If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser.

Unit 1: Algebra foundations

Unit 2: solving equations & inequalities, unit 3: working with units, unit 4: linear equations & graphs, unit 5: forms of linear equations, unit 6: systems of equations, unit 7: inequalities (systems & graphs), unit 8: functions, unit 9: sequences, unit 10: absolute value & piecewise functions, unit 11: exponents & radicals, unit 12: exponential growth & decay, unit 13: quadratics: multiplying & factoring, unit 14: quadratic functions & equations, unit 15: irrational numbers, unit 16: creativity in algebra.

1.1 Real Numbers: Algebra Essentials

  • ⓐ 11 1 11 1
  • ⓒ − 4 1 − 4 1
  • ⓐ 4 (or 4.0), terminating;
  • ⓑ 0. 615384 ¯ , 0. 615384 ¯ , repeating;
  • ⓒ –0.85, terminating
  • ⓐ rational and repeating;
  • ⓑ rational and terminating;
  • ⓒ irrational;
  • ⓓ rational and terminating;
  • ⓔ irrational
  • ⓐ positive, irrational; right
  • ⓑ negative, rational; left
  • ⓒ positive, rational; right
  • ⓓ negative, irrational; left
  • ⓔ positive, rational; right
  • ⓐ 11, commutative property of multiplication, associative property of multiplication, inverse property of multiplication, identity property of multiplication;
  • ⓑ 33, distributive property;
  • ⓒ 26, distributive property;
  • ⓓ 4 9 , 4 9 , commutative property of addition, associative property of addition, inverse property of addition, identity property of addition;
  • ⓔ 0, distributive property, inverse property of addition, identity property of addition
  • ⓒ 121 3 π 121 3 π ;
  • ⓐ −2 y −2 z or  −2 ( y + z ) ; −2 y −2 z or  −2 ( y + z ) ;
  • ⓑ 2 t −1 ; 2 t −1 ;
  • ⓒ 3 p q −4 p + q ; 3 p q −4 p + q ;
  • ⓓ 7 r −2 s + 6 7 r −2 s + 6

A = P ( 1 + r t ) A = P ( 1 + r t )

1.2 Exponents and Scientific Notation

  • ⓐ k 15 k 15
  • ⓑ ( 2 y ) 5 ( 2 y ) 5
  • ⓒ t 14 t 14
  • ⓑ ( −3 ) 5 ( −3 ) 5
  • ⓒ ( e f 2 ) 2 ( e f 2 ) 2
  • ⓐ ( 3 y ) 24 ( 3 y ) 24
  • ⓑ t 35 t 35
  • ⓒ ( − g ) 16 ( − g ) 16
  • ⓐ 1 ( −3 t ) 6 1 ( −3 t ) 6
  • ⓑ 1 f 3 1 f 3
  • ⓒ 2 5 k 3 2 5 k 3
  • ⓐ t −5 = 1 t 5 t −5 = 1 t 5
  • ⓑ 1 25 1 25
  • ⓐ g 10 h 15 g 10 h 15
  • ⓑ 125 t 3 125 t 3
  • ⓒ −27 y 15 −27 y 15
  • ⓓ 1 a 18 b 21 1 a 18 b 21
  • ⓔ r 12 s 8 r 12 s 8
  • ⓐ b 15 c 3 b 15 c 3
  • ⓑ 625 u 32 625 u 32
  • ⓒ −1 w 105 −1 w 105
  • ⓓ q 24 p 32 q 24 p 32
  • ⓔ 1 c 20 d 12 1 c 20 d 12
  • ⓐ v 6 8 u 3 v 6 8 u 3
  • ⓑ 1 x 3 1 x 3
  • ⓒ e 4 f 4 e 4 f 4
  • ⓓ 27 r s 27 r s
  • ⓕ 16 h 10 49 16 h 10 49
  • ⓐ $ 1.52 × 10 5 $ 1.52 × 10 5
  • ⓑ 7.158 × 10 9 7.158 × 10 9
  • ⓒ $ 8.55 × 10 13 $ 8.55 × 10 13
  • ⓓ 3.34 × 10 −9 3.34 × 10 −9
  • ⓔ 7.15 × 10 −8 7.15 × 10 −8
  • ⓐ 703 , 000 703 , 000
  • ⓑ −816 , 000 , 000 , 000 −816 , 000 , 000 , 000
  • ⓒ −0.000 000 000 000 39 −0.000 000 000 000 39
  • ⓓ 0.000008 0.000008
  • ⓐ − 8.475 × 10 6 − 8.475 × 10 6
  • ⓑ 8 × 10 − 8 8 × 10 − 8
  • ⓒ 2.976 × 10 13 2.976 × 10 13
  • ⓓ − 4.3 × 10 6 − 4.3 × 10 6
  • ⓔ ≈ 1.24 × 10 15 ≈ 1.24 × 10 15

Number of cells: 3 × 10 13 ; 3 × 10 13 ; length of a cell: 8 × 10 −6 8 × 10 −6 m; total length: 2.4 × 10 8 2.4 × 10 8 m or 240 , 000 , 000 240 , 000 , 000 m.

1.3 Radicals and Rational Exponents

5 | x | | y | 2 y z . 5 | x | | y | 2 y z . Notice the absolute value signs around x and y ? That’s because their value must be positive!

10 | x | 10 | x |

x 2 3 y 2 . x 2 3 y 2 . We do not need the absolute value signs for y 2 y 2 because that term will always be nonnegative.

b 4 3 a b b 4 3 a b

14 −7 3 14 −7 3

  • ⓒ 88 9 3 88 9 3

( 9 ) 5 = 3 5 = 243 ( 9 ) 5 = 3 5 = 243

x ( 5 y ) 9 2 x ( 5 y ) 9 2

28 x 23 15 28 x 23 15

1.4 Polynomials

The degree is 6, the leading term is − x 6 , − x 6 , and the leading coefficient is −1. −1.

2 x 3 + 7 x 2 −4 x −3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 −4 x −3

−11 x 3 − x 2 + 7 x −9 −11 x 3 − x 2 + 7 x −9

3 x 4 −10 x 3 −8 x 2 + 21 x + 14 3 x 4 −10 x 3 −8 x 2 + 21 x + 14

3 x 2 + 16 x −35 3 x 2 + 16 x −35

16 x 2 −8 x + 1 16 x 2 −8 x + 1

4 x 2 −49 4 x 2 −49

6 x 2 + 21 x y −29 x −7 y + 9 6 x 2 + 21 x y −29 x −7 y + 9

1.5 Factoring Polynomials

( b 2 − a ) ( x + 6 ) ( b 2 − a ) ( x + 6 )

( x −6 ) ( x −1 ) ( x −6 ) ( x −1 )

  • ⓐ ( 2 x + 3 ) ( x + 3 ) ( 2 x + 3 ) ( x + 3 )
  • ⓑ ( 3 x −1 ) ( 2 x + 1 ) ( 3 x −1 ) ( 2 x + 1 )

( 7 x −1 ) 2 ( 7 x −1 ) 2

( 9 y + 10 ) ( 9 y − 10 ) ( 9 y + 10 ) ( 9 y − 10 )

( 6 a + b ) ( 36 a 2 −6 a b + b 2 ) ( 6 a + b ) ( 36 a 2 −6 a b + b 2 )

( 10 x − 1 ) ( 100 x 2 + 10 x + 1 ) ( 10 x − 1 ) ( 100 x 2 + 10 x + 1 )

( 5 a −1 ) − 1 4 ( 17 a −2 ) ( 5 a −1 ) − 1 4 ( 17 a −2 )

1.6 Rational Expressions

1 x + 6 1 x + 6

( x + 5 ) ( x + 6 ) ( x + 2 ) ( x + 4 ) ( x + 5 ) ( x + 6 ) ( x + 2 ) ( x + 4 )

2 ( x −7 ) ( x + 5 ) ( x −3 ) 2 ( x −7 ) ( x + 5 ) ( x −3 )

x 2 − y 2 x y 2 x 2 − y 2 x y 2

1.1 Section Exercises

irrational number. The square root of two does not terminate, and it does not repeat a pattern. It cannot be written as a quotient of two integers, so it is irrational.

The Associative Properties state that the sum or product of multiple numbers can be grouped differently without affecting the result. This is because the same operation is performed (either addition or subtraction), so the terms can be re-ordered.

−14 y − 11 −14 y − 11

−4 b + 1 −4 b + 1

43 z − 3 43 z − 3

9 y + 45 9 y + 45

−6 b + 6 −6 b + 6

16 x 3 16 x 3

1 2 ( 40 − 10 ) + 5 1 2 ( 40 − 10 ) + 5

irrational number

g + 400 − 2 ( 600 ) = 1200 g + 400 − 2 ( 600 ) = 1200

inverse property of addition

1.2 Section Exercises

No, the two expressions are not the same. An exponent tells how many times you multiply the base. So 2 3 2 3 is the same as 2 × 2 × 2 , 2 × 2 × 2 , which is 8. 3 2 3 2 is the same as 3 × 3 , 3 × 3 , which is 9.

It is a method of writing very small and very large numbers.

12 40 12 40

1 7 9 1 7 9

3.14 × 10 − 5 3.14 × 10 − 5

16,000,000,000

b 6 c 8 b 6 c 8

a b 2 d 3 a b 2 d 3

q 5 p 6 q 5 p 6

y 21 x 14 y 21 x 14

72 a 2 72 a 2

c 3 b 9 c 3 b 9

y 81 z 6 y 81 z 6

1.0995 × 10 12 1.0995 × 10 12

0.00000000003397 in.

12,230,590,464 m 66 m 66

a 14 1296 a 14 1296

n a 9 c n a 9 c

1 a 6 b 6 c 6 1 a 6 b 6 c 6

0.000000000000000000000000000000000662606957

1.3 Section Exercises

When there is no index, it is assumed to be 2 or the square root. The expression would only be equal to the radicand if the index were 1.

The principal square root is the nonnegative root of the number.

9 5 5 9 5 5

6 10 19 6 10 19

− 1 + 17 2 − 1 + 17 2

7 2 3 7 2 3

20 x 2 20 x 2

17 m 2 m 17 m 2 m

2 b a 2 b a

15 x 7 15 x 7

5 y 4 2 5 y 4 2

4 7 d 7 d 4 7 d 7 d

2 2 + 2 6 x 1 −3 x 2 2 + 2 6 x 1 −3 x

− w 2 w − w 2 w

3 x − 3 x 2 3 x − 3 x 2

5 n 5 5 5 n 5 5

9 m 19 m 9 m 19 m

2 3 d 2 3 d

3 2 x 2 4 2 3 2 x 2 4 2

6 z 2 3 6 z 2 3

−5 2 −6 7 −5 2 −6 7

m n c a 9 c m n m n c a 9 c m n

2 2 x + 2 4 2 2 x + 2 4

1.4 Section Exercises

The statement is true. In standard form, the polynomial with the highest value exponent is placed first and is the leading term. The degree of a polynomial is the value of the highest exponent, which in standard form is also the exponent of the leading term.

Use the distributive property, multiply, combine like terms, and simplify.

4 x 2 + 3 x + 19 4 x 2 + 3 x + 19

3 w 2 + 30 w + 21 3 w 2 + 30 w + 21

11 b 4 −9 b 3 + 12 b 2 −7 b + 8 11 b 4 −9 b 3 + 12 b 2 −7 b + 8

24 x 2 −4 x −8 24 x 2 −4 x −8

24 b 4 −48 b 2 + 24 24 b 4 −48 b 2 + 24

99 v 2 −202 v + 99 99 v 2 −202 v + 99

8 n 3 −4 n 2 + 72 n −36 8 n 3 −4 n 2 + 72 n −36

9 y 2 −42 y + 49 9 y 2 −42 y + 49

16 p 2 + 72 p + 81 16 p 2 + 72 p + 81

9 y 2 −36 y + 36 9 y 2 −36 y + 36

16 c 2 −1 16 c 2 −1

225 n 2 −36 225 n 2 −36

−16 m 2 + 16 −16 m 2 + 16

121 q 2 −100 121 q 2 −100

16 t 4 + 4 t 3 −32 t 2 − t + 7 16 t 4 + 4 t 3 −32 t 2 − t + 7

y 3 −6 y 2 − y + 18 y 3 −6 y 2 − y + 18

3 p 3 − p 2 −12 p + 10 3 p 3 − p 2 −12 p + 10

a 2 − b 2 a 2 − b 2

16 t 2 −40 t u + 25 u 2 16 t 2 −40 t u + 25 u 2

4 t 2 + x 2 + 4 t −5 t x − x 4 t 2 + x 2 + 4 t −5 t x − x

24 r 2 + 22 r d −7 d 2 24 r 2 + 22 r d −7 d 2

32 x 2 −4 x −3 32 x 2 −4 x −3 m 2

32 t 3 − 100 t 2 + 40 t + 38 32 t 3 − 100 t 2 + 40 t + 38

a 4 + 4 a 3 c −16 a c 3 −16 c 4 a 4 + 4 a 3 c −16 a c 3 −16 c 4

1.5 Section Exercises

The terms of a polynomial do not have to have a common factor for the entire polynomial to be factorable. For example, 4 x 2 4 x 2 and −9 y 2 −9 y 2 don’t have a common factor, but the whole polynomial is still factorable: 4 x 2 −9 y 2 = ( 2 x + 3 y ) ( 2 x −3 y ) . 4 x 2 −9 y 2 = ( 2 x + 3 y ) ( 2 x −3 y ) .

Divide the x x term into the sum of two terms, factor each portion of the expression separately, and then factor out the GCF of the entire expression.

10 m 3 10 m 3

( 2 a −3 ) ( a + 6 ) ( 2 a −3 ) ( a + 6 )

( 3 n −11 ) ( 2 n + 1 ) ( 3 n −11 ) ( 2 n + 1 )

( p + 1 ) ( 2 p −7 ) ( p + 1 ) ( 2 p −7 )

( 5 h + 3 ) ( 2 h −3 ) ( 5 h + 3 ) ( 2 h −3 )

( 9 d −1 ) ( d −8 ) ( 9 d −1 ) ( d −8 )

( 12 t + 13 ) ( t −1 ) ( 12 t + 13 ) ( t −1 )

( 4 x + 10 ) ( 4 x − 10 ) ( 4 x + 10 ) ( 4 x − 10 )

( 11 p + 13 ) ( 11 p − 13 ) ( 11 p + 13 ) ( 11 p − 13 )

( 19 d + 9 ) ( 19 d − 9 ) ( 19 d + 9 ) ( 19 d − 9 )

( 12 b + 5 c ) ( 12 b − 5 c ) ( 12 b + 5 c ) ( 12 b − 5 c )

( 7 n + 12 ) 2 ( 7 n + 12 ) 2

( 15 y + 4 ) 2 ( 15 y + 4 ) 2

( 5 p − 12 ) 2 ( 5 p − 12 ) 2

( x + 6 ) ( x 2 − 6 x + 36 ) ( x + 6 ) ( x 2 − 6 x + 36 )

( 5 a + 7 ) ( 25 a 2 − 35 a + 49 ) ( 5 a + 7 ) ( 25 a 2 − 35 a + 49 )

( 4 x − 5 ) ( 16 x 2 + 20 x + 25 ) ( 4 x − 5 ) ( 16 x 2 + 20 x + 25 )

( 5 r + 12 s ) ( 25 r 2 − 60 r s + 144 s 2 ) ( 5 r + 12 s ) ( 25 r 2 − 60 r s + 144 s 2 )

( 2 c + 3 ) − 1 4 ( −7 c − 15 ) ( 2 c + 3 ) − 1 4 ( −7 c − 15 )

( x + 2 ) − 2 5 ( 19 x + 10 ) ( x + 2 ) − 2 5 ( 19 x + 10 )

( 2 z − 9 ) − 3 2 ( 27 z − 99 ) ( 2 z − 9 ) − 3 2 ( 27 z − 99 )

( 14 x −3 ) ( 7 x + 9 ) ( 14 x −3 ) ( 7 x + 9 )

( 3 x + 5 ) ( 3 x −5 ) ( 3 x + 5 ) ( 3 x −5 )

( 2 x + 5 ) 2 ( 2 x − 5 ) 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) 2 ( 2 x − 5 ) 2

( 4 z 2 + 49 a 2 ) ( 2 z + 7 a ) ( 2 z − 7 a ) ( 4 z 2 + 49 a 2 ) ( 2 z + 7 a ) ( 2 z − 7 a )

1 ( 4 x + 9 ) ( 4 x −9 ) ( 2 x + 3 ) 1 ( 4 x + 9 ) ( 4 x −9 ) ( 2 x + 3 )

1.6 Section Exercises

You can factor the numerator and denominator to see if any of the terms can cancel one another out.

True. Multiplication and division do not require finding the LCD because the denominators can be combined through those operations, whereas addition and subtraction require like terms.

y + 5 y + 6 y + 5 y + 6

3 b + 3 3 b + 3

x + 4 2 x + 2 x + 4 2 x + 2

a + 3 a − 3 a + 3 a − 3

3 n − 8 7 n − 3 3 n − 8 7 n − 3

c − 6 c + 6 c − 6 c + 6

d 2 − 25 25 d 2 − 1 d 2 − 25 25 d 2 − 1

t + 5 t + 3 t + 5 t + 3

6 x − 5 6 x + 5 6 x − 5 6 x + 5

p + 6 4 p + 3 p + 6 4 p + 3

2 d + 9 d + 11 2 d + 9 d + 11

12 b + 5 3 b −1 12 b + 5 3 b −1

4 y −1 y + 4 4 y −1 y + 4

10 x + 4 y x y 10 x + 4 y x y

9 a − 7 a 2 − 2 a − 3 9 a − 7 a 2 − 2 a − 3

2 y 2 − y + 9 y 2 − y − 2 2 y 2 − y + 9 y 2 − y − 2

5 z 2 + z + 5 z 2 − z − 2 5 z 2 + z + 5 z 2 − z − 2

x + 2 x y + y x + x y + y + 1 x + 2 x y + y x + x y + y + 1

2 b + 7 a a b 2 2 b + 7 a a b 2

18 + a b 4 b 18 + a b 4 b

a − b a − b

3 c 2 + 3 c − 2 2 c 2 + 5 c + 2 3 c 2 + 3 c − 2 2 c 2 + 5 c + 2

15 x + 7 x −1 15 x + 7 x −1

x + 9 x −9 x + 9 x −9

1 y + 2 1 y + 2

Review Exercises

y = 24 y = 24

3 a 6 3 a 6

x 3 32 y 3 x 3 32 y 3

1.634 × 10 7 1.634 × 10 7

4 2 5 4 2 5

7 2 50 7 2 50

3 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 6 3 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 6

5 x 2 − x + 3 5 x 2 − x + 3

k 2 − 3 k − 18 k 2 − 3 k − 18

x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 x 3 + x 2 + x + 1

3 a 2 + 5 a b − 2 b 2 3 a 2 + 5 a b − 2 b 2

4 a 2 4 a 2

( 4 a − 3 ) ( 2 a + 9 ) ( 4 a − 3 ) ( 2 a + 9 )

( x + 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2

( 2 h − 3 k ) 2 ( 2 h − 3 k ) 2

( p + 6 ) ( p 2 − 6 p + 36 ) ( p + 6 ) ( p 2 − 6 p + 36 )

( 4 q − 3 p ) ( 16 q 2 + 12 p q + 9 p 2 ) ( 4 q − 3 p ) ( 16 q 2 + 12 p q + 9 p 2 )

( p + 3 ) 1 3 ( −5 p − 24 ) ( p + 3 ) 1 3 ( −5 p − 24 )

x + 3 x − 4 x + 3 x − 4

m + 2 m − 3 m + 2 m − 3

6 x + 10 y x y 6 x + 10 y x y

Practice Test

x = –2 x = –2

3 x 4 3 x 4

13 q 3 − 4 q 2 − 5 q 13 q 3 − 4 q 2 − 5 q

n 3 − 6 n 2 + 12 n − 8 n 3 − 6 n 2 + 12 n − 8

( 4 x + 9 ) ( 4 x − 9 ) ( 4 x + 9 ) ( 4 x − 9 )

( 3 c − 11 ) ( 9 c 2 + 33 c + 121 ) ( 3 c − 11 ) ( 9 c 2 + 33 c + 121 )

4 z − 3 2 z − 1 4 z − 3 2 z − 1

3 a + 2 b 3 b 3 a + 2 b 3 b

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/college-algebra/pages/1-introduction-to-prerequisites
  • Authors: Jay Abramson
  • Publisher/website: OpenStax
  • Book title: College Algebra
  • Publication date: Feb 13, 2015
  • Location: Houston, Texas
  • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/college-algebra/pages/1-introduction-to-prerequisites
  • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/college-algebra/pages/chapter-1

© Dec 8, 2021 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.

Library homepage

  • school Campus Bookshelves
  • menu_book Bookshelves
  • perm_media Learning Objects
  • login Login
  • how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
  • hub Instructor Commons

Margin Size

  • Download Page (PDF)
  • Download Full Book (PDF)
  • Periodic Table
  • Physics Constants
  • Scientific Calculator
  • Reference & Cite
  • Tools expand_more
  • Readability

selected template will load here

This action is not available.

Mathematics LibreTexts

1.1: Real Numbers - Algebra Essentials

  • Last updated
  • Save as PDF
  • Page ID 1266

\( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

\( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

\( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

\( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

\( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

\( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

\( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

\( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

\( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

\( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

\( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

\( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

\( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

\( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

Learning Objectives

  • Classify a real number as a natural, whole, integer, rational, or irrational number.
  • Perform calculations using order of operations.
  • Use the following properties of real numbers: commutative, associative, distributive, inverse, and identity.
  • Evaluate algebraic expressions.
  • Simplify algebraic expressions.

It is often said that mathematics is the language of science. If this is true, then the language of mathematics is numbers. The earliest use of numbers occurred \(100\) centuries ago in the Middle East to count, or enumerate items. Farmers, cattlemen, and tradesmen used tokens, stones, or markers to signify a single quantity—a sheaf of grain, a head of livestock, or a fixed length of cloth, for example. Doing so made commerce possible, leading to improved communications and the spread of civilization.

Three to four thousand years ago, Egyptians introduced fractions. They first used them to show reciprocals. Later, they used them to represent the amount when a quantity was divided into equal parts.

But what if there were no cattle to trade or an entire crop of grain was lost in a flood? How could someone indicate the existence of nothing? From earliest times, people had thought of a “base state” while counting and used various symbols to represent this null condition. However, it was not until about the fifth century A.D. in India that zero was added to the number system and used as a numeral in calculations.

Clearly, there was also a need for numbers to represent loss or debt. In India, in the seventh century A.D., negative numbers were used as solutions to mathematical equations and commercial debts. The opposites of the counting numbers expanded the number system even further.

Because of the evolution of the number system, we can now perform complex calculations using these and other categories of real numbers. In this section, we will explore sets of numbers, calculations with different kinds of numbers, and the use of numbers in expressions.

Classifying a Real Number

The numbers we use for counting, or enumerating items, are the natural numbers: \(1, 2, 3, 4, 5\) and so on. We describe them in set notation as \(\{1,2,3,...\}\) where the ellipsis \((\cdots)\) indicates that the numbers continue to infinity. The natural numbers are, of course, also called the counting numbers. Any time we enumerate the members of a team, count the coins in a collection, or tally the trees in a grove, we are using the set of natural numbers. The set of whole numbers is the set of natural numbers plus zero: \(\{0,1,2,3,...\}\).

The set of integers adds the opposites of the natural numbers to the set of whole numbers: \(\{\cdots,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,\cdots\}\). It is useful to note that the set of integers is made up of three distinct subsets: negative integers, zero, and positive integers. In this sense, the positive integers are just the natural numbers. Another way to think about it is that the natural numbers are a subset of the integers.

\[ \overbrace{\cdots, -3,-2,-1}^{\text{negative integers}}, \underbrace{0}_{\text{zero}}, \overbrace{1,\, 2,\,3,\, \cdots}^{\text{positive integers}} \nonumber\]

The set of rational numbers is written as \(\{\frac{m}{n}| \text{m and n are integers and } n \neq 0\}\).Notice from the definition that rational numbers are fractions (or quotients) containing integers in both the numerator and the denominator, and the denominator is never \(0\). We can also see that every natural number, whole number, and integer is a rational number with a denominator of \(1\).

Because they are fractions, any rational number can also be expressed in decimal form. Any rational number can be represented as either:

  • a terminating decimal: \(\frac{15}{8} =1.875\), or
  • a repeating decimal: \(\frac{4}{11} =0.36363636\cdots = 0.\bar{36}\)

We use a line drawn over the repeating block of numbers instead of writing the group multiple times.

Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Writing Integers as Rational Numbers

Write each of the following as a rational number. Write a fraction with the integer in the numerator and \(1\) in the denominator.

a. \(7= \frac{7}{1}\)

b. \(0= \frac{0}{1}\)

c. \(-8= \frac{-8}{1}\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

Write each of the following as a rational number.

  • \(\frac{11}{1}\)
  • \(\frac{3}{1}\)
  • \(-\frac{4}{1}\)

Example \(\PageIndex{2}\): Identifying Rational Numbers

Write each of the following rational numbers as either a terminating or repeating decimal.

  • \(-\frac{5}{7}\)
  • \(\frac{15}{5}\)
  • \(\frac{13}{25}\)

a. a repeating decimal

b. \(\frac{15}{5} = 3\)(or \(3.0\)), a terminating decimal

c. \(\frac{13}{25} =0.52\), a terminating decimal

Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)

  • \(\frac{68}{17}\)
  • \(\frac{8}{13}\)
  • \(-\frac{13}{25}\)
  • \(4\) (or \(4.0\)), terminating
  • \(0.\overline{615384}\), repeating
  • \(-0.85\), terminating

Irrational Numbers

At some point in the ancient past, someone discovered that not all numbers are rational numbers. A builder, for instance, may have found that the diagonal of a square with unit sides was not \(2\) or even \(32\), but was something else. Or a garment maker might have observed that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a roll of cloth was a little bit more than \(3\), but still not a rational number. Such numbers are said to be irrational because they cannot be written as fractions. These numbers make up the set of irrational numbers. Irrational numbers cannot be expressed as a fraction of two integers. It is impossible to describe this set of numbers by a single rule except to say that a number is irrational if it is not rational. So we write this as shown.

\[\{h\mid h \text { is not a rational number}\}\]

Example \(\PageIndex{3}\): Differentiating Rational and Irrational Numbers

Determine whether each of the following numbers is rational or irrational. If it is rational, determine whether it is a terminating or repeating decimal.

  • \(\sqrt{25}\)
  • \(\frac{33}{9}\)
  • \(\sqrt{11}\)
  • \(\frac{17}{34}\)
  • \(0.3033033303333…\)
  • \(\sqrt{25}\): This can be simplified as \(\sqrt{25} = 5\). Therefore,\(\sqrt{25}\)is rational.
  • \(\frac{33}{9}\): Because it is a fraction,\(\frac{33}{9}\) is a rational number. Next, simplify and divide. \[\frac{33}{9}=\cancel{\frac{33}{9}} \nonumber\] So, \(\frac{33}{9}\) is rational and a repeating decimal.
  • \(\sqrt{11}\): This cannot be simplified any further. Therefore, \(\sqrt{11}\) is an irrational number.
  • \(\frac{17}{34}\): Because it is a fraction, \(\frac{17}{34}\) is a rational number. Simplify and divide. \[\frac{17}{34} = 0.5 \nonumber\] So, \(\frac{17}{34}\) is rational and a terminating decimal.
  • \(0.3033033303333…\) is not a terminating decimal. Also note that there is no repeating pattern because the group of \(3s\) increases each time. Therefore it is neither a terminating nor a repeating decimal and, hence, not a rational number. It is an irrational number.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)

  • \(\frac{7}{77}\)
  • \(\sqrt{81}\)
  • \(4.27027002700027…\)
  • \(\frac{91}{13}\)
  • \(\sqrt{39}\)
  • rational and repeating;
  • rational and terminating;
  • irrational;

Real Numbers

Given any number \(n\), we know that \(n\) is either rational or irrational. It cannot be both. The sets of rational and irrational numbers together make up the set of real numbers. As we saw with integers, the real numbers can be divided into three subsets: negative real numbers, zero, and positive real numbers. Each subset includes fractions, decimals, and irrational numbers according to their algebraic sign (+ or –). Zero is considered neither positive nor negative.

The real numbers can be visualized on a horizontal number line with an arbitrary point chosen as \(0\), with negative numbers to the left of \(0\) and positive numbers to the right of \(0\). A fixed unit distance is then used to mark off each integer (or other basic value) on either side of \(0\). Any real number corresponds to a unique position on the number line.The converse is also true: Each location on the number line corresponds to exactly one real number. This is known as a one-to-one correspondence. We refer to this as the real number line as shown in Figure (\(\PageIndex{1}\).

A number line that is marked from negative five to five

Example \(\PageIndex{4}\): Classifying Real Numbers

Classify each number as either positive or negative and as either rational or irrational. Does the number lie to the left or the right of \(0\) on the number line?

  • \(-\frac{10}{3}\)
  • \(\sqrt{5}\)
  • \(-\sqrt{289}\)
  • \(0.615384615384…\)
  • \(-\frac{10}{3}\) is negative and rational. It lies to the left of \(0\) on the number line.
  • \(\sqrt{5}\) is positive and irrational. It lies to the right of \(0\).
  • \(-\sqrt{289} = -\sqrt{17^2} = -17\) is negative and rational. It lies to the left of \(0\).
  • \(-6π\) is negative and irrational. It lies to the left of \(0\).
  • \(0.615384615384…\) is a repeating decimal so it is rational and positive. It lies to the right of \(0\).

Exercise \(\PageIndex{4}\)

  • \(\sqrt{73}\)
  • \(-11.411411411…\)
  • \(\frac{47}{19}\)
  • \(-\frac{\sqrt{5}}{2}\)
  • \(6.210735\)
  • positive, irrational; right
  • negative, rational; left
  • positive, rational; right
  • negative, irrational; left
  • positive, rational; right

Sets of Numbers as Subsets

Beginning with the natural numbers, we have expanded each set to form a larger set, meaning that there is a subset relationship between the sets of numbers we have encountered so far. These relationships become more obvious when seen as a diagram, such as Figure(\(\PageIndex{2}\)).

A large box labeled: Real Numbers encloses five circles. Four of these circles enclose each other and the other is separate from the rest. The innermost circle contains: 1, 2, 3… N. The circle enclosing that circle contains: 0 W. The circle enclosing that circle contains: …, -3, -2, -1 I. The outermost circle contains: m/n, n not equal to zero Q. The separate circle contains: pi, square root of two, etc Q´.

SETS OF NUMBERS

The set of natural numbers includes the numbers used for counting: \(\{1,2,3,...\}\).

The set of whole numbers is the set of natural numbers plus zero: \(\{0,1,2,3,...\}\).

The set of integers adds the negative natural numbers to the set of whole numbers: \(\{...,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,...\}\).

The set of rational numbers includes fractions written as \(\{\frac{m}{n} | \text{m and n are integers and } n \neq 0\}\).

The set of irrational numbers is the set of numbers that are not rational, are nonrepeating, and are nonterminating: \(\{h\parallel \text{h is not a rational number}\}\).

Example \(\PageIndex{5}\): Differentiating the Sets of Numbers

Classify each number as being a natural number (N), whole number (W), integer (I), rational number (Q), and/or irrational number (Q′).

  • \(\sqrt{36}\)
  • \(\frac{8}{3}\)
  • \(3.2121121112…\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{5}\)

  • \(-\frac{35}{7}\)
  • \(\sqrt{169}\)
  • \(\sqrt{24}\)
  • \(4.763763763...\)

Performing Calculations Using the Order of Operations

When we multiply a number by itself, we square it or raise it to a power of \(2\). For example, \(4^2 =4\times4=16\). We can raise any number to any power. In general, the exponential notation an means that the number or variable \(a\) is used as a factor \(n\) times.

\[a^n=a\cdot a\cdot a\cdots a \qquad \text{ n factors} \nonumber \]

In this notation, \(a^n\) is read as the \(n^{th}\) power of \(a\), where \(a\) is called the base and \(n\) is called the exponent. A term in exponential notation may be part of a mathematical expression, which is a combination of numbers and operations. For example, \(24+6 \times \dfrac{2}{3} − 4^2\) is a mathematical expression.

To evaluate a mathematical expression, we perform the various operations. However, we do not perform them in any random order. We use the order of operations. This is a sequence of rules for evaluating such expressions.

Recall that in mathematics we use parentheses ( ), brackets [ ], and braces { } to group numbers and expressions so that anything appearing within the symbols is treated as a unit. Additionally, fraction bars, radicals, and absolute value bars are treated as grouping symbols. When evaluating a mathematical expression, begin by simplifying expressions within grouping symbols.

The next step is to address any exponents or radicals. Afterward, perform multiplication and division from left to right and finally addition and subtraction from left to right.

Let’s take a look at the expression provided.

\[24+6 \times \dfrac{2}{3} − 4^2 \nonumber\]

There are no grouping symbols, so we move on to exponents or radicals. The number \(4\) is raised to a power of \(2\), so simplify \(4^2\) as \(16\).

\[24+6 \times \dfrac{2}{3} − 4^2 \nonumber \]

\[24+6 \times \dfrac{2}{3} − 16 \nonumber\]

Next, perform multiplication or division, left to right.

\[24+4-16 \nonumber\]

Lastly, perform addition or subtraction, left to right.

\[24+4−16 \nonumber\]

\[28−16 \nonumber\]

\[12 \nonumber\]

\[24+6 \times \dfrac{2}{3} − 4^2 =12 \nonumber\]

For some complicated expressions, several passes through the order of operations will be needed. For instance, there may be a radical expression inside parentheses that must be simplified before the parentheses are evaluated. Following the order of operations ensures that anyone simplifying the same mathematical expression will get the same result.

ORDER OF OPERATIONS

Operations in mathematical expressions must be evaluated in a systematic order, which can be simplified using the acronym PEMDAS :

  • P (arentheses)
  • E (xponents)
  • M( ultiplication) and D (ivision)
  • A (ddition) and S (ubtraction)

HOW TO: Given a mathematical expression, simplify it using the order of operations.

  • Simplify any expressions within grouping symbols.
  • Simplify any expressions containing exponents or radicals.
  • Perform any multiplication and division in order, from left to right.
  • Perform any addition and subtraction in order, from left to right.

Example \(\PageIndex{6}\): Using the Order of Operations

Use the order of operations to evaluate each of the following expressions.

  • \((3\times2)^2-4\times(6+2)\)
  • \(\dfrac{5^2-4}{7}- \sqrt{11-2}\)
  • \(6-\mid 5-8\mid +3\times(4-1)\)
  • \(\dfrac{14-3 \times2}{2 \times5-3^2}\)
  • \(7\times(5\times3)−2\times[(6−3)−4^2]+1\)
  • \(\begin{align*} (3\times2)^2-4\times(6+2)&=(6)^2-4\times(8) && \qquad \text{Simplify parentheses}\\ &=36-4\times8 && \qquad \text{Simplify exponent}\\ &=36-32 && \qquad \text{Simplify multiplication}\\ &=4 && \qquad \text{Simplify subtraction}\\ \end{align*}\)
  • \(\begin{align*} \dfrac{5^2-4}{7}- \sqrt{11-2}&= \dfrac{5^2-4}{7}-\sqrt{9} && \qquad \text{Simplify grouping symbols (radical)}\\ &=\dfrac{5^2-4}{7}-3 && \qquad \text{Simplify radical}\\ &=\dfrac{25-4}{7}-3 && \qquad \text{Simplify exponent}\\ &=\dfrac{21}{7}-3 && \qquad \text{Simplify subtraction in numerator}\\ &=3-3 && \qquad \text{Simplify division}\\ &=0 && \qquad \text{Simplify subtraction} \end{align*}\)

Note that in the first step, the radical is treated as a grouping symbol, like parentheses. Also, in the third step, the fraction bar is considered a grouping symbol so the numerator is considered to be grouped.

  • \(\begin{align*} 6-\mid 5-8\mid +3\times(4-1)&=6-|-3|+3\times3 && \qquad \text{Simplify inside grouping symbols}\\ &=6-3+3\times3 && \qquad \text{Simplify absolute value}\\ &=6-3+9 && \qquad \text{Simplify multiplication}\\ &=3+9 && \qquad \text{Simplify subtraction}\\ &=12 && \qquad \text{Simplify addition}\\ \end{align*}\)
  • \(\begin{align*} \dfrac{14-3 \times2}{2 \times5-3^2}&=\dfrac{14-3 \times2}{2 \times5-9} && \qquad \text{Simplify exponent}\\ &=\dfrac{14-6}{10-9} && \qquad \text{Simplify products}\\ &=\dfrac{8}{1} && \qquad \text{Simplify differences}\\ &=8 && \qquad \text{Simplify quotient}\\ \end{align*}\)

In this example, the fraction bar separates the numerator and denominator, which we simplify separately until the last step.

  • \(\begin{align*} 7\times(5\times3)-2\times[(6-3)-4^2]+1&=7\times(15)-2\times[(3)-4^2]+1 && \qquad \text{Simplify inside parentheses}\\ &=7\times(15)-2\times(3-16)+1 && \qquad \text{Simplify exponent}\\ &=7\times(15)-2\times(-13)+1 && \qquad \text{Subtract}\\ &=105+26+1 && \qquad \text{Multiply}\\ &=132 && \qquad \text{Add} \end{align*}\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{6}\)

  • \(\sqrt{5^2-4^2}+7\times(5-4)^2\)
  • \(1+\dfrac{7\times5-8\times4}{9-6}\)
  • \(|1.8-4.3|+0.4\times\sqrt{15+10}\)
  • \(\dfrac{1}{2}\times[5\times3^2-7^2]+\dfrac{1}{3}\times9^2\)
  • \([(3-8^2)-4]-(3-8)\)

Using Properties of Real Numbers

For some activities we perform, the order of certain operations does not matter, but the order of other operations does. For example, it does not make a difference if we put on the right shoe before the left or vice-versa. However, it does matter whether we put on shoes or socks first. The same thing is true for operations in mathematics.

Commutative Properties

The commutative property of addition states that numbers may be added in any order without affecting the sum.

\[a+b=b+a\]

We can better see this relationship when using real numbers.

\((−2)+7 = 5 \text{ and } 7+(−2)=5\)

Similarly, the commutative property of multiplication states that numbers may be multiplied in any order without affecting the product.

\[a\times b=b\times a\]

Again, consider an example with real numbers.

It is important to note that neither subtraction nor division is commutative. For example, \(17−5\) is not the same as \(5−17\). Similarly, \(20÷5≠5÷20\).

Associative Properties

The associative property of multiplication tells us that it does not matter how we group numbers when multiplying. We can move the grouping symbols to make the calculation easier, and the product remains the same.

\[a(bc)=(ab)c\]

Consider this example.

\((3\times4)\times5=60 \text{ and } 3\times(4\times5)=60\)

The associative property of addition tells us that numbers may be grouped differently without affecting the sum.

\[a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c\]

This property can be especially helpful when dealing with negative integers. Consider this example.

\([15+(−9)]+23=29 \text{ and } 15+[(−9)+23]=29\)

Are subtraction and division associative? Review these examples.

\[\begin{align*} 8-(3-15)\overset{?}{=}&(8-3)-15\\ 8-(-12)\overset{?}{=}&5-15\\ 20 \neq &10\\ 64\div (8\div 4)\overset{?}{=}&(64\div 8)\div 4\\ 64\div 2\overset{?}{=}&8\div 4\\ 32 \neq & 2 \end{align*}\]

As we can see, neither subtraction nor division is associative.

Distributive Property

The distributive property states that the product of a factor times a sum is the sum of the factor times each term in the sum.

\[a\times(b+c)=a\times b+a\times c\]

This property combines both addition and multiplication (and is the only property to do so). Let us consider an example.

The number four is separated by a multiplication symbol from a bracketed expression reading: twelve plus negative seven. Arrows extend from the four pointing to the twelve and negative seven separately. This expression equals four times twelve plus four times negative seven. Under this line the expression reads forty eight plus negative twenty eight. Under this line the expression reads twenty as the answer.

Note that \(4\) is outside the grouping symbols, so we distribute the \(4\) by multiplying it by \(12\), multiplying it by \(–7\), and adding the products.

Example \(\PageIndex{7}\)

To be more precise when describing this property, we say that multiplication distributes over addition. The reverse is not true, as we can see in this example.

\[\begin{align*} 6+(3\times5)\overset{?}{=}&(6+3)\times(6\times5)\\ 6+(15)\overset{?}{=}&(9)\times(11)\\ 21 \neq &99 \end{align*}\]

Multiplication does not distribute over subtraction, and division distributes over neither addition nor subtraction.

A special case of the distributive property occurs when a sum of terms is subtracted.

\[a−b=a+(−b)\]

For example, consider the difference \(12−(5+3)\). We can rewrite the difference of the two terms \(12\) and \((5+3)\) by turning the subtraction expression into addition of the opposite. So instead of subtracting \( (5+3)\), we add the opposite.

Now, distribute \(-1\) and simplify the result.

\[\begin{align*} 12-(5+3)&=12+(-1)\times(5+3)\\ &=12+[(-1)\times5+(-1)\times3]\\ &=12+(-8)\\ &=4 \end{align*}\]

This seems like a lot of trouble for a simple sum, but it illustrates a powerful result that will be useful once we introduce algebraic terms. To subtract a sum of terms, change the sign of each term and add the results. With this in mind, we can rewrite the last example.

\[\begin{align*} 12-(5+3)&=12+(-5-3)\\ &=12-8\\ &=4 \end{align*}\]

Identity Properties

The identity property of addition states that there is a unique number, called the additive identity \((0)\) that, when added to a number, results in the original number.

The identity property of multiplication states that there is a unique number, called the multiplicative identity \((1)\) that, when multiplied by a number, results in the original number.

\[a\times 1=a\]

For example, we have \( (−6)+0=−6\) and \( 23\times1=23\). There are no exceptions for these properties; they work for every real number, including \(0\) and \(1\).

Inverse Properties

The inverse property of addition states that, for every real number a, there is a unique number, called the additive inverse (or opposite), denoted \(−a\), that, when added to the original number, results in the additive identity, \(0\).

\[a+(−a)=0\]

For example, if \(a =−8\), the additive inverse is \(8\), since \((−8)+8=0\).

The inverse property of multiplication holds for all real numbers except \(0\) because the reciprocal of \(0\) is not defined. The property states that, for every real number \(a\), there is a unique number, called the multiplicative inverse (or reciprocal), denoted \(1a\), that, when multiplied by the original number, results in the multiplicative identity, \(1\).

\[a\times \dfrac{1}{a}=1\]

For example, if \(a =−\dfrac{2}{3}\), the reciprocal, denoted \(\dfrac{1}{a}\), is \(-\dfrac{3}{2}\) because

\[a⋅\dfrac{1}{a}=\left(−\dfrac{2}{3}\right)\times\left(−\dfrac{3}{2}\right)=1 \nonumber\]

PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS

The following properties hold for real numbers \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\).

Example \(\PageIndex{8}\): Using Properties of Real Numbers

Use the properties of real numbers to rewrite and simplify each expression. State which properties apply.

  • \(3\times 6+3\times 4\)
  • \((5+8)+(−8)\)
  • \(6−(15+9)\)
  • \(\dfrac{4}{7}\times\left(\dfrac{2}{3}\times \dfrac{7}{4}\right)\)
  • \(100\times[0.75+(−2.38)]\)
  • \(\begin{align*} 3\times6+3\times4&=3\times(6+4) & & \text{Distributive property}\\ &=3\times10 & & \text{Simplify}\\ &=30 & & \text{Simplify}\\ \end{align*}\)
  • \(\begin{align*} (5+8)+(-8)&=5+[8+(-8)] & &  \text{Associative property of addition}\\ &=5+0 & &  \text{Inverse property of addition}\\ &=5 & &  \text{Identity property of addition}\\ \end{align*}\)
  • \(\begin{align*} 6-(15+9)&=6+[(-15)+(-9)] & &  \text{Distributive property}\\ &=6+(-24) & &  \text{Simplify}\\ &=-18 & &  \text{Simplify}\\ \end{align*}\)
  • \(\begin{align*} \dfrac{4}{7}\times\left(\dfrac{2}{3}\times\dfrac{7}{4}\right)&=\dfrac{4}{7}\times\left(\dfrac{7}{4}\times\dfrac{2}{3}\right) & &  \text{Commutative property of multiplication}\\ &=\left(\dfrac{4}{7}\times\dfrac{7}{4}\right)\times\dfrac{2}{3} & &  \text{Associative property of multiplication}\\ &=1\times\dfrac{2}{3} & &  \text{Inverse property of multiplication}\\ &=\dfrac{2}{3} & &  \text{Identity property of multiplication}\\ \end{align*}\)
  • \(\begin{align*} 100\times[0.75+(-2.38)]&=100\times0.75+100\times(-2.38) & &  \text{Distributive property}\\ &=75+(-238) & &  \text{Simplify}\\ &=-163 & &  \text{Simplify} \end{align*}\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{7}\)

  • \(\left(-\dfrac{23}{5}\right)\times\left[11\times\left(-\dfrac{5}{23}\right)\right]\)
  • \(5\times(6.2+0.4)\)
  • \(18-(7-15)\)
  • \(\dfrac{17}{18}+\left[\dfrac{4}{9}+\left(-\dfrac{17}{18}\right)\right]\)
  • \(6\times(-3)+6\times3\)
  • \(11\), commutative property of multiplication
  • \(33\), distributive property
  • \(26\), distributive property
  • \(\dfrac{4}{9}\) ,  commutative property of addition, associative property of addition, inverse property of addition, identity property of addition
  • \(0\),  distributive property, inverse property of addition, identity property of addition

Evaluating Algebraic Expressions

So far, the mathematical expressions we have seen have involved real numbers only. In mathematics, we may see expressions such as \(x +5\), \(\dfrac{4}{3}\pi r^3\), or \(\sqrt{2m^3 n^2}\). In the expression \(x +5\), \(5\) is called a constant because it does not vary and \(x\) is called a variable because it does. (In naming the variable, ignore any exponents or radicals containing the variable.) An algebraic expression is a collection of constants and variables joined together by the algebraic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

We have already seen some real number examples of exponential notation, a shorthand method of writing products of the same factor. When variables are used, the constants and variables are treated the same way.

\[\begin{align*} (-3)^5 &=(-3)\times(-3)\times(-3)\times(-3)\times(-3)\Rightarrow x^5=x\times x\times x\times x\times x\\ (2\times7)^3&=(2\times7)\times(2\times7)\times(2\times7)\qquad \; \; \Rightarrow (yz)^3=(yz)\times(yz)\times(yz) \end{align*}\]

In each case, the exponent tells us how many factors of the base to use, whether the base consists of constants or variables.

Any variable in an algebraic expression may take on or be assigned different values. When that happens, the value of the algebraic expression changes. To evaluate an algebraic expression means to determine the value of the expression for a given value of each variable in the expression. Replace each variable in the expression with the given value, then simplify the resulting expression using the order of operations. If the algebraic expression contains more than one variable, replace each variable with its assigned value and simplify the expression as before.

Example \(\PageIndex{9}\): Describing Algebraic Expressions

List the constants and variables for each algebraic expression.

  • \(\dfrac{4}{3}\pi r^3\)
  • \(\sqrt{2m^3 n^2}\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{8}\)

  • \(2(L + W)\)

Example \(\PageIndex{10}\): Evaluating an Algebraic Expression at Different Values

Evaluate the expression \(2x−7\) for each value for \(x\).

  • \(x=−4\)
  • Substitute \(0\) for \(x\). \[\begin{align*} 2x-7 &= 2(0)-7 \\ &= 0-7\\ &= -7\\ \end{align*}\]
  • Substitute \(1\) for \(x\). \[\begin{align*} 2x-7 &= 2(1)-7 \\ &= 2-7\\ &= -5\\ \end{align*}\]
  • Substitute \(\dfrac{1}{2}\) for \(x\). \[\begin{align*} 2x-7 &= 2\left (\dfrac{1}{2} \right )-7 \\ &= 1-7\\ &= -6\\ \end{align*}\]
  • Substitute \(-4\) for \(x\). \[\begin{align*} 2x-7 &= 2(-4)-7 \\ &= -8-7\\ &= -15\\ \end{align*}\]

Exercise \(\PageIndex{9}\)

Evaluate the expression \(11−3y\) for each value for \(y\).

  • \(y=\dfrac{2}{3}\)
  • \(y=−5\)

Example \(\PageIndex{11}\): Evaluating Algebraic Expressions

Evaluate each expression for the given values.

  • ​\(x+5\) for \(x=-5\)
  • \(\dfrac{t}{2t-1}\) for \(t=10\)
  • \(\dfrac{4}{3}\pi r^3\) for \(r=5\)
  • \(a+ab+b\) for \(a=11\), \(b=-8\)
  • \(\sqrt{2m^3 n^2}\) for \(m=2\), \(n=3\)
  • Substitute \(-5\) for \(x\). \[\begin{align*} x+5 &= (-5)+5 \\ &= 0\\ \end{align*}\]
  • Substitute \(10\) for \(t\). \[\begin{align*} \dfrac{t}{2t-1} &= \dfrac{(10)}{2(10)-1} \\ &= \dfrac{10}{20-1}\\ &= \dfrac{10}{19}\\ \end{align*}\]
  • Substitute \(5\) for \(r\) . \[\begin{align*} \dfrac{4}{3} \pi r^3 &= \dfrac{4}{3}\pi (5)^3 \\ &= \dfrac{4}{3}\pi (125)\\ &= \dfrac{500}{3}\pi\\ \end{align*}\]
  • Substitute \(11\) for \(a\) and \(-8\) for \(b\) . \[\begin{align*} a+ab+b &= (11)+(11)(-8)+(-8) \\ &= 11-88-8 \\ &= -85\\ \end{align*}\]
  • Substitute \(2\) for \(m\) and \(3\) for \(n\). \[\begin{align*} \sqrt{2m^3 n^2} &= \sqrt{2(2)^3 (3)^2} \\ &= \sqrt{2(8)(9)} \\ &= \sqrt{144} \\ &= 12 \end{align*}\]

Exercise \(\PageIndex{10}\)

  • \(\dfrac{y+3}{y-3}\) for \(y=5\)
  • \(7-2t\) for \(t=-2\)
  • \(\dfrac{1}{3}\pi r^2\) for \(r=11\)
  • \((p^2 q)^3\) for \(p=-2\), \(q=3\)
  • \(4(m-n)-5(n-m)\) for \(m=\dfrac{2}{3}\) \(n=\dfrac{1}{3}\)
  • \(\dfrac{121}{3}\pi\)

An equation is a mathematical statement indicating that two expressions are equal. The expressions can be numerical or algebraic. The equation is not inherently true or false, but only a proposition. The values that make the equation true, the solutions, are found using the properties of real numbers and other results. For example, the equation \(2x +1= 7\) has the unique solution of \(3\) because when we substitute \(3\) for \(x\) in the equation, we obtain the true statement \(2(3)+1=7\).

A formula is an equation expressing a relationship between constant and variable quantities. Very often, the equation is a means of finding the value of one quantity (often a single variable) in terms of another or other quantities. One of the most common examples is the formula for finding the area \(A\) of a circle in terms of the radius \(r\) of the circle: \( A= \pi r^2\). For any value of \(r\), the area \(A\) can be found by evaluating the expression \(\pi r^2\).

Example \(\PageIndex{12}\): Using a Formula

A right circular cylinder with radius \(r\) and height \(h\) has the surface area \(S\) (in square units) given by the formula \(S=2\pi r(r+h)\). See Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\). Find the surface area of a cylinder with radius \(6\) in. and height \(9\) in. Leave the answer in terms of \(\pi\).

Fig 1.2.3.png

Evaluate the expression \(2\pi r(r+h)\) for \(r=6\) and \(h=9\).

\[\begin{align*} S &= 2\pi r(r+h) \\ &= 2\pi (6)[(6)+(9)] \\ &= 2\pi(6)(15) \\ &= 180\pi \end{align*}\]

The surface area is \(180\pi\) square inches.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{11}\)

A photograph with length \(L\) and width \(W\) is placed in a matte of width \(8\) centimeters (cm). The area of the matte (in square centimeters, or \(cm^2\) is found to be \(A=(L+16)(W+16) - L\)⋅W .See Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\). Find the area of a matte for a photograph with length \(32\)cm and width \(24\)cm.

fig 1.2.4.png

\(1152cm^2\)

Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

Sometimes we can simplify an algebraic expression to make it easier to evaluate or to use in some other way. To do so, we use the properties of real numbers. We can use the same properties in formulas because they contain algebraic expressions.

Example \(\PageIndex{13}\): Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

Simplify each algebraic expression.

  • \(3x-2y+x-3y-7\)
  • \(2r-5(3-r)+4\)
  • \(\left(4t-\dfrac{5}{4}s\right)-\left(\dfrac{2}{3}t+2s\right)\)
  • \(2mn-5m+3mn+n\)
  • \[\begin{align*} 3x-2y+x-3y-7&=3x+x-2y-3y-7 && \qquad \text{Commutative property of addition}\\ &=4x-5y-7 && \qquad \text{Simplify}\\ \end{align*}\]
  • \[\begin{align*} 2r-5(3-r)+4&=2r-15+5r+4 && \qquad \qquad \qquad \text {Distributive property}\\ &=2r+5y-15+4 && \qquad \qquad \qquad \text{Commutative property of addition}\\ &=7r-11 && \qquad \qquad \qquad \text{Simplify}\\ \end{align*}\]
  • \[\begin{align*} \left(4t-\dfrac{5}{4}s\right)-\left(\dfrac{2}{3}t+2s\right)&=4t-\dfrac{5}{4}s-\dfrac{2}{3}t-2s && \qquad \text{Distributive property}\\ &=4t-\dfrac{2}{3}t-\dfrac{5}{4}s-2s && \qquad \text{Commutative property of addition}\\ &=\dfrac{10}{3}t-\dfrac{13}{4}s && \qquad \text{Simplify}\\ \end{align*}\]
  • \[\begin{align*} 2mn-5m+3mn+n&=2mn+3mn-5m+n && \qquad \text{Commutative property of addition}\\ &=5mn-5m+n && \qquad \text{Simplify}\\ \end{align*}\]

Exercise \(\PageIndex{12}\)

  • \(\dfrac{2}{3}y−2\left(\dfrac{4}{3}y+z\right)\)
  • \(\dfrac{5}{t}−2−\dfrac{3}{t}+1\)
  • \(4p(q−1)+q(1−p)\)
  • \(9r−(s+2r)+(6−s)\)
  • \(−2y−2z\) or \(−2(y+z)\)
  • \(\dfrac{2}{t}−1\)
  • \(3pq−4p+q\)
  • \(7r−2s+6\)

Example \(\PageIndex{14}\): Simplifying a Formula

A rectangle with length \(L\) and width \(W\) has a perimeter \(P\) given by \(P =L+W+L+W\). Simplify this expression.

\[\begin{align*} P &=L+W+L+W\\ P &=L+L+W+W && \qquad \text{Commutative property of addition}\\ P &=2L+2W && \qquad \text{Simplify}\\ P &=2(L+W) && \qquad \text{Distributive property} \end{align*}\]

Exercise \(\PageIndex{13}\)

If the amount \(P\) is deposited into an account paying simple interest \(r\) for time \(t\), the total value of the deposit \(A\) is given by \(A =P+Prt\). Simplify the expression. (This formula will be explored in more detail later in the course.)

\(A=P(1+rt)\)

Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with real numbers.

  • Simplify an Expression
  • Evaluate an Expression1
  • Evaluate an Expression2

Key Concepts

  • Rational numbers may be written as fractions or terminating or repeating decimals. See Example and Example .
  • Determine whether a number is rational or irrational by writing it as a decimal. See Example .
  • The rational numbers and irrational numbers make up the set of real numbers. See Example . A number can be classified as natural, whole, integer, rational, or irrational. See Example .
  • The order of operations is used to evaluate expressions. See Example .
  • The real numbers under the operations of addition and multiplication obey basic rules, known as the properties of real numbers. These are the commutative properties, the associative properties, the distributive property, the identity properties, and the inverse properties. See Example .
  • Algebraic expressions are composed of constants and variables that are combined using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. See Example . They take on a numerical value when evaluated by replacing variables with constants. See Example , Example , and Example
  • Formulas are equations in which one quantity is represented in terms of other quantities. They may be simplified or evaluated as any mathematical expression. See Example and Example .

Applying the Quadratic Formula (Part 1)

Select all  the equations that have 2 solutions.

\((x + 3)^2 = 9\)

\((x - 5)^2 = \text- 5\)

\((x + 2)^2-6 = 0\)

\((x - 9)^2+25 = 0\)

\((x + 10)^2 = 1\)

\((x - 8)^2 = 0\)

\(5=(x+1)(x+1)\)

For access, consult one of our IM Certified Partners .

A frog jumps in the air. The height, in inches, of the frog is modeled by the function \(h(t) = 60t-75t^2\) , where \(t\) is the time after it jumped, measured in seconds.

Solve  \(60t - 75t^2 = 0\) . What do the solutions tell us about the jumping frog?

A tennis ball is hit straight up in the air, and its height, in feet above the ground, is modeled by the equation \(f(t) = 4 + 12t - 16t^2\) , where \(t\) is measured in seconds since the ball was thrown.

  • Find the solutions to the equation \(0 = 4 + 12t - 16t^2\) .
  • What do the solutions tell us about the tennis ball?

Rewrite each quadratic expression in standard form.

  • \((x+1)(7x+2)\)
  • \((8x+1)(x-5)\)
  • \((2x+1)(2x-1)\)
  • \((4+x)(3x-2)\)

Find the missing expression in parentheses so that each pair of quadratic expressions is equivalent. Show that your expression meets this requirement.

  • \((4x-1)(\underline{\hspace{1in}})\) and \(16x^2 -8x +1\)
  • \((9x + 2)(\underline{\hspace{1in}})\)  and  \(9x^2 -16x -4\)
  • \((\underline{\hspace{1in}})(\text-x + 5)\)  and  \(\text-7x^2 +36x-5\)

The number of downloads of a song during a week is a function, \(f\) , of the number of weeks, \(w\) , since the song was released. The equation  \(f(w) = 100,\!000 \boldcdot \left(\frac{9}{10}\right)^w\)  defines this function.

  • What does the number 100,000 tell you about the downloads? What about the  \(\frac{9}{10}\) ?
  • Is \(f(\text-1)\) meaningful in this situation? Explain your reasoning.

Consider the equation \(4x^2 - 4x -15 = 0\) .

  • Identify the values of \(a\) , \(b\) , and \(c\) that you would substitute into the quadratic formula to solve the equation.

Evaluate each expression using the values of \(a\) , \(b\) , and \(c\) .

​​​​ \(\text- b\)

​​​​​ \(b^2 - 4ac\)

\(\sqrt{b^2 - 4ac}\)

\(\text- b \pm \sqrt{b^2 - 4ac}\)

\(\dfrac{\text- b \pm \sqrt{b^2 - 4ac}}{2a}\)

  • The solutions to the equation are  \(x=\text-\frac 32\) and \(x=\frac52\) . Do these match the values of the last expression you evaluated in the previous question?
  • Describe the graph of \(y=\text-x^2\) . (Does it open upward or downward? Where is its \(y\) -intercept? What about its \(x\) -intercepts?)

Without graphing, describe how adding \(16x\) to \(\text-x^2\) would change each feature of the graph of \(y = \text-x^2\) . (If you get stuck, consider writing the expression in factored form.)

  • the \(x\) -intercepts
  • the \(y\) -intercept
  • the direction of opening of the U-shape graph

CPM Homework Banner

Home > CCA > Chapter 7 > Lesson 7.1.1

Lesson 7.1.1, lesson 7.1.2, lesson 7.1.3, lesson 7.1.4, lesson 7.1.5, lesson 7.1.6, lesson 7.2.1, lesson 7.2.2, lesson 7.2.3.

© 2022 CPM Educational Program. All rights reserved.

IMAGES

  1. Algebra Basics (Algebra 1 Curriculum

    unit 1 algebra basics homework 7 answer key

  2. Solved Name: Unit 1: Algebra Basics Bell: Homework 4: Order

    unit 1 algebra basics homework 7 answer key

  3. Solved Name: Unit 1: Algebra Basics Date: हप्र Bell:

    unit 1 algebra basics homework 7 answer key

  4. Unit 7 Homework 5 Answer Key

    unit 1 algebra basics homework 7 answer key

  5. Multi-Step Equations and Inequalities (Algebra 1

    unit 1 algebra basics homework 7 answer key

  6. Algebra 1 Unit 1 Study Guide Answer Key

    unit 1 algebra basics homework 7 answer key

VIDEO

  1. NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Maths Chapter 1 Exercise 1.1

  2. Mathematics Book 1(D1)

  3. № 751- Алгебра 7 класс Макарычев

  4. № 1

  5. Integer Ex 1.1 Chapter- 1 || Class 7th Maths

  6. D1 Math Exercise 7A Updated 7th edition

COMMENTS

  1. Algebra 1 Common Core

    Find step-by-step solutions and answers to Algebra 1 Common Core - 9780133185485, as well as thousands of textbooks so you can move forward with confidence. ... Section 1-7: The Distributive Property. Section 1-8: An Introduction to Equations. Section 1-9: Patterns, Equations, and Graphs. Page 68: Chapter Review. Page 73: Chapter Test. Page 74 ...

  2. PDF ALGEBRA 1 Unit 7

    Step I: Check fora GCF Step 2: Check for one of the following patterns and factor If possible: Difference of Squares an —b2 "Basic" Trinomial + by + C) 'Slip and Slide" Trinomial bx+ c Four Terms (use groupirwÄl Step 3: Check see if something factors AGAIN Directions: Factor each polynomial completely. 30 3 5. 7.

  3. Unit 1 Test Study Guide

    Unit One: Algebra Basics Test Study Guide. Teacher 29 terms. Christy_Richardson14. Preview. Algebra 2 Properties Vocab. 11 terms. Olivia_Lam40. Preview. Statements About Prime Numbers. Teacher 16 terms. Cujo25. ... Answer : 14. Review Evaluating Expressions! Review Simplifying and Translating Expressions.

  4. Algebra 1

    The Algebra 1 course, often taught in the 9th grade, covers Linear equations, inequalities, functions, and graphs; Systems of equations and inequalities; Extension of the concept of a function; Exponential models; and Quadratic equations, functions, and graphs. Khan Academy's Algebra 1 course is built to deliver a comprehensive, illuminating, engaging, and Common Core aligned experience!

  5. Unit 1 Review

    UNIT 1 REVIEW: Algebra Basics. Need a tutor? Click this link and get your first session free! Review . chapter_1_review.pdf: File Size: 174 kb: File Type: pdf: Download File. Corrective Assignment. a1_unit_1_ca.pdf: File Size: 105 kb: File Type: pdf: Download File. a1_unit_1_ca_solutions.pdf: File Size:

  6. Algebra Basics (Algebra 1 Curriculum

    Products. $200.00 $277.45 Save $77.45. View Bundle. Algebra 1 First Semester - Notes, Homework, Quizzes, Tests Bundle. Algebra 1 (First Semester) - Notes, Homework, Quizzes, TestsThis bundle contains the following units:• Algebra Basics• Multi-Step Equations & Inequalities• Relations & Functions• Linear Equations• Direct and Inverse ...

  7. PDF Name: Unit 1: Algebra Basics Homework 1: The Real Numbers

    Name: _____ Unit 1: Algebra Basics Date: _____ ____ Homework 1: The Real Numbers Directions: Name all sets of numbers to which each real number belongs. 1. 12 2.-15 3. 2 1 1 4.3.18 5. 48 6. 9.3 7. 9 7 −2 8. 25 9. 3 10.− 64 11.− 12 12. 4 8 Directions: Place the LETTER of each value in its location in the real number system below.

  8. Solved Name: Unit 1: Algebra Basics Date: हप्र Bell ...

    Our expert help has broken down your problem into an easy-to-learn solution you can count on. Question: Name: Unit 1: Algebra Basics Date: हप्र Bell: Homework 4: Order of Operations Directions: Evaluate each expression using the order of operations. 1. 17-5-4+2 2. 40-32+8 +5-2 3.35- 14 +2+8 4. (4-7) -6-7+ 20 92 -13 5. 218- (5+3')+7] 6 ...

  9. Illustrative Mathematics Algebra 1, Unit 7

    Alg1.7 Quadratic Equations. In this unit, students interpret, write, and solve quadratic equations. They learn that writing and solving quadratic equations is a way to precisely describe and answer questions about quadratic functions. It is especially useful for finding input values that produce certain outputs.

  10. Answer Key Chapter 1

    For example, 4x2 and −9y2 don't have a common factor, but the whole polynomial is still factorable: 4x2−9y2 = (2x + 3y)(2x−3y). 3. Divide the x term into the sum of two terms, factor each portion of the expression separately, and then factor out the GCF of the entire expression. 5. 7m. 7.

  11. Polynomials and Factoring (Algebra 1 Curriculum

    Algebra 1 Curriculum (with Activities) More Algebra 1 Units: Unit 1 - Algebra Basics. Unit 2 - Multi-Step Equations & Inequalities. Unit 3 - Relations & Functions. Unit 4 - Linear Equations. Direct & Inverse Variation (Mini-Unit) Unit 5 - Systems of Equations & Inequalities. Unit 6 - Exponents and Exponential Functions. Unit 8 ...

  12. 1.1: Real Numbers

    Evaluating Algebraic Expressions. So far, the mathematical expressions we have seen have involved real numbers only. In mathematics, we may see expressions such as x + 5, 4 3πr3, or √2m3n2. In the expression x + 5, 5 is called a constant because it does not vary and x is called a variable because it does.

  13. Illustrative Mathematics Algebra 1, Unit 7.17 Practice

    Problem 7. Consider the equation . Identify the values of , , and that you would substitute into the quadratic formula to solve the equation. Evaluate each expression using the values of , , and . The solutions to the equation are and .

  14. CPM Homework Help : CCA Lesson 7.1.1

    CPM Education Program proudly works to offer more and better math education to more students.

  15. Solved Name: Unit 1: Algebra Basics Bell: Homework 4: Order

    Algebra questions and answers; Name: Unit 1: Algebra Basics Bell: Homework 4: Order of Operations Date: Directions: Evaluate each expression using the order of operation 2. 40-32-8.5.-2 1. 17-5.4.2 3. 35-14 +2 +8 4. (4-7) -6.7420 5. 2[18-(5+3)+7) 6.[(-5+1).21-1-71 7.1+(-2-5)+(14-17). 4 R 6(2+4)-1 2-3+1 2+8+3 4+3 10. 17.5-3.5 32 +1 11. 13+ 7 + 7 ...

  16. Unit 1

    Unit 1 - The Building Blocks of Algebra. This unit revolves around the concept of equivalency. Within this larger framework, we review and develop the real number properties and use them to justify equivalency amongst algebraic expressions. Students get work in mindful manipulation of algebraic expressions and actively seek structure within ...

  17. Unit 7

    These lessons introduce polynomials as analogous to the integers and multiple parallel are drawn to the integers throughout the unit. Fluency skills are emphasized throughout the unit. These skills include adding, multiplying, and factoring polynomials. Applications problems are given in terms of primarily area models.

  18. Unit 1 : Algebra basics Homework 1: the real numbers

    For example, numbers like -2, 1/2, 3.4, √2 (approx. 1.4142), (approx. 3.14159), are all real numbers. They form a fundamental concept in mathematics, particularly in Algebra. Understanding real numbers is crucial, as they are used in nearly every part of mathematics. They serve as the foundational building blocks for further mathematical ...

  19. Algebra 1: Homework Practice Workbook

    Our resource for Algebra 1: Homework Practice Workbook includes answers to chapter exercises, as well as detailed information to walk you through the process step by step. With Expert Solutions for thousands of practice problems, you can take the guesswork out of studying and move forward with confidence. Find step-by-step solutions and answers ...