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The Elements Of Job Satisfaction

Definition and factors of job satisfaction, literature review on job satisfaction essay.


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Critical Analysis of Job Satisfaction in Generation X

The influence of job satisfaction and leadership behavior on employee engagement, a study on impact of organizational factors on job satisfaction among doctors of teaching hospitals.


Job Satisfaction as a Conflict Trigger Between Staff and Officer in a Local Bank

Review of research: aspects of job satisfaction in the uae, effect of leadership style and work environment on job satisfaction of teachers, job satisfaction in mcdonald’s and its relationship with personality, job satisfaction and motivation: factors and effects, impact of spirituality on job satisfaction, employee motivation & job satisfaction, the meaning of job satisfaction and its factors, factors affecting job satisfaction of nurses, impact of educational attainment on job satisfaction, the issue of nurse burnout: reasons and effects, critical review of the article 'workspace satisfaction: the privacy-communication trade-off in open-plan offices', impact of emotional intelligence dimensions on employee performance, analyzing the organizational behaviors model of intel (m) corporation.

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Job Satisfaction: Values, Rewards and Work Conditions Essay

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In their article “Values, Rewards, and Work Conditions as Factors in Job Satisfaction among Men and Women” published in 1987 in The Sociological Quarterly, Janet L. Bokemeier, and William B. Lacy address the issue of increasing the staff’s performance quality by considering the factors that allow increasing the employees’ engagement rates. According to the authors, job satisfaction is a crucial characteristic that must not be overlooked by an organization, and that can be affected by a variety of factors from an occupational status to financial incentives.

The authors used the model suggested by Kalleberg, Griffin, and Loscocco to prove that both the objective nature of the positions that employees take and the subjective interpretations of the staff’s workplace responsibilities constitute the job satisfaction levels (Bokemeier and Lacy 190). Using the theoretical model of satisfaction suggested by Kalleberg et al., Bokemeier and Lacy have singled out four crucial factors that define the satisfaction levels among employees, i.e., rewards, organizational values, workplace conditions, and attitudes of the staff (Bokemeier and Lacy 191).

According to the research outcomes, there are minor dynamics between the positive changes in the financial situation and the engagement levels of the staff. The connection between the job value and the engagement levels, in turn, is more complex. Workplace conditions, reasonably enough, also determine the satisfaction rates to a considerable degree. Particularly, the levels of autonomy shape the degree of satisfaction considerably. As far as the individual attitudes are concerned, the differences in the perception of the social significance of work in men and women define their satisfaction levels extensively (Bokemeier and Lacy 200).The connection between job satisfaction and psychological functioning has been confirmed, as well.

Job satisfaction and the levels of motivation have been viewed as essential constituents of the staff’s performance for a good reason. There is no need to stress the fact that, when experiencing satisfaction from accomplishing a particular professional goal, people are likely to deliver better performance. Bokemeier and Lacy’s research raises a range of questions associated with how individual differences and external factors may affect satisfaction levels. The idea that job values shape the staff’s perception of their position and, therefore, their satisfaction levels can be viewed as dubious, though. The reasons for the controversy around the concept include the fact that job value may stem from the employees’ acceptance of the corporate philosophy, as well as their personal perception of the job.

Thus, the ambiguity that surrounds the concept may require a more extensive analysis of what constitutes job value and how it is determined by the staff and the organization. The concept of the previous experiences defining the staff’s current perception of their jobs triggers a range of important questions that employers need to address in order to enhance performance levels in the company is quite peculiar. On the one hand, it may imply that previous experiences may create the platform for future professional growth and, thus, contribute to the development of lifelong learning skills as the basis for consistent improvement. On the other hand, the idea that previous experiences are essential for meeting the current responsibilities may imply that staff members are limited

in their choice of strategies and responses to a particular situation. Therefore, a further study of the subject matter is necessary to determine the opportunities for professional growth.

Bokemeier, Janet L. and William B. Lacy. “Job Values, Rewards, and Work Conditions as Factors in Job Satisfaction among Men and Women.” The Sociological Quarterly , vol. 28, no. 2 (1987), pp. 189-204.

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IvyPanda. (2020, September 9). Job Satisfaction: Values, Rewards and Work Conditions.

"Job Satisfaction: Values, Rewards and Work Conditions." IvyPanda , 9 Sept. 2020,

IvyPanda . (2020) 'Job Satisfaction: Values, Rewards and Work Conditions'. 9 September.

IvyPanda . 2020. "Job Satisfaction: Values, Rewards and Work Conditions." September 9, 2020.

1. IvyPanda . "Job Satisfaction: Values, Rewards and Work Conditions." September 9, 2020.


IvyPanda . "Job Satisfaction: Values, Rewards and Work Conditions." September 9, 2020.

Employee Job Satisfaction and Its Facets

Introduction, organizational culture role in job satisfaction, employee commitment and job satisfaction, job satisfaction – a theoretical perspective and survey outcomes, job satisfaction and employee performance, employee performance and internal motives.

Employees play an integral role in the success of organizations. Organizational goals and objectives are achieved through the collaborative effort of employees. Road to organizational success is followed by the achievement level importance and effort put in by employees. In consideration of employee abilities, work is scattered over departments in order to maximize productivity and employee efficiency.

Effectiveness of organizational work procedure and policy structure is not the only impact on the goal’s achievement. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors also play a key role that is most closely related to the person performing the activity or series of activities heading towards the accomplishment of tasks (McNamara, 2008). These factors are characterized as the partial interrelated factors in association with the organizational culture and policy framework. Organization management needs to place considerable importance on influencing the factors that affect the employee behavior and his attitude towards the job (Glen, 2008). Such factors define the attitude of employees towards their job and result in job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in case of negative attitude building by the employees.

Organizational culture behaves as a framework in defining the expectations that can be associated by employees with the respective tasks assigned to them and with their job. This enables a thought provoking stimulus to make employees more flexible with their jobs and decision outcomes. Employees actively monitor the surrounding environment in an organization that helps them build attitude and reform their behavior towards workplace. This defines the considerable importance shown by employees in order to set the job expectation and value return in the form of intangible rewards for them. However, organizational policies to some extent embargo the autonomy of employees to discipline the environment, in concern of stabilizing the workplace behavior (Phillips & Connell, 2003). Organizational culture provides an opportunity to employees to adjust their behavior and understand the flexible conduct which supports the causes for job satisfaction. Stringent culture eventually restricts the autonomy of employees that lower down the employee productivity and result in building pessimistic behavior towards the job (Spector, 1997). Therefore, creative organizational policies help to shape the workplace environment and culture positively influencing the employee’s commitment to job.

Employee commitment to a job is not based only on internal factors but several external factors also influence the employee and subsequently job satisfaction level. Survey results revealed that I am enough motivated in relation to the workload so tasks should be arranged with autonomic decision power to influence job satisfaction. Therefore, my job should be enriched with better reward for the efforts required. These remarks the factors range in various categories that include employee recognition, organizational culture, job designing, autonomy of decision, responsibility assigning and employee empowerment. These factors cumulatively help in motivating the employee and ultimately have an effect on employee commitment to job. The more an employee is committed to job; more efforts and desperate delegation towards work completion will be shown by him. This shows the job satisfaction resulting due to above specifies interrelated components of job design and structuring.

Activity arrangement and time allocated to achieve the tasks build pressure on the employee behavior which in certain cases has resulted in decreasing the employee productivity; whereas employees attitude towards their work also show convergence to job dissatisfaction (Glen, 2008). Survey findings reveal that such possible outcomes badly hit the reputation of organization in long-run. Survey conducted online shows that job designing and associated rewards strategy needs to be formalize by the organization focusing on building the employee relations and commitment with the organization. Job satisfaction is a resultant series outcome by the employees in evaluation of their work design rating and comprehensive culture function. Such pattern keeps the employee focused on their task outcome and the achievement level importance for them that is a reason for establishing employee commitment towards his word in order to enhance job satisfaction for effective achievement of objectives.

Many theorists and researchers have defined many factors for being the causes of job satisfaction and employee behavior. These factors are not only related to the workplace but also intrinsically exist in the employee as the basis for defining employee behavior towards his work. Evaluation of tasks and duties solely differ from person to person as no two persons possess similar abilities which make differentiating the intrinsic motives of employees (Jost, 2008). These motives are actually driven forces of employees behavior in addition to the external factors specified in the above text. Job design clearly helps setting standards for the refining the employee abilities in assessment of job satisfaction and workload (Bratton & Gold, 2001; McNamara, 2008). This enables employees to show their motivation and factors they evaluate to increase their motivation. My commitment level to organization in survey findings shows that motivation level inspired through job responsibilities signifies high satisfaction level. Employees focus on career growth to increase their living standards; such that it facilitate in their learning experience and transforming skill abilities. Employees are more committed to organizations where they can predict career growth incremental to the financial benefits (Janus et al., 2008). Tasks delegation by the management to the employee also defines the concern by the organization towards the person in consideration of his abilities, experience and motivation level. These three factors solidify the concept of employee commitment independently to the job satisfaction which means that motivation leads to the job satisfaction in appraisal of outcome.

Irrespective of the above specified factors employee morale may decrease subsequently resulting in job dissatisfaction if organization do not emphasize on job design restructuring from environment demand perspective and technological influence on the job (Janus et al., 2008). Therefore, it is to be understood clearly that employees focus on job enrichment and recognition on the tasks achievement. Employee rewards policy for their work also helps organization to change the employee attitude with respect to job commitment level organization is seeking in an employee for the accomplishment of organizational goals. Herzberg clearly defines these factors separately as motivators and hygiene factors; one associated with motivation level and other with job satisfaction. Herzberg pointed out that motivators to perform an activity do not always result in increasing job satisfaction; but certain other extrinsic factors outside the employee’s inner motives but supporting inner motives need result in employee’s job satisfaction (Bratton & Gold, 2001). In evaluation of my survey outcomes, it has been found out that employees focus on work spirit, their relation with co-workers, tasks responsibility, rewarding system, working environment and job designing. All factors being the external factors affect the internal motives that include employee recognition, prestige, value for efforts, need for power and affiliation and social status.

Employees focus more on activities that helps giving some tangible and intangible benefit to them either in the form of monetary rewards or skill building outcomes (Liu et al., 2008). I have evaluated from the research findings that employees consistent in performance needs to motivate him in order to increase his performance and tasks achieving abilities. Organizations gets advantage in such situations as management can reflect its purpose and objective on the employee behavior by stimulating the employee inconsistent need related to motivation factors. Such actions would require considering the abilities of the employee and assistance required by him that would act as motivator following establishment of basis for increased employee commitment to job and job satisfaction. Management can arrange team coordinated activities that would require individuals to collaboratively work on specific projects in relation to opportunity provision for new learning methods and understanding of organization culture (Jost, 2008). This will require constructive strategies to motivate employees so that in-group conflicts can be resolved without affecting the employee performance and job fulfillment. Management policies should show flexibility in accordance to the demand and workers ability so that specific tasks procedures can actively provide autonomy to employees in decision; decentralized pattern of thinking and decision setting can help overcome the tasks role for a selective person appreciation.

Management by objective is an efficient method being used by many organizations currently worldwide in order to increase employee productivity and job satisfaction. This is positively related to employee organizational commitment, motivation level and internal motives alleviation (Bratton & Gold, 2001). I have evaluated from the survey findings that when employees are involved in setting the tasks for the pre-set goals of the organizations they show more commitment to the task; their performance level increase as to their stake in the organization decision and responsibility. Therefore organization can prefer to go for management by objective strategies if focusing on giving liberation to employees in decision and autonomic unity in consistent with the organization goals. Employees emphasize more on activity carry out policies that eventually followed by collaborative effort of top management with the technical core of the organization as it synchronize the communication hassles; therefore influencing the employees to increase involvement in tasks accomplishment benefiting the objectives of organization. Pressure at work, working conditions, stress level and management communication helps formalize the work setting and expectation (Spector, 1997). Informal role of the management in consideration of informal communication for tasks setting helps the organization to communicate its activities and power delegations to the respective authorize persons. It gives the employee involvement a more recognized outlook for defining the job specification and establishing of employee expectation which ultimately represents the importance of informal communication in organization.

Employees’ performance and job satisfaction is not only influenced by the external factors but employee’s individual life also impacts their responses at workplace regarding the setting of expectations and performance level related to job satisfaction. Employees are more motivated to perform a task when they are fulfilled with the internal need for achievement (Rutherford et al., 2009). Desires to fill social and self actualization needs help an employee to be more committed to his work. Interdependent events taken place in employee’s social life also result in changing behavior and attitude towards work and job. Management needs to design jobs in such a way so that employees internal motives for achievement can show a better employee performance and more commitment to the work; whereas distress events having a substantial impact on the social life of individual do not inter-mix with the factors drive the employee motivation level and job satisfaction.

Employee’s job satisfaction is dependent on the need for achievement and employee commitment to the organization. External factors influence the motivation level of the employee which ultimately impacts the performance of an employee resulting in shaping his behavior towards the job. Job enrichment and enlargement, job design restructuring, organization culture and workplace environment actually act as motivators to derive the employee towards job satisfaction. Moreover, an employee’s nothing wrong withi independent evaluation of the task and rewards affect his attitude towards job satisfaction that formulates a reason for the effectiveness of organization policies in response to expectations for increased employee performance.

Bratton, John. Gold, Jeffrey. (2001). Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice . Edition: 2. Publisher Routledge.

Glen, Paul. (2008). Job satisfaction: It’s highly overrated . Web.

Its time. (2009). Power Map . Web.

Janus, Katharina. Baker, Laurence. C., et al. (2008). Job Satisfaction and Motivation among Physicians in Academic Medical Centers: Insights from a Cross-National Study. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. Vol. 33 , pp. 1129-1134.

Jost, J. (2008). Mind the job satisfaction gap: HR professionals underestimate intensity of employee job searches and employees fall victim to “grass is greener” syndrome. Web.

Liu, Bangcheng. Tang, Ningyu. Zhu, Xiaomei. (2008). Public service motivation and job satisfaction in China; An investigation of generalisability and instrumentality. International Journal of Manpower. Vol. 29, pp. 682-686.

McNamara, Carter. (2008). Employee task and job analysis . Web.

National Labor Relations Board. (2009). What is the National Labor Relations Act?  Web.

Phillips, Jack. J., Connell, Adele. O. (2003). Managing employee retention: a strategic accountability approach . Edition: 1. Publisher Butterworth-Heinemann.

Rutherford, Brian. Boles, James., et al. (2009). The role of the seven dimensions of job satisfaction in salesperson’s attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 62, pp. 1144-1148.

Self Assessment Library. (2009). Living in Organizations . Web.

Spector, Paul. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: application, assessment, cause, and consequences. Edition: 1. Publisher Sage Publications.

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StudyCorgi. (2021, November 1). Employee Job Satisfaction and Its Facets.

"Employee Job Satisfaction and Its Facets." StudyCorgi , 1 Nov. 2021,

StudyCorgi . (2021) 'Employee Job Satisfaction and Its Facets'. 1 November.

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Job Satisfaction

by Vince Tseng (Ballarat)

job satisfaction conclusion essay

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Home Essay Samples Business

Essay Samples on Job Satisfaction

Correlation between work happiness and job performance.

In this research, I find that people's job performance is linked with the satisfaction they get from their job. Motivation is the key element for the growth of the organization. In this report, I have done research about how individual job satisfaction can help the...

  • Job Satisfaction

Components and Factors to Raise Job Satisfaction

Job Satisfaction is one of the most researched subjects in the fields of hierarchical conduct. The most-utilized research meaning of occupation fulfillment is by Locke (1976), who characterized it as '... a pleasurable or positive enthusiastic state coming about because of the evaluation of one's...

The Key Constructs of Job Satisfaction

In today’s era of globalization, it is of utmost importance to keep the employees at work motivated and engaged in order to maintain the competitiveness of the organization and keep productivity at the optimum (Rane, 2011). Job satisfaction, job design and job attitudes are key...

The Decrease In People’s Personal Satisfaction In Great Britain

In his 2004 City Journal article, Theodore Dalrymple communicates his view on the colossal decrease in the personal satisfaction in Great Britain. He trusted that society has acknowledged the idea that individuals are not in charge of their own issues. Additionally, that it is the...

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Organizational Development And Job Satisfaction

Organizational Development is a technique used for making change in the entire aspect of the organization, rather than focusing attention on the individuals. Organizational development plays a role in improving the organization’s problem solving and renewal processes through a more effective and collaborative management of...

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Analysis Of Theories Of Job Satisfaction

Motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goal. Satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. Motivation implies a drive toward an outcome, and satisfaction is the outcome already experienced. Job satisfaction is a general attitude, which...

Best topics on Job Satisfaction

1. Correlation Between Work Happiness and Job Performance

2. Components and Factors to Raise Job Satisfaction

3. The Key Constructs of Job Satisfaction

4. The Decrease In People’s Personal Satisfaction In Great Britain

5. Organizational Development And Job Satisfaction

6. Analysis Of Theories Of Job Satisfaction

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Essay: Job satisfaction

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Job satisfaction is a critical aspect in the workplace because it tends to enhance motivation. It refers to the level to which employees like or dislike their jobs and their characteristics. Because most people spend a good percentage of their time in the workplace, it is essential to make job satisfaction a priority. The aim of this paper is to analyse the various factors that contribute to job satisfaction (Stride, Wall & Catley , 2007). Body The main factor that determines job satisfaction is the work environment. Useful work conditions tend to give employees the morale to work and contributeto a high job satisfaction. Employers need to provide a healthy work environment with minimum disruption and risks. Another factor is job security, that is, the assurance of retaining one’s job for an unforseeable future. An organization with high employee turnover tends to reduce job satisfaction for those still in the job because they are not certain if they will be there for a long time. It is important to mention the personal advancement and the compensation. Most people need a clear upward career path and appreciation for the work done. A job without promotion and recognition demotivates employees and lowers their satisfaction. Such employees will keep looking for better career options so resulting in reduced performance. The other factor is the compensation given for the work done; otherwise the staff will not be satisfied with their work (Spector, 1997). The operation of job satisfaction for all workers is unrealistic because in most cases people do not get what they want. Most workers only stick to their workplaces because they need the financial gains but in reality they do not like what they are doing. People need to balance their work and free time effectively by getting involved in activities that they enjoy doing. It will ensure that they get satisfied off work so making life more interesting. Conclusion It is true that most people spend most of their adult life working thus job satisfaction is essential, but this is not realistic . The expectations regarding job satisfaction are not fulfilled in real life so people need to create their satisfaction by balancing their work and free time. It will enhance the general satisfaction from life. Word count: 376 ””’ References Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes and consequences. Sage: Thousand Oaks, Ca. Stride, C., Wall, T. D., & Catley , N. (2007). Measures of job satisfaction, organisational commitment, mental health and job-related well-being: A bench-marking manual. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester, West Sussex.

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Sample Essay: Job Satisfaction in the Workplace


Employment forms one of the main parts of human life (Inayat, 2021). In the rapidly changing modern environment, the workforce market is characterised by increasing flexibility. As the global pandemic has shown the benefits of remote employment to millions of workers, this inevitably increases the growth of the ‘gig economy’. As many competent specialists can easily move between organisations in both offline and online environments, this decreases organisational citizenship behaviours and makes it more difficult to recruit and retain highly skilled specialists. Job satisfaction is one of the elements defining the quality of life within the scope of employment. As noted by such authors as Ahmad and Raja (2021) and Prihadini et al. (2021), it has a direct effect on loyalty and performance. As a result, satisfied workers are less interested in changing their jobs and are more productive in the workplace. With that being said, a 2022 poll by Gallup (Collins, 2022) revealed that only 33% of the surveyed employees in all parts of the world were generally displeased with their jobs. In the US context, 50% of workers felt stressed on a daily basis with up to 60% of the global workforce reporting a sense of emotional detachment from their duties. This job satisfaction recommendation essay aims to explore the concept of job satisfaction from theoretical and practitioner standpoints and offer solutions to managers on how this element can be improved.

Job Satisfaction Theories

One of the most prominent and well-known theories in the field of job satisfaction is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow, 1943). This model subdivides all employee expectations into five levels ranging from bare survival necessities to finding one’s true mission in life. According to Maslow, people generally attempt to move towards the upper levels of this hierarchy as soon as lower-order needs are satisfied. From a human resource management (HRM) standpoint, this means that employers have to provide sufficient job security, salary, workplace safety, and stability in order to satisfy the basic expectations of their workers (Maslow, 1995). However, higher levels of satisfaction are only achievable if the employees develop organisational citizenship behaviours and a sense of belonging emerging from the recognition of their achievements and their capability to fully utilise their talents, skills, and competencies.

Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

job satisfaction conclusion essay

Source: Neck et al. (2018, p.131)

Further scholars such as Alderfer (1969) reduced the number of pyramid levels and subdivided all employee needs into existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs. Moreover, they assumed that these elements were separate from each other and were not organised in the strict hierarchy suggested by Maslow (1995). As a result, different employees could set individual priorities and seek the achievement of different needs simultaneously. This changes the HRM perspective since companies have to offer a combination of tangible and intangible motivators covering all three dimensions instead of a basic offering addressing only the lowest-level expectations of their staff members.

Figure 2: Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Source: Bratton (2020, p.180)

These assumptions were further supported by such scholars as Herzberg (2017) who developed the Two-Factor theory. They came to the conclusion that employees had to observe basic ‘hygiene factors’ ensuring the satisfaction of their lower-order needs. These elements could include working conditions, salary levels, job security, management support, and other similar ones. Their absence immediately and radically decreased employee satisfaction levels. However, such benefits were offered by most companies in any developed economy with a competitive labour market and could not ensure long-term loyalty and commitment. Due to this factor, companies had to also develop unique motivators addressing the higher-order needs of their workers (Bates et al., 2019). Such elements could include the recognition of their contributions, coaching and mentorship opportunities, personal and professional growth, empowerment, meaningful job tasks, and a sense of doing something great in general. These factors helped employees overcome temporary challenges and understand why they selected this particular position in the first place.

Figure 3: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Source: Greenberg and Bianco (2019, p.45)

Finally, the equity theory by Adams (1963) and the concept of procedural fairness imply that job satisfaction in the workplace can be influenced by two additional factors. On the one hand, employees appraise their inputs in the form of effort, hard work, loyalty, and commitment with outputs in the form of financial remuneration and other tangible and intangible stimuli. The comparison of these two dimensions results in a sense of being recognised and fairly rewarded or the lack thereof. In this scenario, organisations need to ensure that every staff member understands the kinds of inputs that are expected from them and the amount of outputs proportional to expected employee behaviours (Adams, 2022). This approach ensures that every person understands their role and functions within the organisation and can help it achieve its strategic goals while also realising their own needs, which is frequently called a good person-organisation fit. On the other hand, employees see the amount of rewards obtained by their colleagues. While financial remuneration sums may be concealed in some organisations, most workers usually recognise cases where compensations are distributed unfairly (Johnson and Davey, 2019). This situation is frequent in paternalist company cultures characterised by high levels of nepotism and favouritism. In these scenarios, employees can be dissatisfied with their jobs even if they receive proper remuneration in terms of their inputs/outputs ratio. This effect is explained by a sense of unfairness leading to learnt helplessness where greater performance is not associated with proportional gains due to favouritism and nepotism.

Job Satisfaction Antecedents

While theoretical concepts are primarily based on the mechanisms of job satisfaction, they may not include all relevant factors creating it (Uhl-Bien et al., 2020). This section explores practical evidence from multiple industries to identify what antecedents are shared by successful organisations to achieve the desired outcomes in this sphere. Such authors as Lepold et al. (2018) suggested that high levels of job satisfaction were primarily achieved by such factors as empowerment, good working conditions, open-door management policies, positive inter-colleague relationships, supportive supervision, sufficient compensation and bonuses, and open communication between employees and managers. These practices ensured high levels of perceived employment stability in combination with perceived transparency and fairness. Within the scope of Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory, this list includes a combination of tangible and intangible incentives from both groups, which supports the assumptions put forth by this model (Herzberg, 2017). At the same time, it may be difficult to conceptualise the comparative importance of each factor. Large corporations frequently organise monthly reviews of job satisfaction levels based on extensive reviews. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may lack similar resources and have to rely on guesswork in selecting the optimal combination of hygiene factors and motivators.

According to Conte and Landy (2019), job satisfaction could be viewed as a complex concept including antecedents, correlates, and consequences. The first group included various job characteristics, organisational roles, group cohesion, workplace stressors, and leader-follower relationships. For example, the presence of good communication and job enrichment practices could greatly increase the levels of job satisfaction. On the contrary, role ambiguity or the lack of supervision, conflict mitigation, and team-building mechanisms could be detrimental in this aspect. The correlates group represented individual employee characteristics such as overall life satisfaction, non-work stress levels, organisational commitment or job engagement (Hee et al., 2018). These elements could be deemed as mediators and moderators affecting the correlation between antecedents and consequences. Hence, even a fine-tuned system of organisational rewards and motivation could produce different results depending on individual employee characteristics.

Figure 4: Job Satisfaction Factors

job satisfaction conclusion essay

Source: Conte and Landy (2019, p.354)

Finally, the consequences group includes a range of possible outcomes such as loyalty, absenteeism, intentions to leave or organisational citizenship behaviours (Abuhashesh et al., 2019). In this aspect, the capability of team leaders to recognise individual employee needs could help companies mitigate the adverse impact of correlates and maximise the positive impact of group-level antecedents on staff job satisfaction levels. In light of the above, such authors as Khan and Waraich (2019) and Oyewobi (2022) noted that job satisfaction could also be influenced by the styles of leadership adopted by the organisation. While autocratic and transactional approaches are still widespread in many companies, more and more successful firms are replacing them with transformational, situational or contingency ones. This process shifts the perspective from a leader’s traits, vision, and charisma to employee skills and competencies. Within the scope of longitudinal organisation development and sustainability, this approach offers a number of advantages (Zehndorfer, 2020). On the one hand, market conditions and other macro-environmental factors are changing at ever-increasing speeds. This means that sustainable competitive advantage needs to be based on transformational cultures supporting continuous change rather than one-time changes occurring every 5-10 years. Such results may be difficult to attain using traditional leadership styles. On the other hand, transformational, contingency, and situational approaches can increase staff satisfaction levels due to greater attention paid to individual employee needs and long-term goals (Neubert and Dyck, 2021). These styles utilise both tangible and intangible motivators, which increases employee loyalty and creates synergistic effects within the scope of the earlier analysed models.

Finally, the analysis of 360 organisations conducted by Aziz et al. (2020) revealed that perceived fairness in the form of equal treatment, equal promotional opportunities, fair competition, and high levels of organisational transparency were major antecedents of job satisfaction. In light of the earlier analysed theories, this confirms the assumption that remuneration size and composition do not work as isolated variables excluded from workplace cultures. If employees understand the processes and procedures associated with reward distribution, they could identify proper input behaviours ensuring higher levels of outputs. This clarity facilitated their personal and professional growth while also explaining any disparities between individual staff members (Scandura and Gower, 2019). On the contrary, the lack of such explanations and open-door managerial communication policies could lead to perceptions of unfairness and a sense of external control locus. In this scenario, job satisfaction decreased and staff members considered a change of the employer as the only way of realising their personal needs.

Conclusion and Recommendations

It can be summarised that job satisfaction in the workplace can be determined by a number of factors including perceived rewards fairness, open communication policies, transformational leadership, coaching and mentoring provision, perceived employment stability and security, and good working conditions and salary (Oyewobi, 2022). From a theoretical standpoint, they can be subdivided into multiple groups depending on their tangible and intangible nature as well as their capability to satisfy higher-order or lower-order needs. As also noted by such authors as Conte and Landy (2019), the application of specific practices can also be affected by individual employee background characteristics. For example, unsatisfied personal needs or perceived unfairness of rewards distribution may lead to turnover intentions for some workers even while others may be generally satisfied with standardised policies in this sphere (Hee et al., 2018). From a practitioner's standpoint, the capability to recognise such factors may be limited by the lack of organisational resources. Smaller firms generally lack the monitoring instruments used by large corporations, which may explain lower levels of job satisfaction and loyalty in the case of such ‘HRM myopia’.

The analysis has informed a number of practical recommendations. First, organisational policies need to ensure maximum transparency and clarity in terms of preferred employee inputs and corresponding outputs (Adams, 2022). This approach ensures that every staff member knows what actions and strategies will lead them to desired tangible and intangible rewards. As a result, organisations following this plan can enjoy higher levels of person-organisation fit. Second, a combination of hygiene factors and motivators may be preferable to the exclusive focus on one of these categories. Such concepts as Alderfer’s ERG model and Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory imply that employee members are not equal in their expectations (Bates et al., 2019). Hence, a variety of offerings satisfying both higher- and lower-level needs potentially leads to greater rates of job satisfaction across the organisation. Third, transformational, situational, and contingency leadership may be advised as the most effective management strategies ensuring employee engagement and commitment (Zehndorfer, 2020). They stimulate personal and professional development in the workplace, which helps staff members effectively deal with any emerging challenges and achieve higher levels of job satisfaction as a result.

Abuhashesh, M., Al-Dmour, R. and Masadeh, R. (2019) “Factors that affect Employees Job Satisfaction and Performance to Increase Customers’ Satisfactions”, Journal of Human Resources Management Research , 1 (1), pp. 1-23.

Adams, J. (2022) Behavioural Research for Marketing: A Practitioner's Handbook , London: Routledge.

Adams, J. (1963) “Towards an Understanding of Inequity”, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 67 (5), pp. 1-17.

Ahmad, M. and Raja, R. (2021) “Employee Job Satisfaction and Business Performance: The Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment”, Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective , 25 (2), pp. 1-25.

Alderfer, C. (1969) “An empirical test of a new theory of human needs”, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance , 4 (2), pp. 142-175.

Aziz, N., Mustafi, M. and Hosain, S. (2020) “Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction: An Exploratory Analysis among Public Bank Employees in Selected Cities of Bangladesh”, Asian Journal of Economics Business and Accounting , 1 (1), pp. 1-23.

Bates, B., Bailey, A. and Lever, D. (2019) A Quick Guide to Behaviour Management , London: SAGE.

Bratton, J. (2020) Work and Organizational Behaviour , London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Collins, L. (2022) “Job unhappiness is at a staggering all-time high, according to Gallup”, [online] Available at: [Accessed on 2 February 2023].

Conte, J. and Landy, F. (2019) Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology , Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Greenberg, J. and Bianco, J. (2019) Organization and Administration of Physical Education: Theory and Practice , Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Hee, O., Yan, L., Rizal, A., Kowang, T. and Fei, G. (2018) “Factors Influencing Employee Job Satisfaction: A Conceptual Analysis”, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 8 (6), pp. 331-340.

Herzberg, F. (2017) Motivation to Work , London: Routledge.

Inayat, W. (2021) “A Study of Job Satisfaction and Its Effect on the Performance of Employees Working in Private Sector Organizations, Peshawar”, Education Research International , 1 (1), pp. 1-13.

Johnson, J. and Davey, K. (2019) Essentials of Managing Public Health Organizations , New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Khan, M. and Waraich, U. (2019) “The Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management, and Innovation , 1 (1), pp. 1-17.

Lepold, A., Tanzer, N., Bregenzer, A. and Jimenez, P. (2018) “The efficient measurement of job satisfaction: Facet-items versus facet scales”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 15 (7), pp. 1362-1381.

Maslow, A. (1943) “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review , 50 (4), pp. 370-396.

Maslow, A. (1995) Motivation and Personality , New York: Harper.

Neck, C., Houghton, J. and Murray, E. (2018) Organizational Behavior: A Skill-Building Approach , London: SAGE.

Neubert, M. and Dyck, B. (2021) Organizational Behavior: For a Better Tomorrow , Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Oyewobi, L. (2022) “Leadership styles and employees commitment: the mediating role of job satisfaction”, Journal of Facilities Management , 1 (1), pp. 1-15.

Prihadini, D., Nurbaity, S., Rachmadi, H. and Krishantoro, T. (2021) “The Importance of Job Satisfaction to improve Employee Performance”, Technium Social Sciences Journal , 18 (1), pp. 367-377.

Scandura, T. and Gower, K. (2019) Management Today: Best Practices for the Modern Workplace , London: SAGE.

Uhl-Bien, M., Piccolo, R. and Schermerhorn, J. (2020) Organizational Behavior , Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Zehndorfer, E. (2020) Leadership: Performance Beyond Expectations , London: Routledge.

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job satisfaction conclusion essay

Job Satisfaction Essay

Job Satisfaction Essay

Photo by SnapwireSnaps from Pixabay Does employee satisfaction influence a company’s long-term value? Why? The well-being and success of any organization depends on several factors. The attitude of its employees is one of the key determinants of a company’s health. Employee attitude is solely determined by employee satisfaction in their job and place of work. A company’s long-term value is not only determined by financial measures but also non financial measures which include employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction is critical to the success of a company, (Koller, Wessels & Goedhart, 2013). To begin with, the employee satisfaction guarantees staff retention in an organization. The long-term value of a company is greatly hampered by employee turnover. Employee turnover leads to loss of skilled and professional workers. Similarly, a company incurs a lot of costs in integrating and training new employees to replace the lost ones. As a result, a company’s sustainability is eroded. However, satisfied employees are will rarely think of leaving their current work place. Thus the skills they have obtained will continuously be used to increase the value of the company. Companies with high staff retention rates often have high values as opposed to companies with significant employee turnover rates (Topolosky, 2014). Secondly, employee satisfaction cultivates loyalty and commitment among the employees. This is critical for spurring and sustaining value in a company. Satisfied employees are often committed and loyal to their work. The interests of the company are often at their heart and they will often put in their best efforts. They work with zeal and gladly in conformity with the company’s values and objects. They cooperate easily with the management and amongst themselves in a manner that enables the company meet its objectives and therefore increase the value of the company. Finally, employee satisfaction nurtures job enthusiasm among the employees. Enthusiasm at work is critical for good performance of an organization. Satisfied employees are often ready and willing to learn new methods and technologies of doing their work. Such enthusiasm is critical for the long term value of a company (Koslowski et al, 2002). In conclusion, employee satisfaction is one of the factors that greatly influence a company’s long-term value. This is because it guarantees employee retention, cultivates loyalty and commitment to work among the employees, and ensures job enthusiasm. All these factors are critical to the sustainability and growth of an organization. References Dishon-Berkovits, M., & Koslowsky, M (2002). Determinants of Employee Punctuality. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142 (6), 723-739 Topolosky, P. (2014) Linking Employee Satisfaction to Business Results. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis Wessels, D., Koller, T & Goedhart, M (2013). Valuation. Hoboken, New Jersey.: Wiley & Sons

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Job Satisfaction, Essay Example

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Should people love what they do or accept what they do?


It is logical that everyone needs a job to earn a living. Be it an office job, a manual job, or any other job; provided it can enable one satisfy his/her needs. The issue that comes in is that not all people do exactly what entails their career. Is it something they enjoy doing, or is it a career done out of oppression?  Some people are just dislocated in their job description, and they end up doing what they do simply because they have no alternative.  The question is, should people love what they do, or should they accept what they do.

The issue of job satisfaction has raised concern for so many years. Having developed an interest in the topic, I took time to study about people and their jobs. It is interesting to discover that despite the fact that some people are making millions of money from their jobs, some are still dissatisfied (Spector 58). I failed to understand the reason behind the dissatisfaction, yet every other person aims at generating an income from their jobs. It is at this point that I became interested in distinguishing between the love of what one does and the acceptance of what one does.

On checking on previous studies, research has shown that out of every 100 employees, at least 50% are dislocated. Whereas the remaining 50% sound satisfied with what they do, it is not truly convincing since some may “fear” to express their feelings. According to a survey by the research group Conference Board, only about 45 % of all Americans are fully satisfied with their work (Pan, Huang, Lee,  and Ching-Lu  55).  There are reported complaints of the work being non-interesting; the pay is less and employers do not care to keep up with inflation and healthcare expenses. This paper seeks to distinguish between loving what someone does and accepting what one does, and which of the two should one adapt.

Loving what someone does

Loving what someone does one means that one is consistent and contented with what he or she does. It does not necessarily mean that they spend 100% of their time at the work place or thinking about the work, without having time do they ever think or do other personal matters.  People who love what the y do wake up thinking about what is to happen at the workplace that particular day. The challenge of ensuring a nice gesture at that particular day is what drives their motives. People who love their job have the following characteristics:

They Seldom feel disconnected from first challenges

There obviously exist challenges that first engaged one’s interest. People who love their job will take such challenges positively.  The challenge serves as a sense of motivation throughout their career pursuance (Seung-Bum, Gregory and Moon, Byongook 360).  With the love of the job, one swerves here and there while trying to   remain connected to the initial challenge. The challenge acts as a stepping-stone, they fight their way back towards overcoming the challenge no matter how murky, and tuff things get.

They are well attuned at their early years

Research shows that people who love what they do realized their dreams and desires back in their childhood and they worked toward them.  Digging back into their history would reveal so much coherent to what they pursue in their career.  This presents a very wonderful idea of building a career right inside the brain of a child. It is a fact that we cannot change the way our brains work, and the fact that the memory is kind of a reconstruction industry (Pan, et al.  56). Lovers of their job find it easy as their job commemorates what they did during childhood, and their job is a carbon copy of their passions.

They are portfolio thinkers

Portfolio thinkers are aware that their careers combine positives and negatives. Since they love their job, they do not get too high on their positives crucial, and neither do they choke on their selves on the negatives.  They have a strategic manner that enables them navigate closer to what they want.  The love of their job enables them have ways to balance and sort out things, however impossible they may appear (Yücel 58).

They care less of what others think

While it may sound absurd, it is very true that people who genuinely love what they do never allow others to talk down on them. It is a fact that some jobs may belittle someone’s ego, but if one had a passion of doing that to earn a living, then he or she does not have time to care of what other people say or think. A very learned with a potentiality to work in an executive office could have a passion to deal with animals. The best favor that person can do to himself is go ahead and create himself an executive position in the field of dealing with animals.  The same applies to trainers, researchers, veterinarians, or those who wish to work with furry woodland creatures. The fact is that one realizes and pursues a career along his or her fanciful lines.

They are corporate and succession planners

In a corporate environment with people who love their job, there always is the corporate-speech.  Every other person is a succession planner, ready to take responsibility of all actions and activities done. They even end up deeply synced into their positions, such that they train another person to act as a “spare part” to do that job at their absenter (Žemgulien? 150).  People who love their job embrace it wholeheartedly. They share their passions with others, while hoping that they would want to do that job one day as well.

Accepting what one does

When people accept what they do, it means they have no other choice but to accept it. Otherwise, if given another chance, then they would go for it. Such persons have the following characteristics:

Job dissatisfaction

There are these types of people who believe that there is nothing much to do about job satisfaction with the existing bad economy. That is not true as there is a wide range of things to do for one to create happiness at the work (Yücel 50). It only takes one to know the important factors bringing in the dissatisfaction and working on improving those factors.

Pay dissatisfaction

Persons who accept what they do feel oppressed regarding their compensation. However, they just keep on working for the sake of earning a basic living. They feel that the employers do not care to keep up with inflation and healthcare expenses.

Poor Relationship with supervisor

People who accept what they do have a very poor relationships with their managers. They always feel that their supervisors and top management team are responsible for their oppression.

Shallow relationship with co-workers and, normally not included in surveys

These types of people spare little or no time to relate with their co-workers. They have job insecurity as whatever they may speak may end up leaking to the top management leading to their dismissal. Otherwise, they are busy thinking of how they can secure themselves some relief elsewhere.

Lower productivity

People in the acceptance mode of what they do have a shallow in return of a little compensation. There could also be others who the work unwillingly, as though they are pushed. They can only perform under supervision.  They care less if anything goes wrong for their non-performance. The issue of the company or organization running at a loss or profit is of little concern to them, as they only receive peanuts.

In analyzing the two types of persons: those who love what they do and those who accept what they do, there is a great difference. They seem as if they live in two different worlds. While others enjoy their life and their general stay in the world, others feel oppressed and they live a life of disgrace and agony. Those who accept what they do live with the hope of a better tomorrow, a tomorrow that may never come. If possible, then people should love what they do, and not accept what they do.

Works Cited

Pan, Yueh-Chiu, Huang, Pei-Wen, Lee, Jin-Chuan, Chang, and Ching-Lu. Relationships Among Job Rotation Perception and Intention, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Study of Tainan Area Nurses [Chinese]. Journal of Nursing , (2012) 59 (2): 51-60.

Seung-Bum, Brown, Gregory C. and Moon, Byongook. Factors Leading to Corrections Officers’ Job Satisfaction. Journal of Yang Public Personnel Management , Vol  40 (4) (2011). 359-69

Spector, P.E. Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes and consequences . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 2007. Print

Yücel, ?lhami. Examining the Relationships among Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Business & Management. Vol. 7 Issue 20, (2012). p44-58. 15p.

Žemgulien?, Jolanta. Management of Organizations: Systematic Research. 2012, Issue 63, p139-157. 19p.

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Job Satisfaction Conclusion Essay Example

Job Satisfaction Conclusion Essay Example

  • Pages: 4 (938 words)
  • Published: May 23, 2018
  • Type: Essay

Given that the four individuals we just read about tend to be satisfied with their jobs, how might this satisfaction relate to their job performance, citizenship behavior, and turnover? Answer * Job satisfaction of the employees is an important factor because most of the time it determines the commitment and respect of the employees towards their employer and organization. The attitudes and the behaviors of the workers would vary based on the level of job satisfaction.

For example: one with a higher level of satisfaction would be more dedicated towards his or her respective work and do it with full potential but the one with a lower level of job satisfaction would tend to be absent and would not perform as expected. Therefore job satisfaction is a crucial factor. As these four individuals are satisfied with their jobs this means

that they are happy workers, i. e. they take a great deal of interest in their work. They perform their respected work with all the dedication and enthusiasm and this is why they tend to be efficient.

As they are satisfied this means they are happy to do their work, so all their designated work that would be done would be both efficient and productive and ultimately this would lead to the overall efficiency and productivity of the organization these four individuals are working with. Organization citizenship behavior is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.

Organizations always prefer those who tends to help others while working on a team, avoid unwanted controversies, volunteer for extra work, respect the

organizational rules and regulations and other behaviors which makes the employee do more than what is expected of them. Employees would only show organizational citizenship behavior when they are satisfied with their job and surrounding. As these 4 individuals are satisfied with their work they would not only do their assigned and expected work but also work beyond the normal expectations of the organization.

These 4 individuals have grown a form of trust towards their respective organizations for various reasons. May be because their superior treat them well and fair and they receive their rightful rewards. For this, they trust their organization and are satisfied with their job. As a result they would engage themselves in additional works. For example – all of them are satisfied with their jobs and organizations thus they would do their work along with some extra work like helping colleagues in distress or take responsibilities at times of need.

Their job description does not say that they need to do these but since they are satisfied and have trust in their organization they would do this automatically. This behavior is similar to one’s behavior for the betterment of his or her country. Job satisfaction leads to an increased organizational citizenship behavior therefore the organization have employees who are willing to act in ways for the prosperity of the organization. Turnover is the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.

When someone is not happy with what they are doing they often tend to look for jobs in other places. Sometimes the organization wants employees to quit because of their poor performances. Since we know that there is a positive

relationship between job satisfaction and job performance this means that these 4 individual would do their work properly and efficiently. They would not look for jobs elsewhere and as their organizations would be happy with what they are doing their organizations would give out special benefits and rewards to retain them. . Recall David Clark’s statement that “there are plenty of people who would love to have this job. They’re knocking on the door all the time. ” How might Clark’s perceptions that he has a job many others desire, contribute to his job satisfaction? Answer * If we scrutinize David Clark’s statement then we might vividly see the main components of attitudes, i. e. cognitive component, affective component and behavioral component. Now dividing Clark’s statement with respect to the component:

Cognitive component – Clark believes that he has a job many others desire. Affective component – He is motivated as he has a jobs many others desire. Behavioral component – Since he recognizes that he has a job desired by many others he is more motivated than ever and thus works hard to do better in his aspect of the job. Clark is motivated due to others interest on his job but motivation does not necessarily mean he is happy with his work.

He might be motivated and thus he would work hard to retain his job and respect in the society but this does not tell us that because he is motivated to work he is also happy and satisfied. If we take a look at this from a different angle then we can see how this might contribute to his job satisfaction.

As mentioned earlier, Clark’s job is desired by many others; due to this Clark knows that because he is so efficient at his work he is still currently working in that position.

This makes him feel good about himself. His bottom line conclusion about his capabilities, competences and worth as a person are all positive and great. Due to his positive core self-evaluation he would be more satisfied with his work. He would not only see his work as more satisfying and stimulating, he would more likely produce more prolific results from his work. Overall, due to Clark’s positive self-evaluation he knows that he is better than others and this would add to his job satisfaction.

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40 Facts About Elektrostal

Lanette Mayes

Written by Lanette Mayes

Modified & Updated: 01 Jun 2024

Jessica Corbett

Reviewed by Jessica Corbett


Elektrostal is a vibrant city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia. With a rich history, stunning architecture, and a thriving community, Elektrostal is a city that has much to offer. Whether you are a history buff, nature enthusiast, or simply curious about different cultures, Elektrostal is sure to captivate you.

This article will provide you with 40 fascinating facts about Elektrostal, giving you a better understanding of why this city is worth exploring. From its origins as an industrial hub to its modern-day charm, we will delve into the various aspects that make Elektrostal a unique and must-visit destination.

So, join us as we uncover the hidden treasures of Elektrostal and discover what makes this city a true gem in the heart of Russia.

Key Takeaways:

  • Elektrostal, known as the “Motor City of Russia,” is a vibrant and growing city with a rich industrial history, offering diverse cultural experiences and a strong commitment to environmental sustainability.
  • With its convenient location near Moscow, Elektrostal provides a picturesque landscape, vibrant nightlife, and a range of recreational activities, making it an ideal destination for residents and visitors alike.

Known as the “Motor City of Russia.”

Elektrostal, a city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia, earned the nickname “Motor City” due to its significant involvement in the automotive industry.

Home to the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Elektrostal is renowned for its metallurgical plant, which has been producing high-quality steel and alloys since its establishment in 1916.

Boasts a rich industrial heritage.

Elektrostal has a long history of industrial development, contributing to the growth and progress of the region.

Founded in 1916.

The city of Elektrostal was founded in 1916 as a result of the construction of the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Located approximately 50 kilometers east of Moscow.

Elektrostal is situated in close proximity to the Russian capital, making it easily accessible for both residents and visitors.

Known for its vibrant cultural scene.

Elektrostal is home to several cultural institutions, including museums, theaters, and art galleries that showcase the city’s rich artistic heritage.

A popular destination for nature lovers.

Surrounded by picturesque landscapes and forests, Elektrostal offers ample opportunities for outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, and birdwatching.

Hosts the annual Elektrostal City Day celebrations.

Every year, Elektrostal organizes festive events and activities to celebrate its founding, bringing together residents and visitors in a spirit of unity and joy.

Has a population of approximately 160,000 people.

Elektrostal is home to a diverse and vibrant community of around 160,000 residents, contributing to its dynamic atmosphere.

Boasts excellent education facilities.

The city is known for its well-established educational institutions, providing quality education to students of all ages.

A center for scientific research and innovation.

Elektrostal serves as an important hub for scientific research, particularly in the fields of metallurgy , materials science, and engineering.

Surrounded by picturesque lakes.

The city is blessed with numerous beautiful lakes , offering scenic views and recreational opportunities for locals and visitors alike.

Well-connected transportation system.

Elektrostal benefits from an efficient transportation network, including highways, railways, and public transportation options, ensuring convenient travel within and beyond the city.

Famous for its traditional Russian cuisine.

Food enthusiasts can indulge in authentic Russian dishes at numerous restaurants and cafes scattered throughout Elektrostal.

Home to notable architectural landmarks.

Elektrostal boasts impressive architecture, including the Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord and the Elektrostal Palace of Culture.

Offers a wide range of recreational facilities.

Residents and visitors can enjoy various recreational activities, such as sports complexes, swimming pools, and fitness centers, enhancing the overall quality of life.

Provides a high standard of healthcare.

Elektrostal is equipped with modern medical facilities, ensuring residents have access to quality healthcare services.

Home to the Elektrostal History Museum.

The Elektrostal History Museum showcases the city’s fascinating past through exhibitions and displays.

A hub for sports enthusiasts.

Elektrostal is passionate about sports, with numerous stadiums, arenas, and sports clubs offering opportunities for athletes and spectators.

Celebrates diverse cultural festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal hosts a variety of cultural festivals, celebrating different ethnicities, traditions, and art forms.

Electric power played a significant role in its early development.

Elektrostal owes its name and initial growth to the establishment of electric power stations and the utilization of electricity in the industrial sector.

Boasts a thriving economy.

The city’s strong industrial base, coupled with its strategic location near Moscow, has contributed to Elektrostal’s prosperous economic status.

Houses the Elektrostal Drama Theater.

The Elektrostal Drama Theater is a cultural centerpiece, attracting theater enthusiasts from far and wide.

Popular destination for winter sports.

Elektrostal’s proximity to ski resorts and winter sport facilities makes it a favorite destination for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter activities.

Promotes environmental sustainability.

Elektrostal prioritizes environmental protection and sustainability, implementing initiatives to reduce pollution and preserve natural resources.

Home to renowned educational institutions.

Elektrostal is known for its prestigious schools and universities, offering a wide range of academic programs to students.

Committed to cultural preservation.

The city values its cultural heritage and takes active steps to preserve and promote traditional customs, crafts, and arts.

Hosts an annual International Film Festival.

The Elektrostal International Film Festival attracts filmmakers and cinema enthusiasts from around the world, showcasing a diverse range of films.

Encourages entrepreneurship and innovation.

Elektrostal supports aspiring entrepreneurs and fosters a culture of innovation, providing opportunities for startups and business development .

Offers a range of housing options.

Elektrostal provides diverse housing options, including apartments, houses, and residential complexes, catering to different lifestyles and budgets.

Home to notable sports teams.

Elektrostal is proud of its sports legacy , with several successful sports teams competing at regional and national levels.

Boasts a vibrant nightlife scene.

Residents and visitors can enjoy a lively nightlife in Elektrostal, with numerous bars, clubs, and entertainment venues.

Promotes cultural exchange and international relations.

Elektrostal actively engages in international partnerships, cultural exchanges, and diplomatic collaborations to foster global connections.

Surrounded by beautiful nature reserves.

Nearby nature reserves, such as the Barybino Forest and Luchinskoye Lake, offer opportunities for nature enthusiasts to explore and appreciate the region’s biodiversity.

Commemorates historical events.

The city pays tribute to significant historical events through memorials, monuments, and exhibitions, ensuring the preservation of collective memory.

Promotes sports and youth development.

Elektrostal invests in sports infrastructure and programs to encourage youth participation, health, and physical fitness.

Hosts annual cultural and artistic festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal celebrates its cultural diversity through festivals dedicated to music, dance, art, and theater.

Provides a picturesque landscape for photography enthusiasts.

The city’s scenic beauty, architectural landmarks, and natural surroundings make it a paradise for photographers.

Connects to Moscow via a direct train line.

The convenient train connection between Elektrostal and Moscow makes commuting between the two cities effortless.

A city with a bright future.

Elektrostal continues to grow and develop, aiming to become a model city in terms of infrastructure, sustainability, and quality of life for its residents.

In conclusion, Elektrostal is a fascinating city with a rich history and a vibrant present. From its origins as a center of steel production to its modern-day status as a hub for education and industry, Elektrostal has plenty to offer both residents and visitors. With its beautiful parks, cultural attractions, and proximity to Moscow, there is no shortage of things to see and do in this dynamic city. Whether you’re interested in exploring its historical landmarks, enjoying outdoor activities, or immersing yourself in the local culture, Elektrostal has something for everyone. So, next time you find yourself in the Moscow region, don’t miss the opportunity to discover the hidden gems of Elektrostal.

Q: What is the population of Elektrostal?

A: As of the latest data, the population of Elektrostal is approximately XXXX.

Q: How far is Elektrostal from Moscow?

A: Elektrostal is located approximately XX kilometers away from Moscow.

Q: Are there any famous landmarks in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to several notable landmarks, including XXXX and XXXX.

Q: What industries are prominent in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal is known for its steel production industry and is also a center for engineering and manufacturing.

Q: Are there any universities or educational institutions in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to XXXX University and several other educational institutions.

Q: What are some popular outdoor activities in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal offers several outdoor activities, such as hiking, cycling, and picnicking in its beautiful parks.

Q: Is Elektrostal well-connected in terms of transportation?

A: Yes, Elektrostal has good transportation links, including trains and buses, making it easily accessible from nearby cities.

Q: Are there any annual events or festivals in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal hosts various events and festivals throughout the year, including XXXX and XXXX.

Elektrostal's fascinating history, vibrant culture, and promising future make it a city worth exploring. For more captivating facts about cities around the world, discover the unique characteristics that define each city . Uncover the hidden gems of Moscow Oblast through our in-depth look at Kolomna. Lastly, dive into the rich industrial heritage of Teesside, a thriving industrial center with its own story to tell.

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The Origins and Founders of Costco: a Retail Revolution

This essay is about the founding of Costco Wholesale Corporation by James Sinegal and Jeffrey Brotman. It highlights their backgrounds the innovative business model they developed and the core principles that guided their success. Sinegal’s retail experience and Brotman’s business acumen led to the creation of a membership-based warehouse club that emphasized bulk purchasing and low overhead costs. Their commitment to employee welfare and product quality set Costco apart in the retail industry. The essay also touches on the growth and expansion of Costco the development of the Kirkland Signature brand and the leadership transition that maintained the company’s founding philosophy.

How it works

The story of Costco Wholesale Corporation a major player in the retail industry is a fascinating tale of vision innovation and relentless pursuit of customer satisfaction. Costco’s journey began with two visionary entrepreneurs James Sinegal and Jeffrey Brotman whose combined expertise and innovative approach to retailing transformed the industry and established a new model for wholesale clubs.

James Sinegal often affectionately called Jim was born in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania in 1936. His early career in retail began with a humble position at FedMart a discount department store founded by Sol Price a pioneer in the retail business.

It was here that Sinegal honed his skills and gained invaluable experience in the retail sector. Working closely with Sol Price Sinegal was exposed to the operational efficiencies and customer-centric philosophies that would later become fundamental to Costco’s success.

Jeffrey Brotman on the other hand was a Seattle-born lawyer and entrepreneur with a keen business acumen and a strong sense of community. Born in 1942 Brotman was raised in a family that valued hard work and entrepreneurship. He earned his law degree from the University of Washington but his entrepreneurial spirit soon led him to explore opportunities beyond the legal field. Brotman’s interest in retail and his commitment to innovation set the stage for his collaboration with Sinegal.

The paths of these two men crossed in the late 1970s and they quickly realized that they shared a common vision for revolutionizing the retail landscape. In 1983 they co-founded Costco Wholesale Corporation opening the first Costco warehouse in Seattle. Their business model was simple yet groundbreaking: offer high-quality products at low prices primarily to small businesses and families through a membership-based warehouse club.

Costco’s concept was built on the foundation of bulk purchasing and minimal overhead costs. By purchasing products in large quantities and reducing unnecessary expenses Costco could pass on significant savings to its members. This approach not only attracted customers but also fostered a sense of loyalty and trust. Unlike traditional retailers that relied on high markups Costco’s strategy focused on volume sales and razor-thin profit margins. This revolutionary model quickly gained traction and set Costco apart from its competitors.

One of the key elements of Costco’s success was its commitment to employee welfare. Sinegal and Brotman believed that treating employees well would translate into better customer service and increased productivity. This philosophy was evident in Costco’s practices such as offering higher wages and better benefits compared to industry standards. As a result Costco consistently ranked among the best employers in the retail sector with low turnover rates and high employee satisfaction.

Moreover Costco’s emphasis on quality extended to its product offerings. The company developed its private label Kirkland Signature which became synonymous with high-quality products at competitive prices. From groceries to electronics Kirkland Signature products built a loyal following and contributed significantly to Costco’s brand reputation.

As Costco expanded its footprint globally the company’s commitment to innovation and customer satisfaction remained unwavering. The introduction of new services such as optical centers pharmacies and travel services added value for members and diversified Costco’s revenue streams. Additionally the company’s foray into e-commerce allowed it to stay competitive in an increasingly digital marketplace.

Sinegal and Brotman’s leadership styles were instrumental in shaping Costco’s culture and success. Sinegal known for his down-to-earth approach and accessibility often visited warehouses to interact with employees and customers. His hands-on leadership style and emphasis on transparency and integrity resonated with Costco’s workforce and members alike. Brotman’s legal and business expertise complemented Sinegal’s retail experience creating a dynamic partnership that drove Costco’s growth.

In 2011 James Sinegal retired as CEO passing the torch to Craig Jelinek who continued to uphold Costco’s core values and principles. Despite the leadership transition Costco’s commitment to its founding philosophy remained steadfast ensuring the company’s continued success and relevance in the retail industry.

The story of Costco’s origins is a testament to the power of vision innovation and ethical business practices. James Sinegal and Jeffrey Brotman’s collaboration gave rise to a retail revolution that redefined the industry and set new standards for customer satisfaction and employee welfare. Today Costco stands as a global leader in the retail sector with millions of loyal members and a legacy of excellence that traces back to the vision of its founders.


Cite this page

The Origins and Founders of Costco: A Retail Revolution. (2024, Jul 06). Retrieved from

"The Origins and Founders of Costco: A Retail Revolution." , 6 Jul 2024, (2024). The Origins and Founders of Costco: A Retail Revolution . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 8 Jul. 2024]

"The Origins and Founders of Costco: A Retail Revolution.", Jul 06, 2024. Accessed July 8, 2024.

"The Origins and Founders of Costco: A Retail Revolution," , 06-Jul-2024. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 8-Jul-2024] (2024). The Origins and Founders of Costco: A Retail Revolution . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 8-Jul-2024]

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Effectiveness of Logotherapy on the Organization-Based Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction of Employed Midwives

Bazargan-Sabet, Farahnaz; Alidousti, Katayoun 1 ; Tashk, Anahita 2 ; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid 3 ; Ahmadi, Atefeh 4

Student Research Committee, Razi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

1 Department of Midwifery Nursing Research Center, Razi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 Health Services Management Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Nursing Research Center, Razi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Address for correspondence: Dr. Atefeh Ahmadi, Kerman Medical Science University, Hft Bagh Alavi Highway, Kerman, Iran. E-mail: [email protected]

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Midwives as one of the most effective members of the health systems play a key role in delivering health services to mothers and children who are vulnerable groups of the society. This research aimed to investigate the effect of Logotherapy on job satisfaction and Organization-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) of employed midwives.

Materials and Methods: 

This is a quasi-experimental study with the pretest and posttest design and a control group from all midwives employed in the public hospital of Rasht City in Iran. Fifty-six midwives fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected and randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. They filled job satisfaction, OBSE questionnaires, and demographic information checklist, and then, the intervention group attended Logotherapy for six sessions/90 minutes. Finally, both groups answered the instruments as posttest.


Results showed that the mean difference between OBSE (F 6,83 = 27, p < 0.05) and job satisfaction (t 2,62 = 27, p < 0.01) scores before and after the sessions in the intervention group was significantly more than the control group.


Group Logotherapy increased job satisfaction and OBSE among midwives. It can be recommended for use in the clinical settings for healthcare providers.


Midwives play an important role in the health of the family and society. They provide health and medical services during pregnancy, postpartum, puberty, and menopause. [ 1 ] Therefore, increasing their job satisfaction will increase the quality of care. Job satisfaction increases occupational achievement and productivity. [ 2 ] Job characteristics, [ 3 ] environmental and individual factors such as personality, age, marital status, [ 4 ] work context, and social and cultural factors [ 5 ] affect satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Low job satisfaction leads to poor services and weak production, dissemination of malicious rumors, employees’ absenteeism, and their recurrent turnover. [ 6 , 7 ]

Self-esteem is a personal characteristic that influences behaviors in the workplace. If it is properly formed and satisfied, then it will have positive consequences such as a sense of worth, ability, power, competence, and adequacy in life. It is a basic element of mental health that affects job performance. [ 8 ] Self-esteem has different dimensions: (general, social, family, and educational) [ 9 ] as well as organization-based self-esteem. Organization-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE)affects organizational commitment and job satisfaction. [ 10 ] It means a sense of worth, importance, and capability about oneself in the organization [ 11 ] creates a positive relationship between (organizational) self-esteem and job satisfaction. [ 12 ]

Meaning salience increased the job satisfaction [ 13 ] and self-esteem [ 14 ] via the reframing of employees’ internal perspectives regarding their work environment helping to psychological growth besides the unchangeable conditions. [ 15 , 16 ] Logotherapy (meaning therapy) is a philosophical approach to people to deal with important themes and issues of life such as the meaning of suffering, existential emptiness, life and death, freedom and responsibility to oneself and others, discovery of meaning, and coping with meaninglessness. This approach makes people look beyond the problems and events of everyday life. With attention to the effects of meaning, life goals, and motivations on self-esteem and job satisfaction, [ 17 ] the present study aimed to investigate the effect of Logotherapy on job satisfaction and Organization-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) of the employed midwives.

Materials and Methods

The present study was a quasi-experimental intervention with a pretest and posttest design and a control group. This study was performed for three months, from January to March 2019, on the midwives working in Al-Zahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran. The sample size was obtained based on Cohen’s table for quasi-experimental studies, the effect size of 0.4, the study power of 80%, and the significance level of 5%, as the minimum of 25 people in each group. Regarding a 10-percent dropout probability, the samples in each group were 28 people ( N = 56 in total). [ 18 ] Inclusion criteria included working in the mentioned hospital, having at least an associate degree (2 years) in midwifery, at least one year of experience in a midwifery job, and not taking any psychiatric medication. Exclusion criteria were unwillingness to continue the study and being absent in two sessions or more. With simple random sampling, the midwives working in Al-Zahra Hospital ( N = 56) were divided into two groups of intervention and control according to even and odd numbers allocated to them.

Data collection was conducted using three instruments: the demographic questionnaire, job descriptive index questionnaire (JDI), and OBSE scale. The demographic information checklist included age, educational level, marital status, and work experience. JDI with 70 items was developed by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) and is one of the most common and accurate tools for measuring job satisfaction. [ 19 ] The Persian version’s validity and reliability were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. [ 20 ] Its domains include coworkers, the work itself, pay, and opportunities for promotion, supervision, and working condition with five-point Likert scale. A score below 50% was considered low satisfaction, a score between 50% and 70% was considered moderate satisfaction, and a score above 70% was considered high satisfaction. [ 21 ] The Organization-Based self-Esteem Scale (OBSE) was developed by Pierce et al . in 1989. [ 22 ] The 10-item questionnaire measures employees’ beliefs and their values in the organization. This questionnaire is based on a 5-point Likert. In the context of the Persian language, Sadeghian et al . (2010) adopted OBSE with alpha >0.8. [ 6 ]

The trained researcher (master of counseling in midwifery under the supervision of a faculty member who was Ph.D. in health psychology) was always available to answer any questions that might arise for the midwives. Midwives of the intervention group participated in six Logotherapy sessions, which lasted one hour and a half/week for one month. Logotherapy is a method in which members carry out a journey of self-discovery with the aim of self-development to gain the ability to be with their true self, expand their view of themselves, and the world around them, and clarify what is related to their current and future lives. The content of the sessions was prepared based on the theoretical principles and techniques available in the meaning therapy method from the point of view of Dr. Victor Frankel and other Logotherapists. [ 23 ] Before and after the last sessions, the midwives in both groups filled the pretest and posttest. IMB SPSS-21 (PASW) was used to analyze the results. The Shapiro–Wilk, Fisher’s exact, and Chi-square tests were used for descriptive analysis and paired t test and Wilcoxon test were used for comparisons between groups.

Ethical considerations

This research project was approved by the Ethics Committee of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran (IR.KMU.REC.1397.282). After explaining the study objectives, informed consent was taken from the participants, and they were assured about the information confidentiality and anonymity. Participants could quit the study at any time that they wanted. Women in the control group could request to receive the same intervention after filling the posttest.

Demographic factors can be seen in Table 1 . The mean score of OBSE showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups before the intervention ( p = 0.59). After the intervention, the mean score was nonsignificantly different between the two groups ( p = 0.29) but the intervention group’s pre- and postintervention mean difference was more than that in the control group F 6,83 = 27 ( p = 0.01) [ Table 2 ].


The mean score of job satisfaction showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups before the intervention ( p = 0.53). After the intervention, the mean score was different between the two groups, but it was not statistically significant ( p = 0.18). However, a paired t test showed that the pre- and postintervention mean difference in the intervention group was more than that in the control group t 2,62 = 27 ( p = 0.01) [ Table 3 ].


Job satisfaction and OBSE are two valuable factors for motivating midwives toward the betterment of health services. [ 24 ] The present study aimed to address the effect of Logotherapy on the self-esteem and job satisfaction of midwives. Results showed the positive effectiveness of Logotherapy in promoting OBSE. Consistent with this study, group Logotherapy could be an effective treatment in increasing the self-esteem and psychological well-being of female students with love trauma syndrome. [ 16 ] Forgiveness and hope played a mediating role between the meaningfulness of life and mental well-being. [ 25 ] Logotherapy creates a more stable experience of existential satisfaction and provides a deeper sense of mental health. [ 26 ] Therefore, self-esteem can be improved. Low self-esteem is associated with negative emotions such as depression, anxiety, anger, and aggressive behaviors. [ 27 ] Depression also reduces happiness. [ 28 ]

Job satisfaction of midwives working in the hospital was improved in this study. Logotherapy calls people for effort and activity by considering the existence of human beings instead of pessimism and isolation. In this school, each human being ultimately takes control of their destiny. [ 29 ] Seligman well-being education as a positive psychology approach to improve well-being and happiness could improve midwives’ job satisfaction working in hospitals. [ 30 ] Cognitive-behavioral intervention increased nurses’ job satisfaction. [ 31 ] But, CBT is a long-duration therapy, and because hospital staff work in different shifts, it will be very difficult to coordinate and conduct long-term interventions. Therefore, short-term methods such as what we used are more acceptable. Consistent with other studies, significant relationships were found between some sub-dimensions of meaningful work and job satisfaction. [ 32 ] The experience of job-related meaningfulness through meaning-centered Logotherapy and counseling could be a resource to prevent emotional exhaustion. [ 33 ]

The limitation of this study was the finite number of permitted midwives and the limited number of counseling sessions. In addition, in this study only the mean difference between the two groups was significant and not the mean of the total scores of the two variables.

It is proposed that more research be performed in this field to investigate the long-term effect of education or counseling on different populations to promote their OBSE and job satisfaction.

The present study results showed that group Logotherapy-based counseling sessions with the aid of subjects could increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction by discovering their true selves, choosing personal values, and finding the meaning of their lives. Regarding the importance of OBSE and job satisfaction in clinical settings for the improvement of health services, Logotherapy can be recommended to hold for medical staff.

Financial support and sponsorship

Kerman University of Medical Sciences

Conflicts of interest

Nothing to declare.


Thanks are due to Kerman University of Medical Sciences for the financial support of this study (grant number: 97000493).

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Iran ; job satisfaction ; logotherapy ; midwifery ; organizations ; self-concept

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1993 how the construction company remstroy was created   the year 1993 was a period when a lot of construction companies, which had been working successfully during the soviet times and had rich staff capacity, were forced to cease their activity for various reasons. a lot of capable specialists either had to look for another job or change their field. but there were also those who were willing to realise their potential in the field of construction in accordance with the received degree and the experience they had accumulated. thus, in 1993 in elektrostal (moscow oblast) a group of specialists and people sharing each other’s ideas, who had enormous educational background and the highest degree in architecture, organized and registered ooo firm erg which began its rapid development and successful work, offering its service both on the construction market and other areas. 2000 industrial construction is the main area   seven years of successful work have shown that combining different types of activities in the same company is not always convenient. and in the year 2000 the founders of ooo firm erg decided to create and register a monoprofile construction company ooo remstroy construction company. industrial construction was chosen as the priority area. it was in this area that the directors of ooo sk remstroy began their working life and grew as specialists. in order to achieve the set goal, they selected a mobile team of professionals in the field of industrial construction, which allows us to cope with the tasks assigned to ooo sk remstroy throughout russia and the near abroad. 2010 manufacturing of metal structures   we possess modern equipment that allows us to carry out the entire cycle of works on the manufacture of metal structures of any complexity without assistance. designing – production – installation of metal structures. a staff of professionals and well-coordinated interaction of the departments let us carry out the work as soon as possible and in accordance with all customer’s requirements.” extract from the list of members of self-regulatory organizations, construction.

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Certificates, system of managing quality.

job satisfaction conclusion essay


job satisfaction conclusion essay


job satisfaction conclusion essay


job satisfaction conclusion essay




job satisfaction conclusion essay

job satisfaction conclusion essay

The Unique Burial of a Child of Early Scythian Time at the Cemetery of Saryg-Bulun (Tuva)

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Pages:  379-406

In 1988, the Tuvan Archaeological Expedition (led by M. E. Kilunovskaya and V. A. Semenov) discovered a unique burial of the early Iron Age at Saryg-Bulun in Central Tuva. There are two burial mounds of the Aldy-Bel culture dated by 7th century BC. Within the barrows, which adjoined one another, forming a figure-of-eight, there were discovered 7 burials, from which a representative collection of artifacts was recovered. Burial 5 was the most unique, it was found in a coffin made of a larch trunk, with a tightly closed lid. Due to the preservative properties of larch and lack of air access, the coffin contained a well-preserved mummy of a child with an accompanying set of grave goods. The interred individual retained the skin on his face and had a leather headdress painted with red pigment and a coat, sewn from jerboa fur. The coat was belted with a leather belt with bronze ornaments and buckles. Besides that, a leather quiver with arrows with the shafts decorated with painted ornaments, fully preserved battle pick and a bow were buried in the coffin. Unexpectedly, the full-genomic analysis, showed that the individual was female. This fact opens a new aspect in the study of the social history of the Scythian society and perhaps brings us back to the myth of the Amazons, discussed by Herodotus. Of course, this discovery is unique in its preservation for the Scythian culture of Tuva and requires careful study and conservation.

Keywords: Tuva, Early Iron Age, early Scythian period, Aldy-Bel culture, barrow, burial in the coffin, mummy, full genome sequencing, aDNA

Information about authors: Marina Kilunovskaya (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Dvortsovaya Emb., 18, Saint Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation E-mail: [email protected] Vladimir Semenov (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Dvortsovaya Emb., 18, Saint Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation E-mail: [email protected] Varvara Busova  (Moscow, Russian Federation).  (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences.  Dvortsovaya Emb., 18, Saint Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected] Kharis Mustafin  (Moscow, Russian Federation). Candidate of Technical Sciences. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.  Institutsky Lane, 9, Dolgoprudny, 141701, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected] Irina Alborova  (Moscow, Russian Federation). Candidate of Biological Sciences. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.  Institutsky Lane, 9, Dolgoprudny, 141701, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected] Alina Matzvai  (Moscow, Russian Federation). Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.  Institutsky Lane, 9, Dolgoprudny, 141701, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected]

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