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Here are 10 ways to fight corruption

Robert hunja.

4. It’s not 1999: Use the power of technology to build dynamic and continuous exchanges between key stakeholders: government, citizens, business, civil society groups, media, academia etc.   5. Deliver the goods: Invest in institutions and policy – sustainable improvement in how a government delivers services is only possible if the people in these institutions endorse sensible rules and practices that allow for change while making the best use of tested traditions and legacies – imported models often do not work.   6. Get incentives right: Align anti-corruption measures with market, behavioral, and social forces. Adopting integrity standards is a smart business decision, especially for companies interested in doing business with the World Bank Group and other development partners.   7. Sanctions matter:  Punishing corruption is a vital component of any effective anti-corruption effort.   8. Act globally and locally:  Keep citizens engaged on corruption at local, national, international and global levels – in line with the scale and scope of corruption. Make use of the architecture that has been developed and the platforms that exist for engagement.   9. Build capacity for those who need it most: Countries that  suffer from chronic fragility, conflict and violence– are often the ones that have the fewest internal resources to combat corruption. Identify ways to leverage international resources to support and sustain good governance.   10. Learn by doing: Any good  strategy must be continually monitored  and evaluated to make sure it can be easily adapted as  situations on the ground change. What are other ways we could fight corruption? Tell us in the comments. 

  • Digital Development
  • Macroeconomics and Fiscal Management
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Robert Hunja's picture

Director, Public Integrity and Openness

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Why Breaking the Vicious Circle of Corruption Is Difficult but Essential

This may sound odd coming from someone who leads an organisation that is committed to transparency and accountability in public financial management, but we will never completely eradicate corruption. That doesn’t mean we shouldn’t work to limit the opportunities for corruption to happen. We must work to starve it of oxygen.

Corruption hides in the shadows of all local, national and international economies. All markets, organisations and cultures face different levels of exposure to fraud and corruption. Not all of it is intentional – it could come from incompetence, from a lack of understanding regarding internal controls and processes or from promoting family members without proper accountability. But mostly corruption is motivated by two factors: need and greed. These are powerful drivers and can easily influence a person’s behaviour. Corruption then becomes a vicious circle that’s hard to escape – the deeper you become entangled in it, the harder it is to break free.

So how can we turn this circle, which only benefits a few, into a virtuous circle of integrity that benefits everyone? The first step is acknowledging the difficult reality that corruption is everywhere. The next step is prevention. The more time and effort we put into preventing corruption from happening in the first place, the less attractive the environment we create for those seeking to act illegally or irresponsibly.

A good example of an environment where corruption can thrive is when there’s widespread public panic, confusion and desperation. As governments around the world desperately scrambled to procure medicine, PPE and equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic, they often ended up spending millions on questionable contracts. In the name of a national crisis, following agreed-upon procurement procedures often took a back seat to delivering services at a faster pace. Governments were often left with nothing to show for the millions they spent.

Corruption has serious repercussions for the public sector. When public bodies become victims of fraud or neglect, this sets off chains of events such as lengthy investigations and efforts to try and recover lost funds. But these recovery activities use precious resources and taxpayer funding that could otherwise have been diverted into more beneficial areas. A much more cost-effective approach is to prevent corruption from happening in the first place – although this is also no easy task.

In CIPFA’s recently published compendium of global anti-corruption case studies , we break effective prevention down into nine areas to provide practitioners with explanations and best practice examples from around the world. These key areas are culture change, training and mentorship, prevention strategies, corruption risk assessments, conflicts of interest, whistleblowing, investigation, technology and civil society.

This compendium underlines and celebrates the fact that there is an immense amount of positive work being done. All these real-world examples demonstrate initiative, proactivity and creativity in their response to various issues linked to corruption. The compendium forms a cohesive picture of successful international strategies that are being used right now to tackle corruption.

The common thread that runs through each of the nine areas in the compendium is, of course, education. Whether that means being trained on new technology platforms or in how to identify risks and mitigate them, education is our strongest weapon in our fight against corruption. The more we can educate, the more we can prevent.

If education is our first line of defence in preventing corruption, then perhaps our second would be the finance professional. Ensuring accountability, transparency and good governance are the hallmarks of good public financial management will help us shine a light into the shadows where corruption thrives.

The accountancy profession, whether public or private sector, has a front row seat in preventing and investigating corruption. Good financial management builds trust across communities, organisations and governments. With robust governance and assurance frameworks in place, people can have faith that the gaps where corruption can breathe are significantly reduced.

IFAC’s Action plan for fighting corruption and economic crime lays out a good framework for how to enhance the accountancy professions contribution to tackling corruption in all its forms. It acknowledges that while the accountancy profession is a major part of the solution, it cannot be successful on its own. Success will only be achieved with other key partners, such as government agencies, political leaders and public/private sector collaboration. The training and education of an organisation’s staff, from the janitor to the CEO, will also play a vital part in delivering success. It’s important to remember that the fallout from corruption may not always be just financial; it poses a significant reputational risk too.

Next year, CIPFA will be launching its new international qualification in corruption risk assessment. This flagship qualification aims to equip the practitioner with all the skills they need to identify risks and close the gaps that leave their organisations vulnerable to corruption. Prevention, paired with investigation, form the two sides of a very important coin.

By working together and understanding the power of education, we can move a step closer to stamping out corrupt practices. Let’s end the vicious circle that only benefits a few and create a new one that benefits us all.

CIPFA’s free is available now.

eradication of corruption essay


eradication of corruption essay

M. Seth (*), what are the most effective tools to fight corruption?

On the largest level, there is the creation of effective institutions, such as independent and specialized anti-corruption agencies and audit institutions on the national and international scales; secondly: the strengthening of judicial institutions, and finally: multilateral efforts such as the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC).

These tools can only be effective if accompanied by attitudinal and behavioral shifts. These shifts can be brought through awareness campaigns. International Anti-Corruption Day (9 December), for example, is a great opportunity to make people aware of the scourge of corruption, how deep-rooted it is, and how it upends the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

When we were creating the SDGs, many countries opposed mentioning corruption on the grounds that it would marginalize developing states. But corruption is something present in countries rich and poor. We polled almost 10 million people worldwide on their priorities, and corruption ranked the highest in these peoples’ minds, despite their government representatives’ resistance in the halls of the UNGA.

Attitudinal-behavioral shifts depend largely on education and training. Only through this can we shape competent specialists in the field while fostering the concepts of integrity and personal values to oppose corruption in all forms. In fact, education and training directly fights the scourge in peoples’ minds by changing the general attitude that corruption is too big and deep-rooted to fight.

The most effective training and education programs focus on providing a strong balance between academic and theoretical knowledge on topical issues, and core competencies in areas such as leadership and negotiation skills. To ensure the effectiveness of existing anti-corruption mechanisms through education and training, UNITAR’s Executive Diploma and a master’s program on Anti-Corruption and Diplomacy, jointly implemented with the International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA), provide this balance.

Dr. Stelzer (**), what are the landmark events in the history of international anti-corruption efforts?

There is a clear division between the period before and after UNCAC. UN anti-corruption action goes back to 1975, when the UNGA adopted the first resolution against corruption, targeting transnational corporations and their intermediaries. The next large steps were all regional: the Inter-American Convention against Corruption in 1996; the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in 1997; and the EU’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in 1999. These all led to the negotiation and adoption of UNTOC (UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime) in 2000.

When I was appointed Permanent Representative of Austria in 2001, the first session of the Crime Commission (Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice) that I chaired, adopted a resolution describing corruption as a structural impediment to sustainable development. This very same Crime Commission helped prepare for the negotiations of what later became the main instrument in the fight against corruption: UNCAC. With 187 parties, UNCAC allowed us to address corruption on the basis of the rule of law, changing the idea that it is too big to fight.

By 2006, the UNCAC implementation progress was still slow. I could not see this initiative, which I had negotiated and signed, wither away. To speed up the process, the head of the Anti-Corruption branch at UNODC and I decided to start training civil servants from developing nations in anti-corruption, then we turned this project into a program, and the program into an institution. Four years later, IACA was formed. IACA’s main achievement is its highly successful academic program, with over 3000 master’s alumni. Our experience has shown that the implementation of UNCAC depends on the strengthening of anti-corruption systems’ resilience by actors, who to a large degree, benefited from our academic programs.

* M. Nikhil Seth is the current Executive Director of UNITAR. ** Dr. Thomas Stelzer is Dean of the International Anti-corruption Academy.


Human Rights Careers

5 Essays About Corruption

Internationally, there is no legal definition of corruption, but it includes bribery, illegal profit, abuse of power, embezzlement, and more. Corrupt activities are illegal, so they are discreet and done in secrecy. Depending on how deep the corruption goes, there may be many people aware of what’s going on, but they choose to do nothing because they’ve been bribed or they’re afraid of retaliation. Any system can become corrupt. Here are five essays that explore where corruption exists, its effects, and how it can be addressed.

Learn more about anti-corruption in a free course .

Corruption in Global Health: The Open Secret

Dr. Patricia J. Garcia The Lancet (2019)

In this published lecture, Dr. Garcia uses her experience as a researcher, public health worker, and Minister of Health to draw attention to corruption in health systems. She explores the extent of the problem, its origins, and what’s happening in the present day. Additional topics include ideas on how to address the problem and why players like policymakers and researchers need to think about corruption as a disease. Dr. Garcia states that corruption is one of the most significant barriers to global universal health coverage.

Dr. Garcia is the former Minister of Health of Peru and a leader in global health. She also works as a professor and researcher/trainer in global health, STI/HIV, HPV, medical informatics, and reproductive health. She’s the first Peruvian to be appointed as a member to the United States National Academy of Medicine

‘Are women leaders less corrupt? No, but they shake things up”

Stella Dawson Reuters (2012)

This piece takes a closer look at the idea that more women in power will mean less corruption. Reality is more complicated than that. Women are not less vulnerable to corruption in terms of their resistance to greed, but there is a link between more female politicians and less corruption. The reason appears to be that women are simply more likely to achieve more power in democratic, open systems that are less tolerant of corruption. A better gender balance also means more effective problem-solving. This piece goes on to give some examples of lower corruption in systems with more women and the complexities. While this particular essay is old, newer research still supports that more women in power is linked to better ethics and lower corruption levels into systems, though women are not inherently less corrupt.

Stella Dawson left Reuters in 2015, where she worked as a global editor for economics and markets. At the Thomson Reuters Foundation and 100Reporters, she headed a network of reporters focusing on corruption issues. Dawson has been featured as a commentator for BBC, CNB, C-Span, and public radio.

“Transparency isn’t the solution to corruption – here’s why”

David Riverios Garcia One Young World

Many believe that corruption can be solved with transparency, but in this piece, Garcia explains why that isn’t the case. He writes that governments have exploited new technology (like open data platforms and government-monitoring acts) to appear like they care about corruption, but, in Garcia’s words, “transparency means nothing without accountability.” Garcia focuses on corruption in Latin America, including Paraguay where Garcia is originally from. He describes his background as a young anti-corruption activist, what he’s learned, and what he considers the real solution to corruption.

At the time of this essay’s publication, David Riverios Garcia was an Open Young World Ambassador. He ran a large-scale anti-corruption campaign (reAccion Paraguay), stopping corruption among local high school authorities. He’s also worked on poverty relief and education reform. The Ministry of Education recognized him for his achievements and in 2009, he was selected by the US Department of State as one of 10 Paraguayan Youth Ambassadors.

“What the World Could Teach America About Policing”

Yasmeen Serhan The Atlantic (2020)

The American police system has faced significant challenges with public trust for decades. In 2020, those issues have erupted and the country is at a tipping point. Corruption is rampant through the system. What can be done? In this piece, the author gives examples of how other countries have managed reform. These reforms include first dismantling the existing system, then providing better training. Once that system is off the ground, there needs to be oversight. Looking at other places in the world that have successfully made radical changes is essential for real change in the United States.

Atlantic staff writer Yasmeen Serhan is based in London.

“$2.6 Trillion Is Lost to Corruption Every Year — And It Hurts the Poor the Most”

Joe McCarthy Global Citizen (2018)

This short piece is a good introduction to just how significant the effects of corruption are. Schools, hospitals, and other essential services suffer, while the poorest and most vulnerable society carry the heaviest burdens. Because of corruption, these services don’t get the funding they need. Cycles of corruption erode citizens’ trust in systems and powerful government entities. What can be done to end the cycle?

Joe McCarthy is a staff writer for Global Citizen. He writes about global events and environmental issues.

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About the author, emmaline soken-huberty.

Emmaline Soken-Huberty is a freelance writer based in Portland, Oregon. She started to become interested in human rights while attending college, eventually getting a concentration in human rights and humanitarianism. LGBTQ+ rights, women’s rights, and climate change are of special concern to her. In her spare time, she can be found reading or enjoying Oregon’s natural beauty with her husband and dog.

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Corruption in India

  • 06 Oct 2023
  • 20 min read
  • GS Paper - 4
  • GS Paper - 2
  • Transparency & Accountability
  • Ethics and Human Interface
  • Ethics in Human Actions
  • Ethics in Private & Public Relationships

For Prelims: Corruption Perception Index , Transparency International , Democracy , Corruption

For Mains:  Transparency & Accountability in Governance,Common Causes of Corruption and its Prevention in India.

What is the Context?

The Prime Minister of India, in his 76 th Independence Day address, targeted the twin challenges of corruption and nepotism and raised the urgent need to curb them . Also, Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 2023 was released by Transparency International.

  • Overall, the index shows that control of corruption has stagnated or worsened in most countries over the last decade. India Corruption Perceptions Index was 40 index points in 2023.

What is Corruption?

Corruption is dishonest behaviour by those in positions of power . It starts with the tendency of using public office for some personal benefit.

  • Moreover, it is unfortunate that corruption has, for many, become a matter of habit. It is so deeply entrenched that corruption is now considered a social norm. Hence, corruption implies the failure of ethics.

What are the Reasons Behind Corruption in India?

  • L ack of Transparency : A lack of transparency in government processes, decision-making, and public administration provides fertile ground for corrupt practices. When actions and decisions are shielded from public scrutiny, officials may engage in corrupt activities with reduced fear of exposure.
  • A perception of impunity due to the inadequate punishment of corrupt individuals can encourage further corruption. When individuals believe they can get away with corrupt practices, they are more likely to engage in them.
  • Low Salaries and Incentives: Public officials, especially those in lower-ranking positions, are sometimes paid low salaries. This can make them more susceptible to bribery and other corrupt practices, as they may see corruption as a means to supplement their income.
  • India's complex economic environment, which involves various licences, permits, and approvals, can create opportunities for corruption. Businesses may resort to bribery to navigate this environment.
  • Political Interference: Political interference in administrative matters can compromise the autonomy of government institutions. Political leaders may pressure officials to engage in corrupt activities for personal or party gain.
  • Cultural Factors: There can be a cultural acceptance of corrupt behaviour in certain contexts, which perpetuates corruption. The notion that "everyone does it" can lead individuals to engage in corruption without feeling morally compromised.
  • Lack of Whistleblower Protection: Inadequate protection for whistleblowers can deter individuals from reporting corruption. The fear of retaliation can silence potential whistleblowers and allow corruption to thrive.
  • Social Inequality: Social and economic disparities can contribute to corruption, as individuals with wealth and power may use their influence to secure preferential treatment and engage in corrupt practices without repercussions.

What are the Reasons for the Prevalence of Corruption in Civil Services?

  • Politicisation of Civil Services: When civil service positions are used as rewards for political support or swapped for bribes , the opportunities for high levels of corruption increase significantly.
  • Lower Wages: Lowering wages for civil servants compared to those in the private sector. Certain employees may resort to taking bribes in order to compensate for the difference in wages.
  • Administrative Delays: Delays in the clearance of files are the root cause of corruption as common citizens are coerced to grease the palm of erring officials and authorities for expedited clearance of the files.
  • Colonial Legacy of Unchallenged Authority: In a society which worships power, it is easy for public officials to deviate from ethical conduct.
  • Weak Enforcement of Law: Various laws have been made to curb the evil of corruption but their weak enforcement has acted as a hindrance in curbing corruption .

What can be the Impact of Corruption?

  • To demand quality, one might need to pay for it. This is seen in many areas like municipality, electricity, distribution of relief funds, etc.
  • A crime may be proved as a benefit of the doubt due to a lack of evidence or even the evidence erased.
  • These low-quality services are all done to save money by the contractors and the officials who are involved.
  • These people sanction the funds for research to those investigators who are ready to bribe them.
  • Disregard for Officials: People start disregarding the officials involved in corruption and also the administrative set up which creates distrust in the system.
  • Lack of Respect for Government: Top brass leaders of the nation like the President or Prime Ministers lose respect among the public. Respect is the main criteria in social life.
  • Lack of Faith and Trust in Governments: People vote for a leader based on their faith in him/ her, but if leaders are found to be involved in corruption, people lose faith in them and may not vote next time.
  • Aversion for Joining the Posts Linked to Corruption : Sincere, honest, and hardworking people develop an aversion for the particular posts deemed corrupt.
  • A Decrease in Foreign Investment : Corruption in government bodies has led to many foreign investments going back from developing countries.
  • This leads to delays in investments, the starting of industries, and also growth.
  • Due to lack of proper roads, water, and electricity, the companies do not wish to start up there, which hinders the economic progress of that region.

Image: Changes in Levels of Corruption In India and Other Countries as per the Corruption Perceptions Index over the past decade.

What are the Legal and Regulatory Frameworks for Fighting Corruption in India?

  • Amendment of 2018 criminalised both bribe-taking by public servants as well as bribe-giving by any person.
  • Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 aims to prevent instances of money laundering and prohibits use of the 'proceeds of crime' in India.
  • The Companies Act, 2013 provides for corporate governance and prevention of corruption and fraud in the corporate sector. The term 'fraud' has been given a broad definition and is a criminal offence under the Companies Act.
  • The Indian Penal Code, 1860 sets out provisions which can be interpreted to cover bribery and fraud matters, including offences relating to criminal breach of trust and cheating.
  • The  Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 the Act precludes the person who acquired the property in the name of another person from claiming it as his own.
  • They perform the function of an "ombudsman” and inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries and for related matters.
  • Central Vigilance Commission: Its mandate is to oversee the vigilance administration and to advise and assist the executive in matters relating to corruption.
  • Amendments in 1964: The definition of ‘Public Servant’ under the IPC was expanded. The definition of ‘criminal misconduct’ was expanded and possession of assets disproportionate to the known sources of income of a public servant was made an offence.

What is the Importance of Ethics in Preventing Corruption?

  • Establishing Moral Boundaries: Ethical principles provide a framework for defining what is right and wrong. In the context of corruption, ethics set clear boundaries that distinguish acceptable behaviour from unethical or corrupt conduct.
  • Promoting Accountability: Ethics demand that individuals take responsibility for their actions and decisions. When people are guided by ethical principles, they are more likely to be transparent and accountable for their actions, reducing the likelihood of engaging in corrupt behaviour that could harm others.
  • Fostering Transparency: Transparency is a core ethical principle. Ethical organisations and individuals are more likely to operate openly and honestly, making it difficult for corruption to thrive in an environment where actions and decisions are subject to scrutiny.
  • Building Trust: Trust is a cornerstone of ethical behaviour. When individuals and institutions are perceived as trustworthy, they are less likely to engage in or tolerate corruption. A high level of trust in society reduces the temptation for corruption.
  • Encouraging Civic Virtue: Ethical values promote civic virtue, which encourages individuals to act in the best interest of society rather than pursuing personal gain at the expense of others. Civic virtue is a powerful deterrent to corruption.
  • Supporting Rule of Law: Ethical behaviour upholds the rule of law and respect for legal and regulatory frameworks. Corrupt practices often involve circumventing or violating the law, and adherence to ethics reinforces respect for legal norms.
  • Whistleblower Protection : Ethical organisations and governments prioritise protecting whistleblowers who report corruption. Ethical values encourage reporting unethical behaviour, which is vital for uncovering and addressing corruption.
  • Global Reputation: On an international scale, ethical behaviour is essential for a nation's reputation. Countries known for ethical governance and low corruption levels are more attractive to foreign investment and collaboration.
  • Long-Term Sustainability : Corrupt practices often provide short-term gains but can lead to long-term harm. Ethical behaviour is essential for the sustainable development and prosperity of societies.

What are Nolan Committee Recommendations on Standards in Public Life and Prevention of Corruption?

Nolan Committee in 1995 in United Kingdom outlined Seven Ethical and Moral values to be incorporated by the Public functionaries, Officials, Civil Servants, Bureaucrats, Civil Society and Citizens in order to weed out corruption:

  • Selflessness: Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of public interest.
  • Integrity: Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organizations that might influence them in the performance of their official duties.
  • Objectivity: In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.
  • Accountability: Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.
  • Openness: Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.
  • Honesty: Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.
  • Leadership: Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example.

What are the Recommendations of the Second ARC to Tackle Corruption?

The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (2nd ARC), an advisory body in India, made several comprehensive recommendations to address the issue of corruption and improve the integrity and efficiency of the public administration. These recommendations aim to prevent corruption and enhance transparency and accountability in government operations. Here are some of the key recommendations made by the 2nd ARC:

  • Whistleblower Protection Act, 2014: The 2nd ARC recommended amendments to the Whistleblowers Protection Act to enhance protection and incentives for whistleblowers. This includes safeguarding them from harassment and providing financial rewards.
  • Central Vigilance Commission (CVC): The 2 nd ARC recommended strengthening the CVC's role in preventing and combating corruption by giving it more independence, resources, and authority.
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI): The commission suggested measures to ensure the CBI's autonomy and effectiveness in handling corruption cases.
  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs): The 2 nd ARC recommended the development of clear SOPs for government processes and services to minimise the discretionary powers of officials. This reduces the scope for corruption and arbitrary decision-making.
  • Use of Technology: Leveraging technology and e-governance can reduce human interface and discretion in government transactions. The commission encouraged the adoption of electronic methods to reduce corruption opportunities.
  • Police Accountability: The commission highlighted the need for comprehensive police reforms to enhance the integrity and effectiveness of law enforcement agencies. This includes measures to increase transparency, accountability, and professionalism in the police force.
  • Community Policing: Promoting community policing can build trust between the police and the public, reducing opportunities for corruption and abuse of power.
  • Code of Ethics: The commission recommended the development of a code of ethics for public officials and employees to promote ethical behaviour.
  • Citizen Charters: Encouraging government departments to adopt citizen charters can enhance accountability and improve public service delivery.
  • Media and Education: The commission suggested using media and educational institutions to create awareness about the detrimental effects of corruption and the importance of ethical conduct.
  • Parliamentary Committees: Strengthening the role of parliamentary committees in scrutinising government operations and expenditure can help detect and prevent corruption.
  • Digital Transformation: The 2 nd ARC recommended a comprehensive digital transformation of government processes to reduce human intervention and opportunities for corruption.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q1. With reference to the ‘Prohibition of Benami Property Transactions Act, 1988 (PBPT Act)’, consider the following statements: (2017)

  • A property transaction is not treated as a benami transaction if the owner of the property is not aware of the transaction.
  • Properties held benami are liable for confiscation by the Government.
  • The Act provides for three authorities for investigations but does not provide for any appellate mechanism.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 2 and 3 only

Q.2 Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels. (2021)

eradication of corruption essay

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  • Introduction & Learning Outcomes
  • Corruption - Baseline Definition
  • Effects of Corruption
  • Deeper Meanings of Corruption
  • Measuring Corruption
  • Possible Class Structure
  • Core Reading
  • Advanced Reading
  • Student Assessment
  • Additional Teaching Tools
  • Guidelines for Stand-Alone Course
  • Appendix: How Corruption Affects the SDGs
  • What is Governance?
  • What is Good Governance?
  • Corruption and Bad Governance
  • Governance Reforms and Anti-Corruption
  • Guidelines for Stand-alone Course
  • Corruption and Democracy
  • Corruption and Authoritarian Systems
  • Hybrid Systems and Syndromes of Corruption
  • The Deep Democratization Approach
  • Political Parties and Political Finance
  • Political Institution-building as a Means to Counter Corruption
  • Manifestations and Consequences of Public Sector Corruption
  • Causes of Public Sector Corruption
  • Theories that Explain Corruption
  • Corruption in Public Procurement
  • Corruption in State-Owned Enterprises
  • Responses to Public Sector Corruption
  • Preventing Public Sector Corruption
  • Forms & Manifestations of Private Sector Corruption
  • Consequences of Private Sector Corruption
  • Causes of Private Sector Corruption
  • Responses to Private Sector Corruption
  • Preventing Private Sector Corruption
  • Collective Action & Public-Private Partnerships against Corruption
  • Transparency as a Precondition
  • Detection Mechanisms - Auditing and Reporting
  • Whistle-blowing Systems and Protections
  • Investigation of Corruption
  • Introduction and Learning Outcomes
  • Brief background on the human rights system
  • Overview of the corruption-human rights nexus
  • Impact of corruption on specific human rights
  • Approaches to assessing the corruption-human rights nexus
  • Human-rights based approach
  • Defining sex, gender and gender mainstreaming
  • Gender differences in corruption
  • Theories explaining the gender–corruption nexus
  • Gendered impacts of corruption
  • Anti-corruption and gender mainstreaming
  • Manifestations of corruption in education
  • Costs of corruption in education
  • Causes of corruption in education
  • Fighting corruption in education
  • Core terms and concepts

The role of citizens in fighting corruption

  • The role, risks and challenges of CSOs fighting corruption
  • The role of the media in fighting corruption
  • Access to information: a condition for citizen participation
  • ICT as a tool for citizen participation in anti-corruption efforts
  • Government obligations to ensure citizen participation in anti-corruption efforts
  • Teaching Guide
  • Brief History of Terrorism
  • 19th Century Terrorism
  • League of Nations & Terrorism
  • United Nations & Terrorism
  • Terrorist Victimization
  • Exercises & Case Studies
  • Radicalization & Violent Extremism
  • Preventing & Countering Violent Extremism
  • Drivers of Violent Extremism
  • International Approaches to PVE &CVE
  • Regional & Multilateral Approaches
  • Defining Rule of Law
  • UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy
  • International Cooperation & UN CT Strategy
  • Legal Sources & UN CT Strategy
  • Regional & National Approaches
  • International Legal Frameworks
  • International Human Rights Law
  • International Humanitarian Law
  • International Refugee Law
  • Current Challenges to International Legal Framework
  • Defining Terrorism
  • Criminal Justice Responses
  • Treaty-based Crimes of Terrorism
  • Core International Crimes
  • International Courts and Tribunals
  • African Region
  • Inter-American Region
  • Asian Region
  • European Region
  • Middle East & Gulf Regions
  • Core Principles of IHL
  • Categorization of Armed Conflict
  • Classification of Persons
  • IHL, Terrorism & Counter-Terrorism
  • Relationship between IHL & intern. human rights law
  • Limitations Permitted by Human Rights Law
  • Derogation during Public Emergency
  • Examples of States of Emergency & Derogations
  • International Human Rights Instruments
  • Regional Human Rights Instruments
  • Extra-territorial Application of Right to Life
  • Arbitrary Deprivation of Life
  • Death Penalty
  • Enforced Disappearances
  • Armed Conflict Context
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  • Convention against Torture et al.
  • International Legal Framework
  • Key Contemporary Issues
  • Investigative Phase
  • Trial & Sentencing Phase
  • Armed Conflict
  • Case Studies
  • Special Investigative Techniques
  • Surveillance & Interception of Communications
  • Privacy & Intelligence Gathering in Armed Conflict
  • Accountability & Oversight of Intelligence Gathering
  • Principle of Non-Discrimination
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Freedom of Expression
  • Freedom of Assembly
  • Freedom of Association
  • Fundamental Freedoms
  • Definition of 'Victim'
  • Effects of Terrorism
  • Access to Justice
  • Recognition of the Victim
  • Human Rights Instruments
  • Criminal Justice Mechanisms
  • Instruments for Victims of Terrorism
  • National Approaches
  • Key Challenges in Securing Reparation
  • Topic 1. Contemporary issues relating to conditions conducive both to the spread of terrorism and the rule of law
  • Topic 2. Contemporary issues relating to the right to life
  • Topic 3. Contemporary issues relating to foreign terrorist fighters
  • Topic 4. Contemporary issues relating to non-discrimination and fundamental freedoms
  • Module 16: Linkages between Organized Crime and Terrorism
  • Thematic Areas
  • Content Breakdown
  • Module Adaptation & Design Guidelines
  • Teaching Methods
  • Acknowledgements
  • 1. Introducing United Nations Standards & Norms on CPCJ vis-à-vis International Law
  • 2. Scope of United Nations Standards & Norms on CPCJ
  • 3. United Nations Standards & Norms on CPCJ in Operation
  • 1. Definition of Crime Prevention
  • 2. Key Crime Prevention Typologies
  • 2. (cont.) Tonry & Farrington’s Typology
  • 3. Crime Problem-Solving Approaches
  • 4. What Works
  • United Nations Entities
  • Regional Crime Prevention Councils/Institutions
  • Key Clearinghouses
  • Systematic Reviews
  • 1. Introduction to International Standards & Norms
  • 2. Identifying the Need for Legal Aid
  • 3. Key Components of the Right of Access to Legal Aid
  • 4. Access to Legal Aid for Those with Specific Needs
  • 5. Models for Governing, Administering and Funding Legal Aid
  • 6. Models for Delivering Legal Aid Services
  • 7. Roles and Responsibilities of Legal Aid Providers
  • 8. Quality Assurance and Legal Aid Services
  • 1. Context for Use of Force by Law Enforcement Officials
  • 2. Legal Framework
  • 3. General Principles of Use of Force in Law Enforcement
  • 4. Use of Firearms
  • 5. Use of “Less-Lethal” Weapons
  • 6. Protection of Especially Vulnerable Groups
  • 7. Use of Force during Assemblies
  • 1. Policing in democracies & need for accountability, integrity, oversight
  • 2. Key mechanisms & actors in police accountability, oversight
  • 3. Crosscutting & contemporary issues in police accountability
  • 1. Introducing Aims of Punishment, Imprisonment & Prison Reform
  • 2. Current Trends, Challenges & Human Rights
  • 3. Towards Humane Prisons & Alternative Sanctions
  • 1. Aims and Significance of Alternatives to Imprisonment
  • 2. Justifying Punishment in the Community
  • 3. Pretrial Alternatives
  • 4. Post Trial Alternatives
  • 5. Evaluating Alternatives
  • 1. Concept, Values and Origin of Restorative Justice
  • 2. Overview of Restorative Justice Processes
  • 3. How Cost Effective is Restorative Justice?
  • 4. Issues in Implementing Restorative Justice
  • 1. Gender-Based Discrimination & Women in Conflict with the Law
  • 2. Vulnerabilities of Girls in Conflict with the Law
  • 3. Discrimination and Violence against LGBTI Individuals
  • 4. Gender Diversity in Criminal Justice Workforce
  • 1. Ending Violence against Women
  • 2. Human Rights Approaches to Violence against Women
  • 3. Who Has Rights in this Situation?
  • 4. What about the Men?
  • 5. Local, Regional & Global Solutions to Violence against Women & Girls
  • 1. Understanding the Concept of Victims of Crime
  • 2. Impact of Crime, including Trauma
  • 3. Right of Victims to Adequate Response to their Needs
  • 4. Collecting Victim Data
  • 5. Victims and their Participation in Criminal Justice Process
  • 6. Victim Services: Institutional and Non-Governmental Organizations
  • 7. Outlook on Current Developments Regarding Victims
  • 8. Victims of Crime and International Law
  • 1. The Many Forms of Violence against Children
  • 2. The Impact of Violence on Children
  • 3. States' Obligations to Prevent VAC and Protect Child Victims
  • 4. Improving the Prevention of Violence against Children
  • 5. Improving the Criminal Justice Response to VAC
  • 6. Addressing Violence against Children within the Justice System
  • 1. The Role of the Justice System
  • 2. Convention on the Rights of the Child & International Legal Framework on Children's Rights
  • 3. Justice for Children
  • 4. Justice for Children in Conflict with the Law
  • 5. Realizing Justice for Children
  • 1a. Judicial Independence as Fundamental Value of Rule of Law & of Constitutionalism
  • 1b. Main Factors Aimed at Securing Judicial Independence
  • 2a. Public Prosecutors as ‘Gate Keepers’ of Criminal Justice
  • 2b. Institutional and Functional Role of Prosecutors
  • 2c. Other Factors Affecting the Role of Prosecutors
  • Basics of Computing
  • Global Connectivity and Technology Usage Trends
  • Cybercrime in Brief
  • Cybercrime Trends
  • Cybercrime Prevention
  • Offences against computer data and systems
  • Computer-related offences
  • Content-related offences
  • The Role of Cybercrime Law
  • Harmonization of Laws
  • International and Regional Instruments
  • International Human Rights and Cybercrime Law
  • Digital Evidence
  • Digital Forensics
  • Standards and Best Practices for Digital Forensics
  • Reporting Cybercrime
  • Who Conducts Cybercrime Investigations?
  • Obstacles to Cybercrime Investigations
  • Knowledge Management
  • Legal and Ethical Obligations
  • Handling of Digital Evidence
  • Digital Evidence Admissibility
  • Sovereignty and Jurisdiction
  • Formal International Cooperation Mechanisms
  • Informal International Cooperation Mechanisms
  • Data Retention, Preservation and Access
  • Challenges Relating to Extraterritorial Evidence
  • National Capacity and International Cooperation
  • Internet Governance
  • Cybersecurity Strategies: Basic Features
  • National Cybersecurity Strategies
  • International Cooperation on Cybersecurity Matters
  • Cybersecurity Posture
  • Assets, Vulnerabilities and Threats
  • Vulnerability Disclosure
  • Cybersecurity Measures and Usability
  • Situational Crime Prevention
  • Incident Detection, Response, Recovery & Preparedness
  • Privacy: What it is and Why it is Important
  • Privacy and Security
  • Cybercrime that Compromises Privacy
  • Data Protection Legislation
  • Data Breach Notification Laws
  • Enforcement of Privacy and Data Protection Laws
  • Intellectual Property: What it is
  • Types of Intellectual Property
  • Causes for Cyber-Enabled Copyright & Trademark Offences
  • Protection & Prevention Efforts
  • Online Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
  • Cyberstalking and Cyberharassment
  • Cyberbullying
  • Gender-Based Interpersonal Cybercrime
  • Interpersonal Cybercrime Prevention
  • Cyber Organized Crime: What is it?
  • Conceptualizing Organized Crime & Defining Actors Involved
  • Criminal Groups Engaging in Cyber Organized Crime
  • Cyber Organized Crime Activities
  • Preventing & Countering Cyber Organized Crime
  • Cyberespionage
  • Cyberterrorism
  • Cyberwarfare
  • Information Warfare, Disinformation & Electoral Fraud
  • Responses to Cyberinterventions
  • Framing the Issue of Firearms
  • Direct Impact of Firearms
  • Indirect Impacts of Firearms on States or Communities
  • International and National Responses
  • Typology and Classification of Firearms
  • Common Firearms Types
  • 'Other' Types of Firearms
  • Parts and Components
  • History of the Legitimate Arms Market
  • Need for a Legitimate Market
  • Key Actors in the Legitimate Market
  • Authorized & Unauthorized Arms Transfers
  • Illegal Firearms in Social, Cultural & Political Context
  • Supply, Demand & Criminal Motivations
  • Larger Scale Firearms Trafficking Activities
  • Smaller Scale Trafficking Activities
  • Sources of Illicit Firearms
  • Consequences of Illicit Markets
  • International Public Law & Transnational Law
  • International Instruments with Global Outreach
  • Commonalities, Differences & Complementarity between Global Instruments
  • Tools to Support Implementation of Global Instruments
  • Other United Nations Processes
  • The Sustainable Development Goals
  • Multilateral & Regional Instruments
  • Scope of National Firearms Regulations
  • National Firearms Strategies & Action Plans
  • Harmonization of National Legislation with International Firearms Instruments
  • Assistance for Development of National Firearms Legislation
  • Firearms Trafficking as a Cross-Cutting Element
  • Organized Crime and Organized Criminal Groups
  • Criminal Gangs
  • Terrorist Groups
  • Interconnections between Organized Criminal Groups & Terrorist Groups
  • Gangs - Organized Crime & Terrorism: An Evolving Continuum
  • International Response
  • International and National Legal Framework
  • Firearms Related Offences
  • Role of Law Enforcement
  • Firearms as Evidence
  • Use of Special Investigative Techniques
  • International Cooperation and Information Exchange
  • Prosecution and Adjudication of Firearms Trafficking
  • Teaching Methods & Principles
  • Ethical Learning Environments
  • Overview of Modules
  • Module Adaption & Design Guidelines
  • Table of Exercises
  • Basic Terms
  • Forms of Gender Discrimination
  • Ethics of Care
  • Case Studies for Professional Ethics
  • Case Studies for Role Morality
  • Additional Exercises
  • Defining Organized Crime
  • Definition in Convention
  • Similarities & Differences
  • Activities, Organization, Composition
  • Thinking Critically Through Fiction
  • Excerpts of Legislation
  • Research & Independent Study Questions
  • Legal Definitions of Organized Crimes
  • Criminal Association
  • Definitions in the Organized Crime Convention
  • Criminal Organizations and Enterprise Laws
  • Enabling Offence: Obstruction of Justice
  • Drug Trafficking
  • Wildlife & Forest Crime
  • Counterfeit Products Trafficking
  • Falsified Medical Products
  • Trafficking in Cultural Property
  • Trafficking in Persons
  • Case Studies & Exercises
  • Extortion Racketeering
  • Loansharking
  • Links to Corruption
  • Bribery versus Extortion
  • Money-Laundering
  • Liability of Legal Persons
  • How much Organized Crime is there?
  • Alternative Ways for Measuring
  • Measuring Product Markets
  • Risk Assessment
  • Key Concepts of Risk Assessment
  • Risk Assessment of Organized Crime Groups
  • Risk Assessment of Product Markets
  • Risk Assessment in Practice
  • Positivism: Environmental Influences
  • Classical: Pain-Pleasure Decisions
  • Structural Factors
  • Ethical Perspective
  • Crime Causes & Facilitating Factors
  • Models and Structure
  • Hierarchical Model
  • Local, Cultural Model
  • Enterprise or Business Model
  • Groups vs Activities
  • Networked Structure
  • Jurisdiction
  • Investigators of Organized Crime
  • Controlled Deliveries
  • Physical & Electronic Surveillance
  • Undercover Operations
  • Financial Analysis
  • Use of Informants
  • Rights of Victims & Witnesses
  • Role of Prosecutors
  • Adversarial vs Inquisitorial Legal Systems
  • Mitigating Punishment
  • Granting Immunity from Prosecution
  • Witness Protection
  • Aggravating & Mitigating Factors
  • Sentencing Options
  • Alternatives to Imprisonment
  • Death Penalty & Organized Crime
  • Backgrounds of Convicted Offenders
  • Confiscation
  • Confiscation in Practice
  • Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA)
  • Extradition
  • Transfer of Criminal Proceedings
  • Transfer of Sentenced Persons
  • Module 12: Prevention of Organized Crime
  • Adoption of Organized Crime Convention
  • Historical Context
  • Features of the Convention
  • Related international instruments
  • Conference of the Parties
  • Roles of Participants
  • Structure and Flow
  • Recommended Topics
  • Background Materials
  • What is Sex / Gender / Intersectionality?
  • Knowledge about Gender in Organized Crime
  • Gender and Organized Crime
  • Gender and Different Types of Organized Crime
  • Definitions and Terminology
  • Organized crime and Terrorism - International Legal Framework
  • International Terrorism-related Conventions
  • UNSC Resolutions on Terrorism
  • Organized Crime Convention and its Protocols
  • Theoretical Frameworks on Linkages between Organized Crime and Terrorism
  • Typologies of Criminal Behaviour Associated with Terrorism
  • Terrorism and Drug Trafficking
  • Terrorism and Trafficking in Weapons
  • Terrorism, Crime and Trafficking in Cultural Property
  • Trafficking in Persons and Terrorism
  • Intellectual Property Crime and Terrorism
  • Kidnapping for Ransom and Terrorism
  • Exploitation of Natural Resources and Terrorism
  • Review and Assessment Questions
  • Research and Independent Study Questions
  • Criminalization of Smuggling of Migrants
  • UNTOC & the Protocol against Smuggling of Migrants
  • Offences under the Protocol
  • Financial & Other Material Benefits
  • Aggravating Circumstances
  • Criminal Liability
  • Non-Criminalization of Smuggled Migrants
  • Scope of the Protocol
  • Humanitarian Exemption
  • Migrant Smuggling v. Irregular Migration
  • Migrant Smuggling vis-a-vis Other Crime Types
  • Other Resources
  • Assistance and Protection in the Protocol
  • International Human Rights and Refugee Law
  • Vulnerable groups
  • Positive and Negative Obligations of the State
  • Identification of Smuggled Migrants
  • Participation in Legal Proceedings
  • Role of Non-Governmental Organizations
  • Smuggled Migrants & Other Categories of Migrants
  • Short-, Mid- and Long-Term Measures
  • Criminal Justice Reponse: Scope
  • Investigative & Prosecutorial Approaches
  • Different Relevant Actors & Their Roles
  • Testimonial Evidence
  • Financial Investigations
  • Non-Governmental Organizations
  • ‘Outside the Box’ Methodologies
  • Intra- and Inter-Agency Coordination
  • Admissibility of Evidence
  • International Cooperation
  • Exchange of Information
  • Non-Criminal Law Relevant to Smuggling of Migrants
  • Administrative Approach
  • Complementary Activities & Role of Non-criminal Justice Actors
  • Macro-Perspective in Addressing Smuggling of Migrants
  • Human Security
  • International Aid and Cooperation
  • Migration & Migrant Smuggling
  • Mixed Migration Flows
  • Social Politics of Migrant Smuggling
  • Vulnerability
  • Profile of Smugglers
  • Role of Organized Criminal Groups
  • Humanitarianism, Security and Migrant Smuggling
  • Crime of Trafficking in Persons
  • The Issue of Consent
  • The Purpose of Exploitation
  • The abuse of a position of vulnerability
  • Indicators of Trafficking in Persons
  • Distinction between Trafficking in Persons and Other Crimes
  • Misconceptions Regarding Trafficking in Persons
  • Root Causes
  • Supply Side Prevention Strategies
  • Demand Side Prevention Strategies
  • Role of the Media
  • Safe Migration Channels
  • Crime Prevention Strategies
  • Monitoring, Evaluating & Reporting on Effectiveness of Prevention
  • Trafficked Persons as Victims
  • Protection under the Protocol against Trafficking in Persons
  • Broader International Framework
  • State Responsibility for Trafficking in Persons
  • Identification of Victims
  • Principle of Non-Criminalization of Victims
  • Criminal Justice Duties Imposed on States
  • Role of the Criminal Justice System
  • Current Low Levels of Prosecutions and Convictions
  • Challenges to an Effective Criminal Justice Response
  • Rights of Victims to Justice and Protection
  • Potential Strategies to “Turn the Tide”
  • State Cooperation with Civil Society
  • Civil Society Actors
  • The Private Sector
  • Comparing SOM and TIP
  • Differences and Commonalities
  • Vulnerability and Continuum between SOM & TIP
  • Labour Exploitation
  • Forced Marriage
  • Other Examples
  • Children on the Move
  • Protecting Smuggled and Trafficked Children
  • Protection in Practice
  • Children Alleged as Having Committed Smuggling or Trafficking Offences
  • Basic Terms - Gender and Gender Stereotypes
  • International Legal Frameworks and Definitions of TIP and SOM
  • Global Overview on TIP and SOM
  • Gender and Migration
  • Key Debates in the Scholarship on TIP and SOM
  • Gender and TIP and SOM Offenders
  • Responses to TIP and SOM
  • Use of Technology to Facilitate TIP and SOM
  • Technology Facilitating Trafficking in Persons
  • Technology in Smuggling of Migrants
  • Using Technology to Prevent and Combat TIP and SOM
  • Privacy and Data Concerns
  • Emerging Trends
  • Demand and Consumption
  • Supply and Demand
  • Implications of Wildlife Trafficking
  • Legal and Illegal Markets
  • Perpetrators and their Networks
  • Locations and Activities relating to Wildlife Trafficking
  • Environmental Protection & Conservation
  • CITES & the International Trade in Endangered Species
  • Organized Crime & Corruption
  • Animal Welfare
  • Criminal Justice Actors and Agencies
  • Criminalization of Wildlife Trafficking
  • Challenges for Law Enforcement
  • Investigation Measures and Detection Methods
  • Prosecution and Judiciary
  • Wild Flora as the Target of Illegal Trafficking
  • Purposes for which Wild Flora is Illegally Targeted
  • How is it Done and Who is Involved?
  • Consequences of Harms to Wild Flora
  • Terminology
  • Background: Communities and conservation: A history of disenfranchisement
  • Incentives for communities to get involved in illegal wildlife trafficking: the cost of conservation
  • Incentives to participate in illegal wildlife, logging and fishing economies
  • International and regional responses that fight wildlife trafficking while supporting IPLCs
  • Mechanisms for incentivizing community conservation and reducing wildlife trafficking
  • Critiques of community engagement
  • Other challenges posed by wildlife trafficking that affect local populations
  • Global Podcast Series
  • Apr. 2021: Call for Expressions of Interest: Online training for academics from francophone Africa
  • Feb. 2021: Series of Seminars for Universities of Central Asia
  • Dec. 2020: UNODC and TISS Conference on Access to Justice to End Violence
  • Nov. 2020: Expert Workshop for University Lecturers and Trainers from the Commonwealth of Independent States
  • Oct. 2020: E4J Webinar Series: Youth Empowerment through Education for Justice
  • Interview: How to use E4J's tool in teaching on TIP and SOM
  • E4J-Open University Online Training-of-Trainers Course
  • Teaching Integrity and Ethics Modules: Survey Results
  • Grants Programmes
  • E4J MUN Resource Guide
  • Library of Resources
  • Anti-Corruption
  • Module 10: Citizen Participation in Anti-Corruption Efforts
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University Module Series: Anti-Corruption

Module 10: citizen participation in anti-corruption efforts.

eradication of corruption essay

  This module is a resource for lecturers  

Citizen participation is not a new concept, although it has gained traction in the past few decades. As stressed by the National Democratic Institute (a United States-based CSO), citizens have "the right to participate in decisions that affect public welfare" and such "participation is an instrumental driver of democratic and socio-economic change, and a fundamental way to empower citizens". Citizen participation has also been described as "a process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process" (Cogan and Sharpe, 1986, p. 283). Citizen participation is classified as direct or indirect, with direct citizen participation being regarded as "the process by which members of a society share power with public officials in making substantive decisions related to the community" (Roberts, 2008, p. 5). There are even international treaties that highlight the importance of citizen participation, such as the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters.

The discourse on citizen participation has traditionally focused on participation in democratic decision-making, and there are different ways in which citizen participation is operationalized in democratic processes. This can be through bottom-up measures, such as voting, grass-roots organization and participation, or through top-down mechanisms spurred by organizations such as the Open Government Partnership (discussed in Module 4 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption). Innes and Booher (2004) have identified five grounds for upholding citizen participation in public decision-making: 1) to include public preferences in decision-making; 2) to improve decisions by incorporating citizens' local knowledge; 3) to promote fairness and justice, and hear marginalized voices; 4) to legitimize public decisions; and 5) to fulfil the requirements of the law.

Citizen participation in relation to anti-corruption efforts encompasses dynamics and approaches that may differ from citizen participation in other public processes, given that the State may not always provide citizens the same access to space and information in relation to fighting corruption. Corruption bypasses democratic mechanisms to the extent that Mark Warren (2004) has defined corruption as a violation of democratic inclusion. Corruption bypasses the laws and rules that were democratically established and excludes those who do not participate in corrupt exchanges (e.g. services that are meant to be public are allocated to those who bribe or on the basis of clientelism). For this reason, the role of citizens is better understood in terms of social accountability, where the citizens oppose corruption by keeping it in check, critically assessing the conduct and decisions of office holders, reporting corruption misdoings and crimes, and asking for appropriate countermeasures.

Concrete ways in which individual citizens may contribute to the fight against corruption include reporting on corruption to the authority or through the media, and supporting training programmes and sensitization campaigns that aim to create a culture of integrity and zero tolerance for corruption. Sometimes even refusing to participate in corrupt practices is an important act of resistance. It is worthwhile dedicating a few lines to the issue of reporting on corruption, as this is one important avenue through which individual citizens can participate in anti-corruption efforts. As technology has advanced, new methods of citizen reporting have become available. Most anti-corruption agencies now allow reports to be made online. In many countries, smartphone applications are enabling citizens to easily report incidents of corruption. In 2012, the World Bank released its own Integrity App . This app allows users to make confidential reports of fraud and corruption in World Bank projects. It also provides links to the outcomes of investigations. Another approach to reporting corruption outside official channels is through the use of crowdsourcing and social media. In India, for example, Swati and Ramesh Ramanathan created the online platform called " I Paid a Bribe " to expose everyday corruption by allowing people to post their stories anonymously (Strom, 2012). The website has not only served to document corruption, but also to increase awareness among the public. Another example is Digiwhist , a web portal and mobile app technology launched in Europe for the "systematic collection, structuring, analysis, and broad dissemination of information on public procurement and on mechanisms that increase accountability of public officials in all EU and some neighbouring countries". Using the transparency and public accountability of open access, Digiwhist focuses on assessing fiscal transparency, risk assessment and impact of good governance policies.  

In many countries around the world, there is a concrete risk of the normalization of corruption and the decline of public criticism of manifestations of corruption. In an ironic twist, corruption ends up being considered a necessary evil or even a shortcut to access some important goods. In such contexts, the critical attitude of citizens toward corruption is weakened or altogether lost. In other cases, high levels of corruption, citizen frustration with public sector corruption and poor governance (which often corresponds to high levels of corruption) may lead to citizen apathy, a lack of civic engagement and a lack of trust in the political and democratic process. Apathy and indifference are dangerous because where citizens fail to hold public officials accountable, corruption spreads even further, together with impunity for corrupt conduct (Olsson, 2014).

Citizen apathy or a lack of civic engagement may be addressed by empowering citizens and by introducing innovative approaches to citizen participation (McCormack and Doran, 2014). For example, the NGO Transparency International launched an anti-corruption tool called the Advocacy and Legal Advice Centre (ALAC) aimed at enhancing awareness of corruption and its negative consequences, and at facilitating the reporting of corruption. It started with three initial ALACs in Romania, North Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and later established more than 60 centres on all continents. These centres provide victims and witnesses of corruption with practical assistance to pursue complaints and address their grievances. Through providing this support, the centres make it possible for citizens to denounce corruption and participate in anti-corruption efforts.

It is crucial that in all countries, citizens are able to recognize corruption and are empowered to participate, so as to avoid the consequences of unabated corruption, such as deep inequalities (Uslaner, 2008), increased levels of private dishonesty (Gachter and Schulz, 2016), the demoralization of the public (Ariely and Uslaner, 2017), instability and even violent extremism (Chayes, 2015). For a further discussion of the adverse effects of corruption, see Module 1 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption.

Where citizens and public officials pursue, use and exchange wealth and power in the absence of appropriate accountability mechanisms, it is common to witness the establishment of what Michael Johnston (2005) called the syndromes of corruption: influence markets, elite cartels, oligarchs and clans, and official moguls. For a further discussion of these syndromes, see Module 2 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption.

One should be aware, however, of the possible instrumentalization of citizens' anti-corruption attitudes. Transparency International observers remarked, for example, that corruption is an important element of populist rhetoric. Populist leaders tend to use public outrage for corrupt behaviour to punish political adversaries. Populist movements present themselves as an anti-corruption force drawing on the idea that corrupt elites work against the interest of the people. In many cases, however, such movements are not accompanied by an actual anti-corruption strategy and even facilitate new forms of corruption (Transparency International, 2019). For a further discussion on this topic, see Module 1 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption. 

Next:  The role, risks and challenges of CSOs fighting corruption  

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Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Government , Governance , Economics , Corruption , Social Issues , Development , Crime , Growth

Words: 1100

Published: 01/02/2021


‘Good Governance’ and Eradication of Corruption

Introduction Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan mentioned about the indivisibility of good governance and sustainable development (cited in BMZ, n.d.). I think this means that good governance together with eradication of corruption is closely tied with economic performance. It is hard to object that economic advancement can hardly exist if the country suffers from bureaucracy and bribery. Moreover, if there is no legislative base and policies adopted by the government are not sufficient to support economic processes in the country, this country is deemed to experience poor economic growth. Scholars argue whether achieving good governance and eradication of any kind of corruption lead to achieving economic advancement and whether the latter can be possible with bribes and no proper laws. My point is that economic development, good governance and eradication of corruption are so interrelated that one of them makes possible the others. Thus I agree that absence of corruption and good governance are preconditions for continuing economic advancement.


The latest reports proved that good governance can add to local economic growth. According to Crowe (2014), clarity has the most important and pronounced effect on growth together with strong governance. I believe that transparency is exactly that aspect that relates both governance and corruption which undermines opportunity for effective dialogue between the government and the public (Patton, 2014). Instead, people must be entitled to know about the processes of governance as well as have equal rights and access to participate in economic activity. I think that transparency includes risk mitigation, choice facilitation, control over expenditures, and promotion of democracy. Moreover, good governance in terms of transparency shall include publication of data, participation in decision-making and collaboration between different branches of power. Clarity around central government funding is a pillar of good governance as well. Obviously, economic development plans should be made “more accessible and transparent” (Crowe, 2014). Otherwise, if there is no dialogue between those who make policies and those who make real economy, there is no opportunity for growth and development.

Good Governance and Developing Countries

Khan (2007, p. 2) pointed at the fact that the divergence in performance across developing countries can be explained by such critical factor as governance. Now we found that those countries which could not boast about having good governance, but demonstrated unprecedented success in economic development, now encounter some hardship related to governance and the ability to reach concensus (Derviş, 2014). That is why dictatorships or authoritative regimes cannot provide the country with sustainable economic development that lasts long. Despite the fact that China is used as a counterexample to the relation between good governance and economic performance, now it raises the question of importance of multi-party governance for economic growth. I would mention corruption is another enemy that precludes development and growth in countries with huge potential but poor governance. Kim, the World Bank Group President, called corruption as number one public enemy for the developing countries (cited in Cameron, 2013). Thus both good governance and eradication of corruption are necessary for achieving continuing economic advancement.

Global Governance

There were created some institutions that are devoted to ensure and facilitate economic development. One of such institutions is the IMF which concentrates its attention on those aspects of good governance that are related to financial and macroeconomic surveillance (Camdessus, 1997). I think that this is the evidence that effective multilateral governance is not only a precondition for economic advancement, but its necessary component. I consider it ti be integral part of the normal course of development of all countries around the globe and must be ensured by the world community. The IMF itself defines good governance as a key to economic success while corruption is believed to undermine “the public’s trust in its government” (IMF, 2015). It is considered to represent a real threat to market integrity, economic development and competition. The World Bank Group is another group of institutions whose purpose is to ensure financial assistance for those countries that need it under condition of structural reforms implementation. It is worth mentioning that it also constitutes an organization that seeks for global development and growth. The World Bank also serves as global database with all main economic and political indicators. Its official webpage contains all reports and indices that are important for proper economic analysis. Santiso (2001, p.4) notes, that if the Bank wants to improve good governance, it will need to influence power, politics and democracy in member States.

Economic advancement in any country indeed depends on good governance and eradication of corruption. However, they both are rather preconditions for its continuity than the possibility of achievement. Many countries around the globe proved that in order to achieve economic growth the governance may not be good enough and corruption may exist. Meanwhile, according to Shapiro (2013), in order to achieve economic advancement and to make this advancement sustainable and sound the governance should be improved and corruption eradicated.


Camdessus M (1997) Good Governance: the IMF’s Role. International Monetary Fund. Available at: <> Cameron G (2013) World Bank President Calls Corruption “Public Enemy No. 1” Reuters. Available at: <> Crowe J (2014) Good Governance Is the Key to Local Economic Growth. Guardian. Available at: <> Derviş K (2014) Good Governance and Economic Performance. Brookings. Available at: <> Good Governance (n.d.) BMZ. Available at: <> Khan M (2007) Governance, Economic Growth and Development since the 1960s. DESA Working Paper, 54. Available at: <> Patton M (2014) Investors Beware: the 21 Most Corrupt Nations. Forbes. Available at: <> Santiso C (2001) Good Governance and Aid Effectiveness: The World Bank and Conditionality. The Georgetown Public Policy Review, 7 (1): 1-22. Available at: <> Shapiro G (2013) Six Ways to Create Economic Growth. Forbes. Available at <> The IMF and Good Governance (2015) International Monetary Fund. Available at <>


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How to eradicate corruption

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eradication of corruption essay

Corruption refers to dishonest or fraudulent behaviour by individuals in positions of power or authority, such as government officials, politicians, business leaders, or law enforcement officers. Corruption can take many forms, including bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, abuse of power, and fraud. Here are a few sample essays on corruption in India.

100 Words Essay On Corruption In India

200 words essay on corruption in india, 500 words essay on corruption in india, addressing the problem of corruption.

Corruption In India Essay

Corruption is a significant problem in India that has been prevalent for decades. It affects all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest. Corruption in India can take many forms, including bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and misuse of public resources. Corruption in India has resulted in the misallocation of resources, poor governance, and a lack of accountability. It also leads to a loss of trust in public institutions, weakens the rule of law, and hinders economic development. Despite various efforts to curb corruption, it remains a significant challenge for India, requiring continued vigilance and strong political will to address this issue.

Corruption is a widespread problem in India that has been a matter of concern for several decades. It is a menace that plagues all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest. Corruption in India takes various forms, such as bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and misuse of public resources. The root cause of corruption in India is a lack of transparency, accountability, and a weak legal system.

Consequences | Corruption in India has severe consequences on the country's social and economic development. It has resulted in the misallocation of resources, poor governance, and a lack of essential services to the people. Corruption has also undermined democracy and the rule of law, with political parties and leaders using corruption as a means to maintain power and control.

Measures | The Indian government has taken several measures to address corruption, such as setting up anti-corruption agencies, enacting laws and regulations, and promoting transparency and accountability in public institutions. However, corruption remains a significant challenge in India, requiring continued efforts and political will to combat.

Citizens also have a crucial role to play in fighting corruption by refusing to participate in corrupt practices, reporting corruption, and demanding accountability from their leaders. Addressing corruption in India requires a collective effort from all stakeholders, including the government, civil society, and citizens, to build a more transparent, accountable, and fair society.

Corruption has been a rampant problem in India for decades, plaguing all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest. Corruption in India takes many forms, such as bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and misuse of public resources. It undermines the country's democratic institutions, weakens the rule of law, and has severe consequences on social and economic development.

Causes For Corruption

Lack of transparency in public institutions provides an environment conducive to corruption. When there is no transparency in government functioning, it is easier for officials to engage in corrupt practices without fear of detection or punishment.

The weak legal system in India is also a significant contributor to corruption. Corrupt officials can evade justice, and the lack of severe punishments acts as a deterrent to corrupt practices.

Political influence is another significant cause of corruption in India. Politicians use their power and influence to benefit themselves and their associates, often at the expense of the public interest.

Poverty and a lack of economic opportunities create an environment where corruption thrives. People in positions of power often exploit the vulnerable to engage in corrupt practices.

Despite various anti-corruption measures, a lack of political will to tackle corruption remains a significant challenge. Corruption often goes unchecked because of a lack of will to enforce laws and regulations.

Addressing the root causes of corruption in India requires a comprehensive approach that involves structural reforms, strengthening of institutions, and a change in societal attitudes towards corruption. It requires a concerted effort from all stakeholders, including the government, civil society, and citizens, to build a more transparent, accountable, and fair society.

Reducing corruption in India is a complex and challenging task that requires a multi-faceted approach. Here are some steps that can be taken to decrease corruption in India.

Strengthening institutions such as the judiciary, law enforcement agencies, and anti-corruption bodies can help reduce corruption. These institutions should be provided with adequate resources, training, and autonomy to perform their functions effectively.

Greater transparency in government functioning can help prevent corruption. Measures such as public disclosure of government contracts, budgets, and decision-making processes can help reduce opportunities for corruption.

Encouraging citizen participation and creating channels for feedback is another method that can help in the eradication of corruption. This can be done by promoting citizen engagement in decision-making processes, creating whistleblower protection laws, and establishing grievance redressal mechanisms.

Strict enforcement of laws and regulations is critical to reducing corruption. This requires political will to prosecute corrupt officials and to ensure that they are held accountable for their actions.

Promoting ethical leadership can help reduce corruption by ensuring that leaders at all levels of government are selected based on their integrity and track record of ethical behavior.

The use of technology can help reduce corruption. For example, e-governance systems, online portals for filing complaints, and digital payment systems can reduce opportunities for corruption.

Educating the public about the negative effects of corruption and promoting ethical behavior is crucial to reduce corruption. This can be done through awareness campaigns, education in schools and colleges, and public service announcements.

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Essay - can corruption be eradicated from our society .

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Can Corruption be Eradicated from our Society ?

  • What is corruption ?
  • Presence of corruption from ancient age to today.
  • Causes of corruption. 0 • Some notable cases of corruption.
  • Eradication of corruption.
  • Can be controlled but not completely eliminated.

eradication of corruption essay

Causes of Corruption

Some cases of corruptions in india, eradication of corruption.

  • Malady any undesirable or disordered condition
  • Modus operandi mode of operating or workin
  • Anachronistic something old-fashioned or antique
  • Espionage the practice of spying
  • Spectrum whole range of ideas, qualities, situations etc that are possible
  • Discretion the power or right to decide or act according to ones own judgement
  • Gratification source of pleasure or satisfaction
  • Lacuna a gap or missing part, as in a manuscript, series, or logical arguement
  • Promulgate to set forth or teach publicly (a creed, doctrine etc)
  • Cognisance knowledge or awareness of something
  • Intractable hard to shape or work with
  • Corrosive harmful or destructure, as an acid or drug
  • Confront face or encounter 

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  1. How to Eradicate Corruption Essay

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  2. Eradication Of Corruption Argumentative And Narrative Essay Sample (500

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  3. Corruption Essay

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  4. Corruption Essay

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  5. G20's Global Fight Against Corruption: Strategies and Achievements Free

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  6. Causes Of Corruption Essay Free Essay Example

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  1. Corruption essay in English| Anti corruption day| essay on corruption|

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  1. Eradication Of Corruption Argumentative And Narrative Essay Sample (500

    Essay on Eradication of Corruption Corruption hurts economies, people, and governments. Corruption is unethical, immoral, and illegal in many societies, religions, and countries.

  2. PDF Corruption: Causes, Consequences and Cures

    U Myint* The paper stresses the need to keep the issue of corruption squarely in view in the development agenda. It discusses the causes and consequences of corruption, especially in the context of a least developed country with considerable regulation and central direction. Lack of transparency, accountability and consistency, as well as institutional weaknesses such as in the legislative and ...

  3. How young people are turning the tide against corruption

    Corruption remains arguably the largest impediment to global economic and political progress. But a new wave of civic activists is pushing back against the old ways of fighting corruption, and showing real progress.

  4. Here are 10 ways to fight corruption

    Act globally and locally: Keep citizens engaged on corruption at local, national, international and global levels - in line with the scale and scope of corruption. Make use of the architecture that has been developed and the platforms that exist for engagement. 9. Build capacity for those who need it most: Countries that suffer from chronic ...

  5. Why Breaking the Vicious Circle of Corruption Is Difficult but

    But mostly corruption is motivated by two factors: need and greed. These are powerful drivers and can easily influence a person's behaviour. Corruption then becomes a vicious circle that's hard to escape - the deeper you become entangled in it, the harder it is to break free. So how can we turn this circle, which only benefits a few, into ...

  6. PDF Corruption and Reform: Introduction

    This introductory essay uses data on the reporting of corruption by hundreds of newspapers for the 160 year period from 1815 to 1975. The contributions by Howard Bodenhorn and Wallis, Price Fishback and Shawn Kantor add evidence on the time path but focus on shorter time periods.

  7. How to Stop Corruption Essay: Guide & Topics [+4 Samples]

    Assigned to write how to stop corruption essay? ☝ Our guide can assist you with that. ★ Read our tips, samples, and topics for your essay writing on corruption.

  8. How education can help us out of corruption

    Attitudinal-behavioral shifts depend largely on education and training. Only through this can we shape competent specialists in the field while fostering the concepts of integrity and personal values to oppose corruption in all forms. In fact, education and training directly fights the scourge in peoples' minds by changing the general ...

  9. 5 Essays About Corruption

    5 Essays About Corruption. Internationally, there is no legal definition of corruption, but it includes bribery, illegal profit, abuse of power, embezzlement, and more. Corrupt activities are illegal, so they are discreet and done in secrecy. Depending on how deep the corruption goes, there may be many people aware of what's going on, but ...

  10. Eradication of corruption Essay Example

    They have failed, however Eradication of corruption should be the nation's number-one priority in view of the ever-increasing horizon of political and administrative corruption and its baneful multifarious effects on the society-at-large.

  11. Corruption in India, Corruption Essay, Essay on Corruption, Corruption

    Essay on Corruption in India for UPSC and Civil Service Aspirants in India. How to eradicate corruption and build a new india? Essay on corruption and its causes - major factors responsible for Corruption. Measures towards control and eradication of corruption in India

  12. Corruption in India

    Corruption is dishonest behaviour by those in positions of power. It starts with the tendency of using public office for some personal benefit. Moreover, it is unfortunate that corruption has, for many, become a matter of habit. It is so deeply entrenched that corruption is now considered a social norm.

  13. The role of citizens in fighting corruption

    Through providing this support, the centres make it possible for citizens to denounce corruption and participate in anti-corruption efforts. It is crucial that in all countries, citizens are able to recognize corruption and are empowered to participate, so as to avoid the consequences of unabated corruption, such as deep inequalities (Uslaner ...

  14. Free 'good Governance' And Eradication Of Corruption Essay Examples

    Check out this awesome Sample Essays On 'good Governance' And Eradication Of Corruption for writing techniques and actionable ideas. Regardless of the topic, subject or complexity, we can help you write any paper!

  15. Corruption Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

    Corruption refers to dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, often involving bribery or the subversion of integrity for personal gain. Essays on corruption might delve into its various forms, its societal impacts, or the measures and challenges in combating corruption. Discussions might also explore the systemic and cultural factors ...

  16. Essay on Corruption In India, Corruption Essay For Students, How To

    Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Corruption in India may be headed that way. Corruption essay for students by students. Ideas for eradication of corruption essay with headings. An essay on how to unsderstand and stop corruption.

  17. Eradication of Corruption Essay Example For FREE

    Check out this FREE essay on Eradication of Corruption ️ and use it to write your own unique paper. New York Essays - database with more than 65.000 college essays for A+ grades

  18. How to eradicate corruption

    To eradicate corruption we require individuals who are incorruptible and, undoubtedly, what produces such individuals is spirituality. There is a sayi

  19. Eradication of Corruption

    Eradication of Corruption. The Government of India is committed to "Zero Tolerance against Corruption" and has taken several measures to combat corruption and improve probity and accountability of Government institutions. The steps taken by the Central Government, inter alia, include:-.

  20. Corruption In India Essay

    500 Words Essay On Corruption In India. Corruption has been a rampant problem in India for decades, plaguing all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest. Corruption in India takes many forms, such as bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and misuse of public resources. It undermines the country's democratic institutions, weakens the rule ...

  21. Eradication of Corruption

    Eradication of Corruption. • Corruption hurts economies, people, and governments. Corruption is unethical, immoral, and illegal in many societies, religions, and countries. It needs to be stopped. Private organizations, United Nations, and some governments have attempted to stop corruption or at least have tried to prevent it.

  22. Essay

    Eradication of Corruption The basic question is 'can the corruption be eradicated?' Nothing is impossible' can be said by an enthusiastic social leader but eradication of corruption is a next to impossible thing in the present spectrum of affairs.

  23. A corpus-based study of corruption metaphors: the case of the Jordanian

    Politicians involved in scandals were metaphorically described as bad apples, chickpeas and weeds, implying a need for eradication. The researcher concluded that 'various metaphors structuring corruption carry a strong axiological weight by providing a negative evaluation of political corruption' (ibid, p. 214).

  24. Eradication of Corruption

    Dbq On Corruption Analysis Some may believe that corruption, being traditional way of doing things, shouldn't need to be reformed into new ways. Source C shows how corruption in India goes back to the Independence of India from British rule, defending how India is able to survive so long with corruption intact.