before the beginning of the 1990s.

Overall, the 1940s was a time when animation was used for propaganda, but also saw ambitious attempts to create feature-length animated films. Despite setbacks and cutbacks, animation remained a popular medium of entertainment and expression.

the 1950s: Shift from classic theatrical cartoons to limited animation in TV series for children

In the 1950s, there was a shift in the world of animation, as theatrical cartoons geared towards all audiences gave way to limited animation designed for television shows aimed specifically at children. Most theatrical cartoons contained violence and sexual innuendo and were not necessarily child-friendly, so when cartoons began to be produced specifically for children's television, a different approach was needed. Limited animation was embraced as a way to cut back on production time and costs. Full-frame animation, known as "on ones," became rare in the United States, outside of its use for a decreasing amount of theatrical productions. The quality of many animated TV shows was often poor in comparison to classic cartoons, with rushed animation and unremarkable stories, but executives were satisfied as long as there were enough viewers, especially children.

Disney had entered into TV production relatively early, but for a long time refrained from creating new animated series. Instead, Disney had their anthology series on the air since 1954 in primetime three-hour slots, starting with the "Walt Disney's Disneyland" series (1954–1958), which clearly promoted the Disneyland theme park that opened in 1955. Hanna-Barbera proved to be the most prolific and successful producers of animated television series for several decades, with shows like "The Ruff and Reddy Show," "The Huckleberry Hound Show," and "The Quick Draw McGraw Show." Other notable programs include UPA's "Gerald McBoing Boing," Soundac's "Colonel Bleep," Terrytoons' "Tom Terrific," and Jay Ward's "The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends."

Jay Ward produced the popular "Crusader Rabbit," which used limited animation to great effect. The sparser type of animation had originally been an artistic choice of style for UPA, but it was embraced as a means to cut back production time and costs. Chuck Jones coined the term "illustrated radio" to refer to the shoddy style of most television cartoons that depended more on their soundtracks than visuals. Some producers also found that limited animation looked better than lavish styles on the small black-and-white TV screens of the time.

Watching Saturday-morning cartoon programming became a favorite pastime of most American children since the mid-1960s and was a mainstay for decades. While the quality of many shows was often poor in comparison to classic cartoons, with rushed animation and unremarkable stories, network executives were satisfied as long as there were enough viewers. This shift in the world of animation was significant and demonstrated how cartoons could adapt to a changing media landscape, with different styles and techniques becoming more or less popular depending on the audience and platform.

The 1960s was an era of animated TV series and specials that captivated audiences with their unique storylines and characters. The birth of Total Television in 1959 brought about a series of animated shows and commercials such as 'King Leonardo and His Short Subjects,' 'Tennessee Tuxedo and His Tales,' 'The Underdog Show,' and 'The Beagles.' These programs were produced at Gamma Studios in Mexico, and the animation was used to promote General Mills' products. However, after 1969, when General Mills stopped sponsoring Total Television, production ceased.

Throughout the 1960s, American animated TV series that had already proven popular in other media were adapted into TV shows. For instance, UPA's 'The Dick Tracy Show' (1961-1962) was based on comic books, and Filmation adapted DC Comics, live-action TV series, and live-action features, among others. Grantray-Lawrence Animation became the first studio to adapt Marvel Comics superheroes in 1966. Pop groups also got animated versions in 'The Beatles' (1965-1966) and Rankin/Bass's 'The Jackson 5ive' (1971-1972) and 'The Osmonds' (1972).

Many animated shows of the 1960s were created with adaptations of characters who had already achieved success in different media. Hanna-Barbera transformed comedians into cartoon characters with shows like 'Laurel and Hardy' (1966-1967) and 'The Abbott and Costello Cartoon Show' (1967-1968). Format Films' 'The Alvin Show' (1961-1962) was a spin-off of a 1958 novelty song and comic book featuring redesigned versions of Alvin and the Chipmunks. Some series contained unlicensed appropriations, such as 'The Flintstones' (1960-1966), which was inspired by the sitcom 'The Honeymooners.' Creator Jackie Gleason thought of suing Hanna-Barbera but declined, not wanting to be remembered as "the guy who yanked Fred Flintstone off the air."

'The Flintstones' was the first prime-time animated series and became hugely popular, setting a record as the longest-running network animated television series until it was surpassed three decades later. Hanna-Barbera's 'The Yogi Bear Show' (1960-1962), 'The Jetsons' (1962-1963, 1985, 1987), and 'Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!' (1969-1970, followed by other Scooby-Doo series) were also popular.

After the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., Robert F. Kennedy, and other violent acts in the late 1960s, network censors were hired to ban anything deemed too violent or suggestive from children's programming. As a result, the industry saw a shift towards more wholesome programming in the 1970s.

Aside from regular TV series, the 1960s saw the birth of several noteworthy animated television specials, beginning with UPA's 'Mister Magoo's Christmas Carol' in 1962. A few years later, classic examples such as Bill Melendez's 'Peanuts' specials (1965-2011) based on Charles M. Schulz's comic strip, and Chuck Jones's 'How the Grinch Stole Christmas!' (1966) based on Dr. Seuss's story, were introduced.

In conclusion, the 1960s was a significant era for animated TV series and specials that brought about some of the most memorable and beloved characters in American television history. Although many of these shows were adapted from other media, they became unique in their own right, capturing the hearts of

In the 1970s, Ralph Bakshi revolutionized animation by creating a new type of sociopolitical animation, deviating from the traditional butterfly-in-a-field-of-flowers cartoons. Bakshi's Fritz the Cat (1972), based on Robert Crumb's comic book, was the first animated feature to receive an X-rating, which became a promotional tool and the highest-grossing independent animated film of all time. Heavy Traffic (1973) made Bakshi the first since Disney to have two financially successful animated feature films in a row. In this film, Bakshi utilized a blend of techniques with still photography as the background in parts, live-action scenes, and limited sketchy animation that was only partly colored, among others.

Bakshi continued to experiment with different techniques in most of his next projects, including Hey Good Lookin' (finished in 1975, but released in 1982) and Coonskin (1975), which were far less successful but gained more appreciation later on and became cult films. Bakshi found new success with the fantasy films Wizards (1977) and The Lord of the Rings (1978), which used rotoscoping for massive battle scenes. The more family-oriented television film The Return of the King (1979) by Rankin/Bass and Topcraft is sometimes regarded as an unofficial sequel after Bakshi's intended second part was not made.

The imaginative French/Czech science fiction production La Planète sauvage (1973) was awarded the Grand Prix special jury prize at the 1973 Cannes Film Festival and was ranked the 36th-greatest animated movie ever by Rolling Stone in 2016. Another British production, Watership Down (1978), was a dramatic adventure film that showcased the darker side of animated storytelling.

The counterculture movement in the 1970s led to the emergence of a new type of animated film aimed at adults, with sociopolitical themes and a more explicit approach. Bakshi was at the forefront of this movement, experimenting with various techniques and challenging the traditional norms of animation. These films had a significant impact on the industry and opened up a new avenue for animators to explore complex and mature themes.

In the early 1980s, US animation for TV had become stagnant and formulaic, relying heavily on outsourcing to cheap labor in Asia, with many shows based on popular toys. Disney films were also struggling, with many considering the period after Walt Disney's death to be a "dark age" of animation, and the box office failure of "The Black Cauldron" in 1985 only reinforced that notion. However, international co-productions showed promise, with shows like "The Smurfs" and "Danger Mouse" gaining popularity in Europe. In Japan, anime had already become a mainstream part of the culture, with mecha (giant-robot science fiction) and manga becoming iconic genres. Original video animation (OVA) became popular, with some productions even surpassing those made for TV. However, the OVA medium was also known for its often-perverse content, including the infamous hentai genre. Meanwhile, Don Bluth and nine other animators left Disney in 1979 to start their own animation studio, with Bluth's film "The Secret of NIMH" receiving critical acclaim but only moderate box office success.

The 1990s was a decade of great change and success in the world of animation. Disney experienced a renaissance, releasing several films that were both critically acclaimed and financially successful, marking a return to the heights of their Golden Age from the 1930s to 1960s. This period from 1989 to 1999 is now referred to as the Disney Renaissance or the Second Golden Age, and it began with the release of "The Little Mermaid" in 1989. The success of these films led other major film studios to establish new animation divisions to replicate Disney's success. Disney's "Beauty and the Beast" (1991), the first animated film in history to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, "Aladdin" (1992), and "The Lion King" (1994) successively broke box-office records. "Pocahontas" (1995) was a financial success, but it received mixed reviews. "Mulan" (1998) and "Tarzan" (1999) were both successful, grossing over $300 million worldwide, but they did not surpass "The Lion King" as the highest-grossing traditionally animated film of all time.

The 1990s also saw the rise of daring and relatively original television animation series. John Kricfalusi's influential "The Ren & Stimpy Show" (1991–1996) garnered widespread acclaim and controversy for its dark humor, sexual innuendos, adult jokes, and shock value. It premiered on the same day as "Rugrats," which became one of the "Big Three" of the Nicktoons along with "SpongeBob SquarePants" and "The Fairly OddParents." The enormous success of "The Simpsons" and "The Ren & Stimpy Show" prompted more original and relatively daring series, including "South Park" (since 1997), "King of the Hill" (1997–2010), "Family Guy" (since 1999), and "Futurama" (1999–2003).

The use of animation on MTV increased when the channel started to make more and more shows that did not fit its "music television" moniker. "Liquid Television" (1991 to 1995) showcased contributions that were mostly created by independent animators specifically for the show and spawned separate "Æon Flux" and "Beavis and Butt-Head" (1993–1997) series. Other 1990s cartoon series on MTV included "The Head" (1994-1996) and "The Maxx" (1995), both under the "MTV's Oddities" banner. By 2001, MTV closed its animation department, began to outsource its animated series, and eventually imported shows from associated networks.

Finally, the 24-hour cable channel Cartoon Network was launched in the United States on October 1, 1992, and was soon followed by its first international versions. The programming originally consisted of classic cartoons from the back catalogs of Warner Bros, MGM, Fleischer/Famous, and Hanna-Barbera. From 1996 to 2003, new original series ran as "Cartoon Cartoons" and introduced the popular titles "Dexter's Laboratory" (1996–2003), "The Powerpuff Girls" (1998–2005), and "Samurai Jack" (2001–2004). The 1990s was a period of growth, creativity, and experimentation in the world of animation, which paved the way for even more success and progress in the years to come.

2000s–2010s: traditional techniques overshadowed by computer animation

Animation has been a popular and enduring form of entertainment for many years, but in the 2000s and 2010s, traditional animation techniques were overshadowed by computer animation. The success of Pixar's Toy Story (1995) and DreamWorks Animation's Shrek (2001) helped establish computer animation as the dominant technique in the US and many other countries. Even animation that looked traditional was more and more often created fully with computers. By 2004, only small productions were still created with traditional techniques.

The first decades of the 21st century also saw 3D film turn mainstream in theaters. The production process and visual style of computer-generated imagery (CGI) lend themselves perfectly to 3D viewing. However, many traditionally animated films can be very effective in 3D. Disney successfully released a 3D version of The Lion King in 2011, followed by Beauty and the Beast in 2012. A planned 3D version of The Little Mermaid was canceled when Beauty and the Beast and two 3D-converted Pixar titles were not successful enough at the box office.

Disney started producing their own 3D-style computer-animated features with Dinosaur (2000) and Chicken Little (2005), but continued to make animated features with a traditional look such as The Emperor's New Groove (2000), Atlantis: The Lost Empire (2001), Lilo & Stitch (2002), Treasure Planet (2002), Brother Bear (2003), and Home on the Range (2004). However, Treasure Planet and Home on the Range were big flops on big budgets, and it looked like Disney would only continue with 3D computer animation.

To turn things around, Disney acquired Pixar in 2006, and put creative control over both Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios in the hands of Pixar's John Lasseter as part of the deal. Under Lasseter, the Disney studio developed both traditionally styled and 3D-styled animation projects.

The theatrical short How to Hook Up Your Home Theater (2007) tested whether new paperless animation processes could be used for a look similar to cartoons of the 1940s and 1950s, with Goofy returning to his "Everyman" role in his first solo appearance in 42 years.

Ron Clements and John Musker's feature The Princess and the Frog (2009) was a moderate commercial and critical success, but not the comeback hit for traditional features that the studio had hoped it would be. Its perceived failure was mostly blamed on the use of "princess" in the title causing potential movie-goers to think it was only for little girls, and old-fashioned.

Winnie the Pooh (2011) received favorable reviews, but failed at the box office and became Disney's last traditional feature to date. Frozen (2013) was originally conceived in the traditional style but switched to 3D CGI to enable the creation of the ice effects.

In conclusion, the rise of computer animation in the 2000s and 2010s marked a major shift in the animation industry. While traditional animation techniques still have a place, the popularity of CGI and 3D films has made it the dominant technique in the industry. Despite this, Disney has continued to experiment with both traditional and 3D-styled animation, and the industry continues to evolve as new technologies and techniques emerge.

Stop motion

Stop motion animation is an art form that has been overshadowed by the popularity of hand-drawn and computer animation, but it has still managed to carve out its own unique niche in the world of animation. This style of animation involves taking inanimate objects and bringing them to life by manipulating them frame by frame, and has been utilized by a variety of talented animators throughout history.

The early pioneers of stop motion animation, such as J. Stuart Blackton, Segundo de Chomón, and Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, paved the way for future animators to explore the possibilities of this medium. The likes of Wladyslaw Starewicz, George Pal, and Henry Selick are just a few of the animators who have produced groundbreaking stop motion films and television shows that have captivated audiences for generations.

One of the most popular forms of stop motion animation is clay animation, which has been used in popular titles such as Gumby, Mio Mao, The Red and the Blue, and Pingu. Aardman Animations productions like Morph and Wallace and Gromit have also contributed to the medium's success.

But stop motion animation is not just a medium for children's shows and movies. Influential filmmakers like Jan Svankmajer and the Brothers Quay have used the medium to create highly artistic and experimental works of animation.

Stop motion has also been used for special effects in live-action films, most notably by Willis O'Brien and his protégé Ray Harryhausen, who created many memorable monsters and creatures for Hollywood films. In comparison, hand-drawn animation has been combined with live-action to a lesser extent, often as a gimmick or fantasy sequence, with only a few instances of hand-drawn animation being used convincingly as special effects.

Despite the challenges and competition it faces from other forms of animation, stop motion animation remains a captivating and imaginative medium that continues to evolve and inspire new generations of animators and audiences alike.

Cutout animation

Cutout animation, a technique that uses flat characters or objects cut from paper, cloth or other materials and then animated by filming them frame by frame, is a lesser-known cousin of traditional hand-drawn animation and computer animation. The technique has been used in films and television series for decades, including some of the earliest animated feature films by Quirino Cristiani and Lotte Reiniger. Before 1934, Japanese animation primarily used cutout animation techniques as celluloid was too expensive.

Cutout animation is a method that can sometimes look very similar to traditional hand-drawn animation, and it has been used as both a simple and cheap animation method in children's programs and as an artistic and experimental medium in the hands of creative animators. Terry Gilliam, the animator of Monty Python fame, is famous for his cutout animations, and Jim Blashfield has also contributed to the art form with his groundbreaking work on music videos for bands such as Talking Heads and Paul Simon.

Harry Everett Smith, an American artist who worked with found objects, also employed the cutout animation technique to produce mesmerizing and bizarre works. In his animated film, "Heaven and Earth Magic," he used cutout animation to create an otherworldly landscape of abstract shapes and figures.

Today, with the advent of computer technology, cutout-style animation is frequently produced using scanned images or vector graphics, replacing physically cut materials. South Park, a popular American television show, started as a pilot episode made with paper cutouts before switching to computer software. Similar stylistic choices and blends with different animation techniques, such as Flash animation, have made it harder to differentiate between "traditional", cutout, and computer animation styles.

In conclusion, while cutout animation may not have the same mainstream appeal as hand-drawn or computer animation, it has a long and fascinating history and has been used by many creative minds to produce unique and interesting works. Its versatility and accessibility have made it an important part of the animation landscape, and it continues to be used by both new and established animators to this day.

Other developments per region

Animation is an industry that has taken over the world, spreading across continents and delighting audiences for decades. The history of animation is rich and varied, with different regions making their mark on the art form. From the Americas to Asia, and Oceania to Europe, animation has been used to tell stories, educate, and entertain audiences across the globe.

Starting in the Americas, Cuban animation has been making waves since the 1970s when Juan Padrón created the character Elpidio Valdés, who went on to star in a long-running series of shorts and two motion pictures. Meanwhile, in Mexico, animation took its first steps in the 1930s when Alfonso Vergara produced Paco Perico en Premier, the first Mexican animated short film. Later, in 1974, Fernando Ruiz produced Los tres Reyes Magos, Mexico's first animated feature-length film. Over the years, Mexican animation has grown, with Ánima Estudios releasing Magos y gigantes in 2003, a full-length Mexican-animated feature after many years of hiatus in the country's industry.

In Europe, Italian animation has a long and storied history, with the 1977 animated classic Allegro Non-Troppo being both a parody and an homage to Disney's Fantasia. This was director Bruno Bozzetto's most ambitious work and his third feature-length animation. Bozzetto also directed several notable shorter works, including Mr. Rossi and the Oscar-nominated Grasshoppers. Croatia's animation industry also had a breakthrough in 1953 when Zagreb Film inaugurated the Zagreb school of animation, while in 1975, Škola Animiranog Filma Čakovec (ŠAF) opened the Čakovec school of animation.

Moving on to Asia, Chinese animation can be traced back to the 1920s, as seen in extant films. Meanwhile, in India, animation has been used for educational purposes since the 1970s, and the animation industry in India has grown in recent years, with notable works like the Baahubali film series and the TV series Chhota Bheem. Malaysia's animation industry has also seen growth, with notable works including the Upin & Ipin TV series.

Finally, in Oceania, Australian animation has a rich history, with Animal Logic, Yoram Gross, and Flying Bark Productions making their mark. Notable works include Dot and the Kangaroo in 1977, Blinky Bill: The Mischievous Koala in 1992, and Happy Feet in 2006, a co-production with America. Meanwhile, in New Zealand, Weta Digital has been at the forefront of animation since the 1980s, working on films such as The Lord of the Rings trilogy and Avatar.

In conclusion, animation has come a long way since its inception, with each region contributing to its development in unique ways. From Cuba to Australia and Italy to India, animation continues to grow and evolve, and it will undoubtedly continue to delight audiences for many years to come.

Animation is a medium that has captivated audiences for over a century. From the early days of hand-drawn animations to the current era of computer-generated imagery, animation has come a long way. And in the course of its history, it has changed the way we see and interpret the world around us.

One of the earliest animated films is Winsor McCay's "Gertie the Dinosaur" from 1914. It was a groundbreaking film that featured a cartoon character with personality animation. The film was so popular that McCay created a sequel, "Gertie on Tour," in 1921. It was a testament to the enduring popularity of animated characters.

The history of animation is a long and fascinating one, full of colorful characters and memorable moments. It is a history that spans continents and cultures, from the early days of European shadow puppetry to the modern-day anime of Japan. Along the way, it has evolved and adapted to changing technology and tastes.

In the early days of animation, it was a laborious process that involved drawing each frame by hand. But with the advent of cel animation, the process became much easier. Cel animation allowed animators to draw characters on a transparent sheet, which could then be overlaid on a background. This made the process faster and more efficient, and it allowed for more complex animations.

As technology progressed, so did the medium of animation. Computer-generated imagery (CGI) became more prevalent, allowing for even more complex and detailed animations. Pixar, for example, has been at the forefront of CGI animation, producing beloved films such as "Toy Story," "Finding Nemo," and "The Incredibles."

But animation is more than just a medium for entertainment. It has the power to convey complex ideas and emotions in a way that is accessible to audiences of all ages. For example, Hayao Miyazaki's "Spirited Away" is a masterpiece of animation that explores themes of identity, loss, and transformation.

Animation has also played a crucial role in advertising and marketing. Animated characters such as Tony the Tiger and the Geico gecko have become iconic symbols of their respective brands. Animated commercials can be funny, touching, or informative, and they have the power to stick in our minds long after we've seen them.

In conclusion, the history of animation is a rich and diverse one that has shaped the way we see and understand the world around us. From the early days of hand-drawn animations to the current era of CGI, animation has evolved and adapted to changing technology and tastes. And it will undoubtedly continue to captivate and inspire audiences for generations to come.

Latest Posts

Feb 24, 2023

Cristino García

Cristino García Granda (1914-1946) was a Spanish fighter with the French Resistance during WWII. He fought with the XIV Guerrilla Army Corps in the Spanish Civil War and was part of the Agrupación de ...

Peterborough County

Peterborough County is located in Southern Ontario, Canada. It has a mix of agriculture, urban, and lakefront properties in the south and sparsely populated wilderness in the north. It is home to the ...

Pilottown, Louisiana

Pilottown is an unincorporated community in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, USA. The town serves as a base for river pilots to guide ships across the bar and up and down the Mississippi River. It was c...

Recent Posts

Mar 4, 2023

Ben Urich is a fictional character in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. He is a chain-smoking investigative journalist for the Daily Bugle, who deduced the secret identity of Daredevil ...

California State Route 1

California State Route 1, also known as the Pacific Coast Highway, is a 655.845-mile-long state highway in California maintained by Caltrans. It has several special restrictions such as no trucks with...

Hilary Putnam

Hilary Putnam was an American philosopher known for his work in analytic, neopragmatist, and postanalytic philosophy. He made significant contributions to philosophy of mind, language, science, and ma...

Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area is a densely populated urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing industries, commercial areas, transport networks, infrastructures, and housing. It usually includ...

Random Posts

Hippothoon, the Attic hero and king of Eleusis, was the son of Poseidon and Alope. He is the eponym of the Athenian phyle Hippothoontis.

Nullsoft Scriptable Install System

Nullsoft Scriptable Install System (NSIS) is a free script-based installer authoring tool for Windows. It's widely used by companies like Amazon and Google. Its latest version 3.08 was released on 202...

Visions of the Beast

'Visions of the Beast' is a video album by Iron Maiden, featuring promotional videos up to 2001, including six animated versions of their songs.

Vastu shastra

Vastu shastra is a traditional Indian system of architecture that integrates architecture with nature and ancient beliefs using geometric patterns, symmetry, and directional alignments. It is a collec...

Animation World Network

Search form

Visit AWN on Twitter Visit AWN on Facebook Visit AWN on YouTube Visit AWN on Instagram Visit AWN on LinkedIn Visit AWN on FlipBoard Subscribe to AWN

  • AnimationWorld
  • All Categories
  • Most Recent Videos
  • Top Playlists
  • All Video Categories
  • Animation Industry Database
  • Filmporium Store
  • How To Succeed in Animation

One Hundred Years Ago Animation Began

Tom Sito reflects back on the birth of animation, which dawned 100 years ago with The Humorous Phases of Funny Faces from James Stuart Blackton.

Happy 100th Birthday Animation!

In 1906, Teddy Roosevelt was in the White House. Royalty ruled over most of the nations of the world. Upton Sinclair published The Jungle , Coca Cola replaced the cocaine in its formula with caffeine. Kelloggs introduced cornflakes, San Francisco was destroyed by a terrible earthquake. In 1906 weapons of mass destruction meant the dreadnought battleship, terrorism meant the anarchists. Immigration to the U.S. was mainly from Eastern and southern Europe. And in 1906, the first animated film was made.

James Stuart Blackton was born in England around 1875, and was brought to America as an infant. Having some aptitude for drawing and painting, he published a book of marine sketches while still a teenager.

Stage-struck at an early age, Blackton and his friends Ronald Reader and Albert Smith tried their hands in show business doing magic tricks and lightning sketches Blackton called himself the Komikal Kartoonist. At this time most of America was going to theater variety shows collectively known as vaudeville. For a nickel you saw a procession of jugglers, singers and magicians. A Lightning-Drawing act was just that, the artist lectured while he drew very quickly on a large pad and easel. Blacktons act used the crude racist humor of the period. He would draw a stereotype face formed from the words Coon (black man), Kelly (Irish man) and Cohen (Jewish man). Sometimes he did the routine in a spangled dress and wig and called himself Mademoiselle Stuart. But Blackton and Smith realized their act needed some more zing. Maybe a rendition of Rip Van Winkle illustrated with Magic Lantern slides?

Thomas Edison (above) and his new sensation the Kinestoscope inspired James Stuart Blackton to experiment with filming frame-by-frame drawings. The two men eventually made the first animated film together.

During a lull in his theater work J. Stuart Blackton made money as a cartoonist for the newspaper the Brooklyn Daily Eagle . One day Blackton and his friends went to Koster & Bials Music Hall on 28th St in New York to see Mr. Thomas Edisons new sensation the Kinestoscope, the motion picture. Inspired, Blackton talked the newspaper into letting him go on assignment to interview the great inventor. On March 12, 1896, Blackton took the train out to New Jersey to interview inventor Edison at his East Orange laboratory.

As Blackton and Edison discussed motion pictures, he drew his portrait. Edison asked him if he could sketch that quickly in large size as he did in small sketches. Then, Thomas Edison touched on the possibilities of animated trickfilms. Animation toys like zoetropes and flipbooks had been around for years. Perhaps they could photograph flipbook-style cartoons onto George Eastmans new celluloid roll film and run them just like the new live-action movies Edison was developing? You should come out to the Black Mariah, Edison said. It would be a good ad for you. The Black Mariah was the nickname for his tarpaper-covered motion picture studio.

After further study, including consulting sequential photography pioneer Eadweard Muybridge, J. Stuart Blackton began his own experiments. In 1898, J. Stuart Blackton with his two friends went on to found the Vitagraph Film Co. and do many life action films. But the idea of doing frame-by-frame drawings still intrigued him. In 1900, Edison filmed him in The Enchanted Drawing , basically Blackton doing his lightning sketch act with a bit of movement. It was well received, so Blackton was ready to go further. But his growing responsibilities of the expanding Vitagraph studio occupied his attention.

Blackton consulted with sequential photography pioneer Edweard Muybridge as he studied how to make a movie. Muybridges work is seen above.

It wasnt until 1906 that he began another frame-by-frame experiment. He drew a series of images on his pad in a sequential order to simulate movement. When filmed, they seemed to the eye to spring to life (in Latin animas to give life). A man puffing cigar smoke while his sweetheart rolled her eyes in disapproval, a dog jumping through a hoop and a juggler. James Stuart Blackton and Thomas Edison called the film The Humorous Phases of Funny Faces . It was released it into theaters on April 6, 1906. It was the first true American animated cartoon. It evoked gales of laughter, especially at the scene of the cigar smoker and his girlfriend.

J. Stuart Blackton went on to create more animated films that ran between his life action shorts. His second film The Haunted Hotel (1907) was a huge hit in Europe. Soon, other top cartoonists like Winsor McCay, Rudolph Dirks and Bud Fisher began playing with the new idea. Artists in France, England and Russia began making trickfilms. French artist Emile Cohl was the first to create an animated story. He called animation not just an optical trick, but a new medium of artistic expression. Cocteau, Dali and Picasso expressed interest.

Blacktons second animated film The Haunted Hotel (1907) was a huge hit in Europe and in turn inspired other top cartoonists like Winsor McCay (above) who began playing with the new idea.

By 1910, Blackton had largely abandoned his animation to focus on running his live-action film production. He also started an early film fanzine Motion Picture World in 1916. In 1926, he and his partners sold Vitagraph to the rising Warner Bros. Co. and made a fortune. Blackton mingled in high society, but he lost everything in the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and by the end of the 1930s he was penniless. James Stuart Blackton died when he was hit by a bus on Pico Blvd. in Los Angeles in 1941. In his autobiography he does not bother to even mention he invented animation.

But from the efforts of this erstwhile hustler the first animated film was born. 1906s Humorous Phases of Funny Faces is the forerunner for Felix the Cat, Mickey, Betty Boop, Snow White, Dumbo, Bugs, Daffy, Droopy, Mr. Rossi, Mr. Magoo, Fred Flintstone, Asterix, Ariel, Roger and Jessica, Buzz Lightyear, Homer Simpson, Laura Croft, Totorro, Wallace and Gromet. Also the Gollum, Jarr Jarr Binks, King Kong, The Death Star, the sinking of the Lusitania as well as the sinking of the Titanic and many more.

Happy 100th Birthday Animation! Long may you wave!

For further reading: Bendazzi, Giannalberto. Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation . Bloomington, IN: University Press, 1996 Crafton, Donald. Before Mickey: American Animation 1898 -1928 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1987 Solomon, Charles. Enchanted Drawings, The History of Animation . New York, NY: Knopf 1989 Maltin, Leonard. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1980. Beckerman, Howard. Animation, The Whole Story Mattituk, NY: Amereon House, 2001 Falk, Nate. How to Make Animated Cartoons . New York, NY: Foundation Books 1941

Tom Sito is an animator, teacher and co-founder of Gang of Seven Animation in Los Angeles. His new book Drawing the Line: The Untold Story of Animation Labor is due out this fall from University of Kentucky Press.

View the discussion thread.

Elsewhere on AWN

Nominations Announced for the 96th Academy Awards

History of Animation and its Evolution in Film

The history of animation is diverse. The evolution of animation is an ongoing process. However, what we regard as animation today came into being in the 1800s with inventions like the magic lanterns and the zoetrope.

It was when animation was brought to cinema that we began to see substantial development in successive eras of animation.

Animated cartoons came at least half a century before animated films. These included a lot, from Victorian parlor decoration to touring magic lantern shows.

Animation owes its existence to the principle of persistence of vision. This theory stipulates that if images are shown in succession at a fast pace, they will give an illusion of movement.

A brief evolutionary history of animation in entertainment

In 1834, Joseph Plateau from Belgium created a phenakistoscope, it was one of the first attempts at classical animation.

It was a cardboard disc with successive images that gave the illusion of movement once spun and viewed in the mirror.

In 1876, Emilé Reynaud in France applied the same phenomenon and devised a system to project animation into theatrical exhibitions.

He was the first to bring color and personality to animated characters through ribbons of celluloid painted by hand.

It was not long before the sprocket is driven film stock hit the animation market setting it several steps forward.

History of animation: The silent era (1900s-1920s)

There are some defining names in the animation industry whose works are known to be pivotal in the evolution of animation as entertainment.

Stuart Blackton

J. Stuart Blackton used this technique to make the animated series  Humorous Phases of Funny Faces  in 1906.

Blackton is also regarded as the pioneer of stop-motion animation in his short film Haunted Hotel .

Émile Cohl had copied Blackton, however, he had used a much-simplified stick figure style as opposed to the slightly elaborate cartoon animation in Haunted Hotel.

Cohl can also be regarded for making the first hand-drawn animated video.

The budding animation industry employed the serviceas of some of the best artists like Rube Goldberg, Bud Fisher, and George Herriman producing iconic animations like Mutt and Jeff and Krazy Kat.

Later as the process of animation evolved, these artists started outsourcing the services of other illustrators for design work while masterminding the projects in terms of concept execution.

Winsor McCay

Little Nemo in Slumberland (1911) and Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) are some other well-known efforts in animation by the celebrated cartoonist Winsor McCay. They are thought to be transformational for the industry.

McCay is thought to be the pioneer in the animation industry for giving a personality to his characters and a fluid movement.

McCay’s other works involve The Sinking of Lusitania (1918) which was further developed Pat Sullivan.

It was the Australian-born Sullivan that brought forth the genius of Otto Messmer, the creator of Felix of one-reel cartoons, Feline Follies .

Felix the cat soon became the template on which animal cartoons were shaped with their round heads and large eyes. This model was easy to draw for multiple frames of animation.

History of animation: The golden age (1930s-1960s)

Walt disney.

Felix is said to be the manual on which legendary cartoonist Walt Disney modeled most of his early characters starting with Oswald the Lucky Rabbit.

Most people would argue that Mickey Mouse was just a repurposed Oswald. However, Disney’s genius did not stop there.

Walt Disney’s sound-synchronized animations revolutionized cartoons giving them just the element of life that they were missing. Steamboat Willie (1928) took the industry by surprise.

Disney employed many more revolutionary techniques like technicolor in Flowers and Trees (1932) and music like in The Skeleton Dance.

In addition to that, he used the three-plane camera technique in Old Mill (1937). Every succession of these projects brought Disney’s cartoons closer to natural and realistic.

Disney did not accomplish this alone. He had the services of a long-time trusted companion, Ub Iwerks who played a pivotal role in the phenomenal innovations that are crowned to Disney.

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) was the first hand-drawn animated feature film that hit the box office with a proper Hollywood style release. It was an iconic phenomenon complete with as much dramatic expression as animation could allow.

Disney released several jaw-dropping feature films that can be regarded as the epitome of photographic realism.

Pinocchio (1940), Fantasia (1940), Dumbo (1941), and Bambi (1942), one after another Disney’s endeavors in feature films that ultimately redefined animated feature.

It is safe to say that Walt Disney and his achievements were monumental in the history of animation.

Fleischer Brothers

It was not long before other filmmakers realized the market had a lot of opportunity with not many people to take them.

The Fleischer Brothers were a New York-based dynamic duo that coined even more sophisticated techniques in animation while Disney was still in Kansas.

They launched and perfected the technique of rotoscoping. It’s a technique that involves drawing cartoonish images over the footage of a live-action film and playing it in succession.

The Fleischer brothers pioneered this technique in their series Out of the Inkwell that went on for a good ten years from 1919 to 1929.

This series had the unique element of real-life characters that Disney seemed to struggle with in his productions of Alice.

It was much later in 1964 that Disney was able to get a grip of the technique in his musical fantasy Marry Poppins .

However, there is a stark difference in how Disney cultivated the animation industry and how Max and Dave Fleischer did.

Disney had more of a Mother Goose and Norman Rockwall feel to his work while the Fleischers verged upon a more adult genre of animated content with urban, suggestive, and crowded animations.

Their characters were overtly sensual like Betty Boop. These cartoons made a deep cut in American association to cartoons until they dialed it way back down giving us the same cute content Disney used to.

history of animation

Some of them include Gulliver’s Travels (1939) and Mr. Bug Goes to Town (1941). However, Fleischer Studio’s main work still remains to be Popeye (1933) , a spin-off to Betty Boop.

It was after Baby Wants a Bottleship, that the Fleischer studio sold their rights over to Famous Studios.

If Fleischer Studios were known for their edgy animated content, Warner Bros. took it several notches up to an almost chaotic level.

The Warner Bros. cartoon studio, Termite Terrace, was founded by some of the seasoned members of the Disney enterprise like Hugh Harmon, Rudolph Ising, and Fritz Freleng.

It wasn’t until the young and eccentric Tex Avery joined the studio that they started to get on the map in the industry.

Avery was young had an eye for talent which he recognized in his team of artists who went on to become legends on their own. They included Chuck Jones, Bob Clampett, and Bob Cannon.

Together, they added speed and quirkiness to the Warner Bros’ animation. These characters were fast, witty, and often aggressive. A great example of this is Tex Avery’s A Wild Hare (1940).

Successively, these characters evolved into Daffy Duck, Tweety and Sylvester, Foghorn Leghorn, Porky Pig, Road Runner, and Wile E. Coyote.

Avery went on to leave Warner Brothers and join Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s animation studio. This is where his character as an anarchic and chaotic animator became even more evident in works like Red Hot Riding Hood (1943) and Bad Luck Blackie (1949).

With the progress of techniques in animation, the sky was the limit to what could be done with a cartoon. Animation soon became one of the most crucial genres of entertainment, especially for kids.

With each passing day, it is becoming more sophisticated, diverse, and popular. It has opened up storytelling to possibilities.

The American television era (1950s-1980s)

The animation industry had been predominantly confined to the cinema until it began to adapt to television.

The major driving factor was that the average American family started to choose cartoons as their preferred entertainment medium.

Major studios started making animated series for television using the technique of limited animation in the 1960s. By the mid-80s, cartoons were a very common thing on television especially with channels like Disney and Nickelodeon.

Flinstones were the first animated series to be aired on television at prime-time. This was followed by Yogi Bear both in time and popularity. These were both Hanna-Barbera productions.

Adult animated sitcoms also became one of the most popular categories in American television. The dominant productions in this area were The Simpsons series.

In 2009, The Simpsons beat Gunsmoke for the longest-running prime-time television series.

history of animation

The PinkPhink was the first animated short to receive an Academy Award.

Modern American era

From 1980 to 2014, we have seen massive leaps of progress with 2D and 3D CGI animation. It has revolutionized the American animation industry.

In the 90s, Walt Disney Production Company and Animation Studios gave us several phenomenal feature films based on age-old fables and folklore.

Some of the iconic and notable animated films among them are The Lion King, The Princess, and the Frog, Beauty and the Beast, Tarzan, Aladdin, Mulan, Pocahontas, and Bambi.

So, what’s CGI?

In simple words, CGI is when you make 3D models instead of drawing. It is basically a digital version of stop motion animation.

The Graphics Group that has now evolved into Pixar is known for their first 3D animated film, The Adventures of André & Wally B. (1984) .

However, it was 1995 when Pixar was able to release their first fully-animated computer feature, Toy Story. It went on to become a worldwide franchise breaking box office records.

Computer 3D animation gave us several mainstream blockbuster franchises like Shrek, A Bug’s Life, Kung Fu Panda, Ice Age, How to Train Your Dragon, Tangled, Frozen, Cars, Madagascar, Guardians of the Galaxy, Hotel Transylvania, and Big Hero 6 .

If you are asked to summarize the history of animation, you cannot just do it in a few films.

Animation, like any other art form, is a long process of innovation and game-changing genius of artists and story-tellers. Safe to say that we have come a long way from hand-drawn stop motion although they were the foundation upon which the entire evolution of animation stands.

Want a video for your business?


Subscribe to the MotionCue Newsletter

For monthly video and marketing insights from company founder/CEO Osama Khabab

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

  • Case Studies
  • Reviews on Clutch!
  • Privacy Policy
  • Terms of Use
  • Explainer Videos
  • Promotional Videos
  • Motion Graphics
  • Whiteboard Animation
  • Training Videos
  • 2D Animated Vodeos
  • 3D Animated Videos
  • Live Action Videos
  • Mobile App Videos
  • Social Media Videos
  • Shipping and Logistics
  • Medical Devices

Ready to win with video?

Set up a free 30-minute strategy session with our team.

history of animation assignment

Yt Vi Fb Tw In

Terms of Use Privacy Policy

Copyright © 2012-2026 MotionCue.

Your browser does not support HTML5 video.

  • Communities
  • Toggle navigation
  • Search Search Search …
  • Search Search …

Short paper due

Please submit on Blackboard .

WWII & propaganda

We will look at how control of media evolved during World War II and how it was used as propaganda by all of the parties involved. Animation was used particularly to depict the enemy as the “other” and show them in a diminished and humiliating manner. Animation was also used in training films, to educate soldiers in technical details, and to rouse the support of the citizens on the “homefront”. In Europe and Asia, studios worked creating animation to replace the work from American studios, whose works received limited to no foreign distribution during the war.

Jump to the different sections with the links below:

Overview of media control / Depiction of the “other” in WWII animation / War animation /

Overview of media control during WWII

In World War 2 (1939-1945), the Axis powers (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Empire of Japan) fought the Allies (the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and many other European, Asian and African countries), leading to the eventual defeat of the Axis powers in 1945. The Axis powers were a military alliance united by their Fascist ideologies.

Animation became an important tool in the USA during the war. It was used for propaganda purposes and to educate the general public to rally behind the war effort, and to train soldiers in specific tasks. After the USA entered the war after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the US military began working in Disney’s studio, and they remained throughout the years of the war. Familiar Disney characters, such as Donald Duck, were featured in films such as New Spirit encouraging Americans to pay their taxes. Warner Bros. also made cartoons starring Daffy Duck and Bugs Bunny that encouraged patriotic behavior, like buying war bonds and saving scrap metal.

American animation had become dominant throughout the world, with broad international distribution. This was disrupted during the war. Axis powers Japan and Germany worked on developing animation studios to compete with the popular American style.

In Japan, animation expanded during this period as they developed the industry to produce propaganda for the war effort. The first full length animated film was made as a propaganda film during this period.

In Germany, artists who produced abstract work in animation as well as other media were considered “degenerate” and their works were banned, leading to the departure of many of the artists. The Nazis encouraged animation in some of the occupied countries.

“The Deutsche Zeichenfilm Company (“German Animated Film”) was consequently founded in 1941. It received millions in financing. A giant studio was built and some 200 employees hired, but a mistake was made: Instead of hiring experienced directors, animators and artists, ranks were filled with Nazi loyalists, young and fresh from design school but who had little knowledge about filmmaking.” (from “From pioneer to laggard: Animated film in Germany” DW. https://www.dw.com/en/from-pioneer-to-laggard-animated-film-in-germany/a-52216599 Retrieved June 2021)

In the Soviet Union, animation had already been used as a means of creating propaganda about the superiority of the communist system over capitalism. During the war, the  Soyuzdetmultfilm Studio continued to produce propaganda animation as well as animated folktales.

War animation

In the US, animation was used extensively for training purposes. The military set up a unit in Disney’s studio after the entrance of the US into the war after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The studio produced films such as Four Methods of Flush Riveting for Lockheed Martin’s engineers. Stop That Tank!, a 21 minute training film, was commissioned by the Canadian Directorate of Military Training and depicts a defeated Hitler as well as showing how to use and clean a weapon.

Below is the complete Stop That Tank! (1942).

Animation was used to encourage citizens to buy bonds and to rally the spirits of the American people to the sacrifices that had to be made during the war. Animator Seymour Kneitel (1908-1964), Max Fleischer’s son-in-law, directed Ration Fer the Duration , which features Popeye growing a victory garden, a vegetable garden that could supply additional food during rationing caused by the war effort.

Ration Fer The Duration was made in 1943), distributed by Paramount.

Chuck Jones worked with Theodor Geisel, also known as Dr. Seuss, on a series of animations featuring Private Snafu (“Situation Normal: All Fouled Up”). Geisel was one of the writers on the series. Private Snafu was a clueless G. I. and the films covered a wide variety of topics from security, sanitation, booby traps, to military topics. They were humorous, meant to encourage the troops as well as emphasizing consequences of not following orders. American director Frank Capra designed the character, the films were scored by Carl Stallings, with Mel Blanc voicing the character. Warner Bros. underbid Disney, who also wanted exclusive rights to the character. Bob Clampett, Fritz Freleng and other Warner Bros. animators directed these shorts.

Private Snafu – Fighting Tools (1943) was directed by Bob Clampett. Private Snafu finds out what happens when you don’t clean your gun.

Soyuzmultfilm is a Russian film studio that was founded in 1936. At the start of the war, they created anti-fascist propaganda. They were forced to re-locate to Samarkand in Uzbekhistan from Moscow, and many of the employees were sent to the front lines of the war where some perished. During the war period, they made a number of films based on folktales. The Tale of Tsar Saltan (1943) was animated by sisters Valentina Semyonovna Brumberg  (1899-1975) and Zinaida Semyonovna Brumberg (1900-1983). They used rotoscoping, which was called Eclair in the Soviet Union. The studio returned to Moscow in 1943. Another film made during this period at Soyuzmultfilm was   The Winter’s Tale (1945) by Ivanov-Vano.

Adolf Hitler set Joseph Goebbels, who was the Minister of Propaganda, in charge of all cultural production in 1933 when the Nazi Party came to power. Hitler was an admirer of Disney and the American style of animation. Goebbels formed the Deutsche Zeichentrickfilme G.m.b.H (DZF) in 1941.

Abstract works and other experiments with form were banned by the Nazis, called “Degenerate Art”. Oskar Fischinger emigrated to the US in 1936.

Der Störenfried (1940) was made by animator Hans Held. It uses a familiar form of cute animal cartoon animation to tell a militaristic tale. Wasps fly in military formation to attack an invading fox in defense of a family of rabbits.

Hans Fischerkoesen (1896-1973) was a German animator who had worked primarily in advertising. He worked on a trio of films commissioned by the  DZF (German Animation Film Company) Die Verwitterte Melodie (Weather-Beaten Melody)  in 1942,  Der Schneemann (The Snowman)  in 1943 and  Das dumme Gänslein   (The Silly Goose)  in 1944.

Die Verwitterte Melodie  was directed by Fischerkoesen, written by Horst von Möllendorff and Fischerkoesen. Animation production was in Prague by Jiri Brdecka.

The first animated feature in Japan was Momotarō: Umi no Shinpei (Momotaro’s Divine Sea Warriors) made in 1942. It was made by the same director, Mitsuyo Seo, who directed the earlier propaganda film Momotarō no Umiwashi . It features Momotaro, “Peach Boy”, a figure from Japanese folklore, with a dog, a monkey, a pheasant and a bear cub.

The Film Board of Canada was started in 1939 by John Grierson, a British documentary filmmaker.

” By 1945 the NFB had grown into one of the world’s largest film studios with a staff of 787. More than 500 films had been released (including 2 propaganda series,  The World in Action  and  Canada Carries On , shown monthly in Canadian and foreign theatres), an animation unit had been set up under the supervision of Scottish-born animator Norman McLaren, non-theatrical distribution circuits were established and many young Canadian filmmakers trained.” (from Morris, Peter and Wyndam Wise “National Film Board of Canada” The Canadian Encyclopedia https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/national-film-board-of-canada Retrieved June 2021)

Norman McClaren (1914-1987) was a Scottish animator who worked in Canada.He was an innovator, known for drawing directly on film, working with abstraction, and working with stop motion pixillation.

“Initially the Film Board was making war propaganda films, many aimed at the U.S., which had still not entered the war. McLaren’s unit was tasked with making animated commercials encouraging Canadians to buy war bonds. Among these films are two of McLaren’s early classics,  Hen Hop   (1942) and  Dollar Dance   (1943). Both were drawn directly on celluloid, frame by frame, although with their broad pen work and solid color backgrounds, they only hint at the intricacies of McLaren’s later films.

Starting in 1942, McLaren was given the freedom to assemble a team of animators with whom he would work for most of his career. These included Jim McKay, George Dunning, and Evelyn Lambart, McLaren’s collaborator on  Begone Dull Care (1949). This group, with McLaren as the head animator and mentor, came to be known as Studio A, and worked within the NFB with relative autonomy. The NFB’s stated mission was “to produce and distribute and to promote the production and distribution of films designed to interpret Canada to Canadians and to other nations.” They answered the call by creating a distinctively Canadian animation form for an international audience, with a focus on a combination of modernist experimentation and populist modes of address.” (from Sicinski, Michael. “The Sprightly Civil Servant: Norman McLaren at the National Film Board of Canada” Criterion Collection https://www.criterion.com/current/posts/5824-the-sprightly-civil-servant-norman-mclaren-at-the-national-film-board-of-canada Retrieved June 2021)

Click here to see Five for Four by Norman McLaren (1942)

ASSIGNMENT: Journal entry

Respond to your professor’s journal entry prompt (examples can be found on this page )

Welcome to the BMCC OpenLab!

BMCC’s OpenLab is an online platform where the College’s students, faculty and staff can come together to learn, work, play and share ideas.

Powered by:


  • Using Global Human Resources

Process to Link Source and Destination Assignments for Global Transfer

Use the Migrate Employment Data process to link the source and destination assignments during a global transfer. By linking the assignments, you can view the complete assignment history of the source and destination work relationships.

Here's what the process does:

Selects all active workers (employee, contingent worker, and nonworker) who don't have their termination dates populated in the work relationship and for whom the source assignment ID isn't populated.

Identifies the source and destination assignment IDs for the selected workers based on these items:

Action occurrence ID.

Comparison of the assignment start date of the destination assignment and assignment end date of the source assignment.

Once identified, the process stores the assignment ID of the primary assignment as the source assignment in the destination assignment.

The Migrate Employment Data process will populate the SOURCE_ASSIGNMENT_ID field in the PER_ALL_ASSIGNMENTS_M table only for global transfer.

During a global temporary assignment, the assignment ID isn't stored as the source assignment ID.

Points to Consider

You can run this process to only link your existing global transfer transactions. Change legal employer transactions initiated from the UI after release 20B will be linked by the application.

You can rerun the process, but the process will only select data where the source assignment ID isn't populated for a global transfer action.

When you run the process, it includes all active workers and processes their historical records including those from their earlier work relationship. For example, the process will also include the historical records of a currently active rehired worker.

Process Parameter

The Migrate Employment Data process uses the Link Global Transfer assignments parameter. This parameter links the source and destination assignments related to global transfer by updating the PER_ALL_ASSIGNMENTS_M table.

View History of Assignment Updates

After you have linked the source and destination assignments, you need to set the ORA_PER_EMPL_DISPLAY_GT_HISTORY profile option to view a continuous history of assignment updates across legal employer changes. For more information about this profile option, see the Employment Profile Options topic in the Related Topics section.

Related Topics

  • What are scheduled processes?
  • Submit Scheduled Processes and Process Sets
  • Employment Profile Options

Open seating no more? Southwest CEO says airline is weighing cabin changes

Southwest Airlines  is considering changes to its single-class, open-seating cabins to drive up revenue, CEO Bob Jordan told CNBC on Thursday, a shift that could be among the largest in the airline’s history.

“We’re looking into new initiatives, things like the way we seat and board our aircraft,” Jordan said in an interview after the carrier’s  disappointing first-quarter report.

Southwest’s all- Boeing  737 fleet has a single economy class cabin and no seating assignments, though it does offer earlier boarding for a fee so customers can snag their preferred seats. The airline has focused on keeping its product simple and user-friendly for years, aiming to keep its own costs and complexity to a minimum.

Meanwhile, rivals including  Delta  and  United  have touted high revenue growth for premium seating such as business class and  strong upsell rates .

Analysts have repeatedly asked Southwest about opportunities for premium seating or additional fees. (The airline doesn’t charge travelers for their first two checked bags.)

Most U.S. airlines charge travelers to choose many of its seats in advance, even those that don’t come with extra legroom. Eight U.S. carriers —  Alaska ,  Allegiant ,  American , Delta,  Frontier ,  JetBlue ,  Spirit  and United — together brought in $4.2 billion from seating fees in their domestic networks in 2022, according to Jay Sorensen, an airline ancillary revenue expert at IdeaWorksCompany.

Jordan said no decisions have been made on what kind of changes Southwest will ultimately make, but he said studies have yielded “interesting” results.

“Customer preferences do change over time,” Jordan said.

While details were scarce during Southwest’s earnings call, when asked whether Southwest would consider a separated cabin on its planes, Ryan Green, the carrier’s chief commercial officer said: “Curtains and things like that are a bit far afield from what Southwest Airlines is.”

Green added that the carrier is not considering charging for checked bags because “people choose Southwest Airlines because we don’t have bag fees.”

— CNBC’s  Phil LeBeau  contributed to this report.

More from CNBC:

  • Honda to build $11 billion electric vehicle hub in Canada
  • Comcast beats earnings estimates even as it sheds more broadband subscribers
  • American Airlines swings to a loss, but tops estimates for Q2 forecast

history of animation assignment

Chicago White Sox Call Up Journeyman Outfielder Tommy Pham, DFA Kevin Pillar

The struggling Chicago White Sox made a change to their outfield depth chart Friday, bringing recent free agent acquisition Tommy Pham up from the minors.

  • Author: Sam Connon

In this story:

The Chicago White Sox have selected the contract of outfielder Tommy Pham, The Chicago Sun-Times' Daryl Van Schouwen reported Friday afternoon.

Pham signed a minor league deal with the White Sox back on April 15 . During his time with Triple-A Charlotte, the 11-year MLB veteran was batting .294, prompting his return to the big leagues.

According to The Athletic's Ken Rosenthal , Chicago is designating outfielder Kevin Pillar for assignment to make room for Pham on the 26-man roster. Pillar, a 12-year MLB veteran in his own right, was batting .160 with a .650 OPS and -0.1 WAR.

Pham, 36, was once a late-blooming prospect who came up through the St. Louis Cardinals ' farm system. After getting picked in the 16th round of the 2006 MLB Draft, Pham finally made his big league debut in 2014 and exhausted his rookie eligibility in 2015.

In 2017, Pham placed 11th in NL MVP voting after batting .306 with 23 home runs, 73 RBI, 25 stolen bases, a .931 OPS and 6.2 WAR. The Cardinals eventually dealt him to the Tampa Bay Rays at the 2018 trade deadline, and then the Rays flipped him to the San Diego Padres at the end of the 2019 campaign.

That began the journeyman phase of Pham's career, even if he remained an everyday player through it all.

Pham appeared in 84.2% of his teams' games between 2017 and 2023, suiting up for the Cardinals, Rays, Padres, Cincinnati Reds , Boston Red Sox , New York Mets and Arizona Diamondbacks . In that span, he was a .260 hitter with a .785 OPS, averaging 17 home runs, 57 RBI and 16 stolen bases each year.

Just last year, Pham played a key role for the D-Backs in their surprise run to the World Series. He hit .279 with three home runs and a .772 OPS during the playoffs, earning a spot in Arizona's starting lineup in 16 of their 17 games.

Now, Pham is set to join a last-place White Sox squad off to one of the worst starts in MLB history. With All-Star Luis Robert Jr. on the injured list, Chicago's outfield depth chart is currently made up of Andrew Benintendi, Gavin Sheets, Robbie Grossman and Dominic Fletcher.

Pham is in a position to start right away, considering Sheets is the only one in that group with a batting average over .203 and an OPS over .548.

The White Sox open up a home series with the Rays on Friday, with first pitch scheduled for 7:40 p.m. ET.

Follow Fastball on FanNation on social media

Continue to follow our Fastball on FanNation coverage on social media by liking us on  Facebook  and by following us on Twitter  @FastballFN .

You can also follow Sam Connon on Twitter  @SamConnon .

Latest News


Fernando Tatis Jr. Does Something He's Never Done in His Career on Thursday


Los Angeles Dodgers' Star Does Something Nearly Never Done in Last 100 Years of Team History


New York Yankees' Legend Jorge Posada Dishes on Career, Baseball and Acting in a Miller Lite Commercial


New York Mets Provide Important Information Regarding Ace Pitcher's Health


Chicago White Sox to Put Former Atlanta Braves Standout Near Top of Rotation


  1. The History of Animation

    history of animation assignment

  2. A Guide to the History of Animation

    history of animation assignment

  3. History of Animation Infographic

    history of animation assignment

  4. Generations of Animation Applications and their Utilization

    history of animation assignment

  5. (PDF) History of Animation

    history of animation assignment

  6. PPT

    history of animation assignment


  1. History 1b assignment

  2. bowling ball

  3. Learn how to Animate at AnimSchool

  4. The history of animation and its evolution

  5. Larva Cartoon 15sec

  6. CSCI236 Final Animation Assignment


  1. History of animation

    Main article: Early history of animation. Animated movies are part of ancient traditions in storytelling, visual arts and theatre. Popular techniques with moving images before film include shadow play, mechanical slides, and mobile projectors in magic lantern shows (especially phantasmagoria ). Techniques with fanciful three-dimensional moving ...

  2. history of animation

    The animation industry began to adapt to the fact that television continued its rise as the entertainment medium of choice for American families. Studios created many cartoons for TV, using a "limited animation" style. By the mid '80s, with help from cable channels such as The Disney Channel and Nickolodeon, cartoons were ubiquitous on TV.

  3. Animation

    animation, the art of making inanimate objects appear to move.Animation is an artistic impulse that long predates the movies. History's first recorded animator is Pygmalion of Greek and Roman mythology, a sculptor who created a figure of a woman so perfect that he fell in love with her and begged Venus to bring her to life.Some of the same sense of magic, mystery, and transgression still ...

  4. Notes on the Origins of American Animation, 1900-1921

    Animated drawings were introduced to film a full decade after George Méliès had demonstrated in 1896 that objects could be set in motion through single-frame exposures. J. Stuart Blackton's 1906 animated chalk experiment Humorous Phases of Funny Faces was followed by the imaginative works of Winsor McCay, who made between four thousand and ten thousand separate line drawings for each of his ...

  5. History of Animation: 5 Pioneers Who Influenced the Future of Film

    J. Stuart Blackton (1875 - 1941) Co-founder of Vitagraph Studios, James Stuart Blackton was one of the first artists to use the stop-motion technique with his film, The Humpty Dumpty Circus (1898). Together with his partner Albert E. Smith, he used his daughter's toys to create the illusion of a circus of acrobats and animals in motion.

  6. Week 6

    Early years "J.R. Bray, a pioneer of early animation (see week 3), was intrigued by Max's early rotoscope work, featuring his brother Dave Fleischer in a clown suit, and hired Max with the idea of producing a series of Koko films to be released under the title "Out of the Inkwell."But with the outbreak of World War I, Bray instead sent Max and fellow Bray staffer Jack Leventhal, a ...

  7. History of animation

    This article covers the history of animation from the invention of celluloid film in 1888 until the present day. Techniques developed include stop-motion, hand-drawn, and computer animation. Predecessors include shadow play, mechanical slides, and mobile projectors. The technical principles of modern animation are based on the stroboscopic illusion of motion introduced in 1833 with ...

  8. Week 4

    Assignments. Journals. Journal Entry - Week 1; Journal Entry - Week 2; Journal Entry - Week 3; Journal Entry - Week 4 (short paper outline) ... and the ondes Martenot provided the music with a lilting, modern edge. Bartosch's film is a milestone in animation history, both in the innovation of its technique, and in the poetry that ...

  9. A Guide to the History of Animation

    Last updated: Aug 6, 2021 • 5 min read. The history of animation dates back to the ancient world. From the pottery of the ancient Greeks to the ocular toys of the seventeenth century to the computer-generated imagery (CGI) of the twenty-first century, animation has existed in many forms, evolving into the technological feat we see today.

  10. One Hundred Years Ago Animation Began

    Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1980.Beckerman, Howard. Animation, The Whole Story Mattituk, NY: Amereon House, 2001Falk, Nate. How to Make Animated Cartoons. New York, NY: Foundation Books 1941. Tom Sito is an animator, teacher and co-founder of Gang of Seven Animation in Los Angeles.

  11. History of animation

    Apr 29, 2010 • Download as PPT, PDF •. The document traces the origins and evolution of animation from early animation toys like the thaumatrope and zoetrope in the 1820s-1860s, to flipbooks and early stop-motion animation using cut-out drawings and clay figures in the late 19th century. It then discusses key developments like the first ...

  12. PDF Animation: History & Theory

    HUM4890.006S23.23540 Animation History and T. This course critically explores animated media around the world from the late-nineteenth century until the present. We adopt a working definition of animation as any meticulously constructed moving image display, leveraging this deliberately broad and malleable framework to consider a diverse ...

  13. PDF The History of Animation

    An overview of the history and theory of animation including the origin of animation forms, Hollywood Studio animation, a sample of World Animation and contemporary animation. ... No Reading Assignment Research Paper # 1 due 6 T 2/7 Hollywood Studio Animation III: Warner Bros. Studios R: Mice, pp. 223 - 280

  14. Week 3

    This week we will look at some of the early innovators in animation, in Europe and in the USA. There is a strong relationship between early animators and print comics creators. We will discuss the impact of the first World War on the film industry and the development of the studio system. We will look at how distribution systems evolved and how ...

  15. Innovative Animators (June 1999)

    The films include clay, puppet and cutout animation, as well as pen drawings, and reveal some of the earliest innovations made in the animation field. Interest in the idea of animated images existed well before the 20th century. In the 19th century, moving slides in "magic lanterns" created "animated" images for audiences.

  16. History of Animation and its Evolution in Film

    The evolution of animation is an ongoing process. However, what we regard as animation today came into being in the 1800s with inventions like the magic lanterns and the zoetrope. It was when animation was brought to cinema that we began to see substantial development in successive eras of animation. Animated cartoons came at least half a ...

  17. Discovering Animation Manuals: Their Place and Role in the History of

    The history of animation manuals allows us to nuance sharp distinctions between computer and hand-drawn animation techniques and to conceptualize the 'digital turn' in terms of a renegotiation of professional identities and a redefinition of the craft. It appears as part of a longer historical reconciliation of tradition and novelty.

  18. A Nutshell History of the American Animated Cartoon

    Perhaps more important than 3-D was the unveiling of a new style of animation four years earlier, which used fewer cartoon cels to tell a complete story. The method—called "limited animation"—was the brainchild of United Productions of America (UPA), producers of Mister Magoo and Gerald McBoing Boing cartoons.

  19. The History of Animation

    The History of the Principles of Animation. Daniel Walter Scott || VIDEO: 4 of 23 Download Exercise Files. Contents. Course Lessons. 1. Introduction to Animation ... Assignment 2: Squash and Stretch ; 9. Slow In/Out ; 10. Assignment 3: Slow In/Out ...

  20. Principles of Animation: The Art of Appealing Motion for Beginners

    The famous "12 Principles of Animation" are the foundation for all animation learning and since they're universal principles we will learn to apply them to many animation mediums in this course by drawing, stop motion, claymation, and puppeteering in After Effects.. After each lesson, you will have a demonstration and an assignment that you can follow along with free tools online or with items ...

  21. History of Animation Assignment

    history of animation assignment - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.

  22. Week 7

    Norman McClaren (1914-1987) was a Scottish animator who worked in Canada.He was an innovator, known for drawing directly on film, working with abstraction, and working with stop motion pixillation. "Initially the Film Board was making war propaganda films, many aimed at the U.S., which had still not entered the war.

  23. History and development of animation assignment

    History of animation. Art & Photos. 1 of 32. Download Now. Download to read offline. History and development of animation assignment - Download as a PDF or view online for free.

  24. Process to Link Source and Destination Assignments for Global Transfer

    By linking the assignments, you can view the complete assignment history of the source and destination work relationships. Here's what the process does: Selects all active workers (employee, contingent worker, and nonworker) who don't have their termination dates populated in the work relationship and for whom the source assignment ID isn't ...

  25. Open seating no more? Southwest CEO says airline is weighing cabin changes

    Southwest's all-Boeing 737 fleet has a single economy class cabin and no seating assignments, though it does offer earlier boarding for a fee so customers can snag their preferred seats.The ...

  26. Chicago White Sox Call Up Journeyman Outfielder Tommy Pham, DFA Kevin

    According to The Athletic's Ken Rosenthal, Chicago is designating outfielder Kevin Pillar for assignment to make room for Pham on the 26-man roster. Pillar, a 12-year MLB veteran in his own right ...

  27. Unreal Engine 5.4 is now available

    Temporal Super Resolution In this release, Temporal Super Resolution (TSR) has received stability and performance enhancements to ensure a predictable output regardless of the target platform; this includes reduced ghosting thanks to new history resurrection heuristics and the ability to flag materials that use pixel animation. In addition, we've added new visualization modes that make it ...