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Europe 1300 - 1800

Course: europe 1300 - 1800   >   unit 9, baroque art, an introduction.

  • How to recognize Baroque art
  • Introduction to the Global Baroque
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baroque period essay

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The origin of the term

Three main tendencies of the era.

  • Architecture, painting, and sculpture

Artemisia Gentileschi: Judith with Her Maidservant

Where does the term Baroque come from?

What are the characteristics of baroque art and architecture, how did baroque art and architecture come about, which artists are associated with the baroque style, how did the rococo style differ from the baroque.

poem. A poet in a Heian period kimono writes Japanese poetry during the Kamo Kyokusui No En Ancient Festival at Jonan-gu shrine on April 29, 2013 in Kyoto, Japan. Festival of Kyokusui-no Utage orignated in 1,182, party Heian era (794-1192).

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Artemisia Gentileschi: Judith with Her Maidservant

The term Baroque probably derived from the Italian word barocco , which philosophers used during the Middle Ages to describe an obstacle in schematic logic. Subsequently, the word came to denote any contorted idea or involute process of thought. Another possible source is the Portuguese word barroco (Spanish barrueco ), used to describe an imperfectly shaped pearl. In art criticism the word Baroque has come to describe anything irregular, bizarre, or otherwise departing from rules and proportions established during the Renaissance . Until the late 19th century the term always carried the implication of odd, exaggerated, and overdecorated. It was only with Heinrich Wölfflin ’s pioneering study, Renaissance und Barock (1888), that the term was used as a stylistic designation rather than as a term of thinly veiled abuse and that a systematic formulation of the characteristics of Baroque style was achieved.

The work that distinguishes the Baroque period is stylistically complex and even contradictory. Currents of naturalism and Classicism , for example, coexisted and intermingled with the typical Baroque style. In general, however, the desire to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses, often in dramatic ways, underlies its manifestations. Some of the qualities most frequently associated with the Baroque are grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, dynamism, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, and a tendency to blur distinctions between the various arts.

Three broad tendencies had an impact on Baroque art, the first of which was the Counter-Reformation . Contending with the spread of the Protestant Reformation , the Roman Catholic Church , after the Council of Trent (1545–63), adopted a propagandist program in which art was to serve as a means of stimulating the public’s faith in the church. The Baroque style that evolved was both sensuous and spiritual. Whereas a naturalistic treatment rendered the religious image more accessible to the average churchgoer, dramatic and illusory effects were used to stimulate devotion and convey the splendour of the divine. The second tendency was the consolidation of absolute monarchies—Baroque palaces were built on a monumental scale to display the power of the centralized state, a phenomenon best displayed at Versailles . The third tendency was a broadening of human intellectual horizons, spurred by developments in science and explorations of the globe. These produced a new sense of human insignificance (particularly abetted by the Copernican displacement of Earth from the centre of the universe) and of the infinitude of the natural world. Landscape paintings in which humans are portrayed as minute figures in a vast setting were indicative of this changing awareness of the human condition.

Annibale Carracci and Caravaggio were the two Italian painters who helped usher in the Baroque and whose styles represent, respectively, the classicist and realist modes. The painter Artemisia Gentileschi was recognized in the 20th century for her technical skill and ambitious history paintings. Gian Lorenzo Bernini , whose accomplishments included the design of the colonnade fronting St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, was the greatest of the Baroque sculptor-architects. The orderly paintings of Nicolas Poussin and the restrained architecture of Jules Hardouin-Mansart reveal that the Baroque impulse in France was more subdued and classicist. In Spain, the painter Diego Velázquez used a sombre but powerful naturalistic approach that bore only some relation to the mainstream of Baroque painting. The style, meanwhile, made limited inroads to northern Europe, notably in what is now Belgium. That Spanish-ruled largely Roman Catholic region’s greatest master was the painter Peter Paul Rubens , whose tempestuous diagonal compositions and full-blooded figures are the epitome of Baroque painting. Art in the Netherlands, however, is more complex. Conditioned by the realist tastes of its middle-class patrons, such towering masters as Rembrandt , Frans Hals , and Johannes Vermeer remained largely independent of the Baroque in important respects, but many art texts nonetheless equate them with the style. The Baroque did have a notable impact in England, however, particularly in the architecture of Sir Christopher Wren .

The Rococo style originated in Paris about 1700 and was soon adopted throughout France and later in other countries, principally Germany and Austria. Like the Baroque style, Rococo was used in the decorative arts , interior design , painting, architecture, and sculpture. It is often characterized as the final phase of the Baroque, but the style differs from its predecessor in its intimate scale, asymmetry, lightness, elegance, and exuberant use of curving natural forms in ornamentation. Rococo painting in France, for example, began with the graceful, gently melancholic paintings of Antoine Watteau , culminated in the playful and sensuous nudes of François Boucher , and ended with the freely painted genre scenes of Jean-Honoré Fragonard . French Rococo painting in general was characterized by easygoing, lighthearted treatments of mythological and courtship themes, the introduction of the family as subject, rich and delicate brushwork, a relatively light tonal key, and sensuous colouring.

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Baroque art and architecture , the visual arts and building design and construction produced during the era in the history of Western art that roughly coincides with the 17th century. The earliest manifestations , which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th century, while in some regions, notably Germany and colonial South America , certain culminating achievements of Baroque did not occur until the 18th century. The work that distinguishes the Baroque period is stylistically complex, even contradictory. In general, however, the desire to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses, often in dramatic ways, underlies its manifestations. Some of the qualities most frequently associated with the Baroque are grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, vitality, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, and a tendency to blur distinctions between the various arts.

The term Baroque probably ultimately derived from the Italian word barocco , which philosophers used during the Middle Ages to describe an obstacle in schematic logic . Subsequently the word came to denote any contorted idea or involuted process of thought. Another possible source is the Portuguese word barroco (Spanish barrueco ), used to describe an irregular or imperfectly shaped pearl , and this usage still survives in the jeweler’s term baroque pearl .

In art criticism the word Baroque came to be used to describe anything irregular, bizarre, or otherwise departing from established rules and proportions. This biased view of 17th-century art styles was held with few modifications by critics from Johann Winckelmann to John Ruskin and Jacob Burckhardt , and until the late 19th century the term always carried the implication of odd, grotesque, exaggerated, and overdecorated. It was only with Heinrich Wölfflin ’s pioneer study Renaissance und Barock (1888) that the term Baroque was used as a stylistic designation rather than as a term of thinly veiled abuse, and a systematic formulation of the characteristics of Baroque style was achieved.

baroque period essay

Three broader cultural and intellectual tendencies had a profound impact on Baroque art as well as Baroque music . The first of these was the emergence of the Counter-Reformation and the expansion of its domain, both territorially and intellectually. By the last decades of the 16th century the refined, courtly style known as Mannerism had ceased to be an effective means of expression, and its inadequacy for religious art was being increasingly felt in artistic circles. To counter the inroads made by the Reformation , the Roman Catholic Church after the Council of Trent (1545–63) adopted a propagandistic stance in which art was to serve as a means of extending and stimulating the public’s faith in the church. To this end the church adopted a conscious artistic program whose art products would make an overtly emotional and sensory appeal to the faithful. The Baroque style that evolved from this program was paradoxically both sensuous and spiritual; while a naturalistic treatment rendered the religious image more accessible to the average churchgoer, dramatic and illusory effects were used to stimulate piety and devotion and convey an impression of the splendour of the divine. Baroque church ceilings thus dissolved in painted scenes that presented vivid views of the infinite to the observer and directed the senses toward heavenly concerns.

baroque period essay

The second tendency was the consolidation of absolute monarchies , accompanied by a simultaneous crystallization of a prominent and powerful middle class, which now came to play a role in art patronage. Baroque palaces were built on an expanded and monumental scale in order to display the power and grandeur of the centralized state, a phenomenon best displayed in the royal palace and gardens at Versailles . Yet at the same time the development of a picture market for the middle class and its taste for realism may be seen in the works of the brothers Le Nain and Georges de La Tour in France and in the varied schools of 17th-century Dutch painting. (For a detailed discussion of this phenomenon, see Rembrandt van Rijn .)

The third tendency was a new interest in nature and a general broadening of human intellectual horizons, spurred by developments in science and by explorations of the globe. These simultaneously produced a new sense both of human insignificance (particularly abetted by the Copernican displacement of the Earth from the centre of the universe) and of the unsuspected complexity and infinitude of the natural world. The development of 17th-century landscape painting, in which humans are frequently portrayed as minute figures in a vast natural setting, is indicative of this changing awareness of the human condition.

The Baroque Period: a Flourishing Era of Artistic Expression

This essay about the Baroque period outlines its significance as a dynamic era spanning from 1600 to 1750, marked by emotional depth and ornate styles in art, architecture, and music. It discusses how the Baroque emerged in Rome as a response to the Protestant Reformation, emphasizing the Catholic Church’s use of art to evoke spiritual fervor. Highlighting key figures like Caravaggio, Bernini, and composers such as Bach and Vivaldi, the essay explores how these artists infused their works with dramatic expression and complexity. The narrative also touches on the broader cultural and intellectual shifts of the era, including the Age of Exploration and the Scientific Revolution. Overall, the essay portrays the Baroque period as not only an artistic revolution but a profound movement reflecting the complexities of human life and the deep-seated desire for expression and understanding.

How it works

The Baroque period, an era that spanned from 1600 to 1750, represents one of the most opulent and dynamically transformative times in the history of art, architecture, and music. Unlike the measured calm of the Renaissance that preceded it, the Baroque period was all about emotion, drama, and the grandiose. From the sweeping curves of its architecture to the emotional depth of its music, the Baroque was a time of intense expression and ornate aesthetics, deeply intertwined with the political and religious currents of its time.

It all started in Rome, around the turn of the 17th century. This was a period marked by the Catholic Church’s urgent need to respond to the Protestant Reformation. The Church believed that by commissioning art that could evoke spiritual fervor and direct emotional appeal, it could regain its hold on the masses. This need gave rise to what we now call the Baroque style, characterized by its vivid expression and dramatic use of light and shadow, a technique known as chiaroscuro.

Artists like Caravaggio broke away from the pastel palettes and balanced compositions of Renaissance art to explore stark contrasts and complex human emotions. Caravaggio’s paintings, like “The Calling of St Matthew,” use light to carve dramatic focal points out of darkened scenes, pulling viewers directly into the moments of tension and revelation depicted on canvas. Meanwhile, Rembrandt in the Netherlands would use this same interplay of light and shadow to draw viewers into intimate, deeply human experiences, such as in his painting “The Night Watch,” which captures the palpable energy of a city militia poised to march.

Sculpture also transformed dramatically during the Baroque period. Gian Lorenzo Bernini wasn’t just creating figures; he was creating experiences. His “Ecstasy of Saint Teresa” doesn’t merely depict a saint in divine rapture; it transports the viewer into a moment of transcendent experience, complete with rays of heavenly light cast in gilded bronze. Bernini’s works in Rome, like his dynamic “David,” captured figures not in static poses but in mid-action, filled with a power and movement that seemed to defy the marble from which they were carved.

Baroque architecture too was a feast of form and counter-form, with structures designed to evoke an emotional response and convey the glory of their patrons. Architects like Francesco Borromini pushed the boundaries of traditional design with buildings like San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome, which features an undulating façade and a complex, coffered ceiling that draws the eye heavenward in a dizzying play of curves and light.

As art and architecture flourished, so did music. The Baroque period saw the development of new musical structures such as the concerto, the sonata, and particularly the opera, allowing composers like Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, and George Frideric Handel to explore complex emotional narratives and rich textural compositions. The era’s music, characterized by elaborate ornamentation and contrasting dynamics, mirrored the architectural and artistic complexity of the time. The introduction of the harpsichord and the development of the orchestral arrangement added new layers of auditory opulence to performances that were designed to stir the soul and delight the senses.

The Baroque was not just an artistic revolution; it was also a cultural and intellectual one. This period overlapped with the Age of Exploration, as European empires expanded across oceans, bringing with them a cross-pollination of cultures, goods, and ideas. It was also the age of the Scientific Revolution, where figures like Galileo and Newton began to redefine humanity’s understanding of the natural world, often in direct challenge to established religious doctrines.

Yet, while the Baroque period was marked by such grandeur and expansion, it was also a time of intense personal expression. In the Protestant areas of Europe, such as the Netherlands, the Baroque took on a more subdued form. Here, artists like Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch focused on domestic interiors and quiet street scenes, capturing moments of everyday life with a subtlety and warmth that contrasted sharply with the grandiose scale of their Catholic counterparts.

As the Baroque period wound down by the mid-18th century, it gradually gave way to the Rococo. While retaining some elements of ornamentation, Rococo moved towards a lighter, more whimsical aesthetic, often focusing on themes of love, nature, and playful curiosity. Yet, despite the transition, the influence of the Baroque period remains undeniable. Its legacy persists not only in the artworks, buildings, and musical compositions that survived but also in its enduring impact on the trajectory of Western art and culture.

Looking back at the Baroque period now, it’s clear that it was more than just an artistic epoch. It was a profound movement shaped by and shaping the currents of its time—a vivid reflection of the complexities of human life, the thirst for knowledge, and the eternal search for beauty. Its works remain a testament to a time when art was not just seen or heard but deeply felt. As we continue to study and revisit the Baroque, we find a rich tapestry of humanity—its power, its passion, and its perpetual desire to push beyond the boundaries of expression.

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baroque period essay

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Baroque Art – Exploring the Exuberance of Baroque Period Art

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The Baroque period emerged after the Renaissance and Mannerism periods and brought with it new perspectives about life, art, religion, and culture. The Baroque style moved away from the severe elements depicted by the Protestant style, while the Catholic Church supported the development of Baroque with its origins in Rome, Italy, and many European countries. In this article, we unpack the decorative and fanciful art period encompassed by Baroque art, including its most famous artists and the origins of the movement.

Table of Contents

  • 1.1 The Reformation: The Catholic Church and Protestants
  • 1.2 The Protestants Versus Counter-Reformation Groups
  • 1.3 A Flawed Pearl: Definition of Baroque
  • 2.1.1 Chiaroscuro
  • 2.1.2 Tenebrism
  • 2.1.3 Quadro Riportato
  • 2.1.4 Illusionism: Trompe l’Oeil and Quadratura
  • 3.1 Annibale Carracci (1560 – 1609)
  • 3.2 Caravaggio (1571 – 1610)
  • 3.3 Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1656)
  • 4.1 Giacomo Della Porta (1532 – 1602)
  • 5.1 Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680)
  • 6.1 Flemish Baroque Artists
  • 6.2 French Baroque Artists
  • 6.3 Spanish Baroque Artists
  • 6.4 Dutch Baroque Artists
  • 7 From Dark to Light: Baroque and Rococo
  • 8.1 What Is Baroque Art?
  • 8.2 What Are the Characteristics of Baroque Art?
  • 8.3 When Was the Baroque Period?

Historical Foundations of the Baroque Period

When was the Baroque period? The Baroque period began during the the late 1500s and lasted until the early 1700s. The movement’s reach was considered to be incredibly wide and varied throughout many European countries. The Baroque style was founded on the principles of extravagance, ornateness, and intricately decorated details that were portrayed in a range of traditional mediums such as paintings, architecture, sculpture, literature, and music. It was regarded as a period of revival across art and culture, with deep roots in the religious structures and powers of Western Europe at the time. These religious structures included the Catholic Church, which is presently referred to as the Roman Catholic Church.

Baroque art, of any kind, was inseparably linked to the Catholic Church. In fact, the Church had a great influence over shaping the conventions around what art should look like to have a desired effect on the people. Baroque art was made to inspire grandeur and awe in the people who experienced it and became a wholly new sensory religious experience.

The Catholic Church supported the Baroque style because it needed a new and enlivened approach to inspire and uplift the common people, as well as to connect them with the Church and its majestic nature.

After the turmoil of war and conflicts from the Reformation, Baroque art offered a refreshing resurgence for the Church and its community. The driving forces behind this can be considered propagandist, as it used the modes of visual representation and communication via painting, architecture, sculpture to maintain the credibility and authority of the Catholic Church.

To better understand the advancements that Baroque art brought to art and culture in the 17th century, we need to look at the historical foundations underpinning this complex movement.

The Reformation: The Catholic Church and Protestants

The Baroque period developed from considerable political and religious upheaval in Europe, such as the Reformation between the Protestants and the Catholic Church during the 1500s. Although the Reformation may have started with many other religious figures before Martin Luther (a German monk, priest, and theologian), many scholarly sources point to him as the catalyst of the Reformation, which set these events in motion.

Martin Luther is known for his publication entitled, “ 95 Theses ”, which he wrote in 1517 out of apprehension about various questionable actions by the Catholic Church. His apprehensions were primarily about the Church (under Pope Leo X) selling indulgences, otherwise known as plenary indulgences, to people to raise money to build St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City of Rome.

Indulgences were almost like certificates guaranteeing people that they would go to Heaven and spend less time in Purgatory if they offered donations to the Church, did a good deed, visited a certain place, or recited a prayer. In this case, the financial donations helped the Pope build the Basilica. Martin Luther did not agree with this type of procedure, as he believed no one needed to pay for their place in Heaven. Furthermore, he had other deeper concerns about the Church and its stance on various religious matters relating to the Catholic Sacraments.

Precursor to the Baroque Period

During this time, Martin Luther taught Moral Theology at Wittenberg University and he was also a preacher. He heard about the information that indulgences were being sold, and was made aware of sermons being given near Wittenberg by another preacher called Johann Tetzel, a German Dominican preacher who was also the Grand Commissioner for indulgences.

Martin Luther sent the “ 95 Theses ” to the Archbishop of Mainz, who was Albert of Brandenburg at the time, to inform him about what was happening. He also posted it on church doors in Wittenberg, which was a common practice to do. The availability of the printing press allowed Martin Luther to make numerous copies of his publications. In fact, hundreds were printed in Germany, as well as translated to German from Latin. The document eventually landed in the hands of many respected intellectuals. It was in 1521 when Martin Luther came to strong disagreements with the Church, as he would not renounce his views when asked to.

As a result, he was denounced from the Church and considered a “notorious heretic” in the Edict of Worms , declared by Emperor Charles V.

After the turn of events from the Reformation, which was believed to have ended either during the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 or during the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Catholic Church formed a Counter-Reformation, which lasted between 1545 and 1563 with the Council of Trent. The Council of Trent consisted of many meetings addressing various issues and procedures present within the Church and its systems.

The Protestants Versus Counter-Reformation Groups

The Counter-Reformation also sparked new developments in art and spirituality. The Protestants sought to do away with a lot of the Catholic Church’s religious imagery, agreeing that it was too extravagant. Some Reformists violently destroyed the Catholic Church’s religious imagery, known as iconoclasm . The Protestants believed religious images should only depict Jesus or images of the cross, in line with Protestant values. The Protestant Reformation held onto the idea that images should not be used for religious worship, of which the point was argued by the Counter-Reformation group that such artworks and images were didactic contributions that provided clear narratives about key iconographies. 

As a response to the severe styles depicted in Protestantism, the Catholic Church believed religious imagery held a lot of power. Furthermore, during the events of the Council of Trent, it was decided what religious imagery would be acceptable or not. The “pastoral role” of art was considered a primary purpose of religious imagery, meaning that artists could depict the stories of Christ’s suffering, crucifixion, and many of the saints related to Biblical stories. The council members made strict rules that all imagery could not contain any idolatrous innuendos.

What followed were new artistic styles and attitudes depicted in religious imagery, better known as the Baroque period.

A Flawed Pearl: Definition of Baroque

By understanding the meaning of the term “Baroque”, we will gain more context about what Baroque art stood for and was. The art developed during this time was the visual result and achievement borne from deeper historical, social, and political issues in Europe. It was an age of discovery undoubtedly, introducing new concepts and techniques within the art world, and hence, an achievement.

The term baroque has been understood within various contexts. It is a French word, but its root origin is traced to the Portuguese barocco, which means “a flawed pearl”. This term was related to jewelry as early as the 1500s onwards. It was used to describe the shapes of real pearls.

There are other definitions of the term that relate to philosophy, specifically logic, or Aristotelian Logic. As a Latin term, baroco , was used to assist with remembering syllogisms, which were used in deductive reasoning formulas. Several scholars and philosophers applied this word beyond the school of logic, for example, Michel de Montaigne defined it as “bizarre and uselessly complicated”.

Famous Baroque Art

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a philosopher and musician in the 1700s, described Baroque music as being disharmonious in the Dictionnaire de Musique ( Dictionary of Music , 1768), stating, “Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, overcharged with modulations and dissonance. The song is hard and unnatural, the intonation difficult, and the movement constrained. It would seem that this term comes from the baroco of the Logicians”.

Heinrich Wölfflin, an art historian from Switzerland, described “baroque” within the context of being an art style in his publication Renaissance und Barock (1888). In whichever manner this term has been defined over the centuries, the underlying essence certainly conveys a sense of imperfection, confusion, and maybe even disorder and beauty.

This is evident in the Baroque style, whether it be paintings, sculptures, architecture, music, or literature. Below, we take a closer look at what Baroque Art is.  

What Is Baroque Art?

Baroque Art was pioneered by noteworthy painters, architects, and sculptors who brought the visual power of art to the masses. There were many important figures in the Baroque period. For example, artists like Caravaggio, who portrayed strong realism in his paintings, the Carracci brothers and their Bolognese School, which sought to move away from the art of Mannerism (the art period after the Renaissance), and Giacomo Della Porta, an Italian architect. We will look at these artists and their contributions to the Baroque style in greater detail below.

Baroque Art Characteristics and Techniques

What set the Baroque period apart from the Renaissance and subsequent Mannerism periods was its focus on more liveliness in its subject matter and a stark realism. Some sources also describe it as focusing on the moment the event is taking place, or otherwise the “action” or drama. The subject matter was of religious and biblical narratives, as instructed by the Catholic Church. These would range between images of the Virgin Mary, the various Saints, and various stories from the Bible.

Furthermore, Baroque paintings were characterized by the use of vibrant colors applied with swirling and wide brushstrokes, which indicated movement and emotional intensity.

This painting style focused on depicting large expanses of light and openness, which was also seen in architecture, such as the churches with expansive areas within the center of the building, capped by cupolas (domes or square-like crowning structures over a roof) above for more light to enter the building.

Chiaroscuro

Chiaroscuro is an Italian term that means “light-dark”. It focuses on defining contrasts in painting. This technique started in the Renaissance period, but it was the way Caravaggio utilized it that it became a popular characteristic of the Baroque period. With the strong emphasis on dark and light within his compositions, the viewer almost becomes a part of the event portrayed in the painting.

An example includes Caravaggio’s  The Calling of St. Matthew (1599 – 1600), where we see the right finger of Christ pointing towards St. Matthew. The light and shadow on the wall from the incoming sunlight are directly echoed alongside Christ’s pointing finger.

Baroque Art Characteristics

Tenebrism was another technique used by several Baroque painters, popularized and believed to have been started by Caravaggio. Although it is like chiaroscuro , it mainly focuses on the darker areas of a painting. The term originates from the Italian word, tenebroso , which in turn originates from the Latin, tenebra , meaning “darkness”. Other words related to this term are “gloomy” and “mysterious”. It sought to create what is referred to as the “spotlight” effect, also called “dramatic illumination”.

Quadro Riportato

Quadro Riportato means “carried picture” in Italian and was a term used to describe a technique by which the artist would paint what appeared as a frame around a painting, which would consist of a series of paintings displayed as a fresco. This technique was used by one of the forerunners of the Baroque period, Annibale Carracci and appears most evident in The Loves of the Gods (1597-1600) fresco on the Farnese Palace’s ceiling.

Baroque Style Frescos

Illusionism: Trompe l’Oeil and Quadratura

The idea of “opening up” spaces within paintings was a large part of Baroque Art, as this also gave the sense of it being an optical illusion with the painted image appearing three-dimensional. Creating this three-dimensionality was known as trompe l’oeil , which means “deceive the eye” in French.

We can see this on many of the frescos in churches and paintings throughout the Baroque period. However, it did not start during this art period and can instead be found dating back as early as the 1800s. In fact, this technique was used as early as some Greek mural paintings, as well as far into the future with artists like Salvador Dali, who utilized this technique in his Surrealist paintings .

Baroque artists employed another perspective technique called  quadratura , which depicts images that appear like parts of real architecture and are intentionally painted as continuations of the real architecture. This technique used theories based on architectural perspective to apply it accurately.

Famous Baroque Painters

Below, we look at only a handful of well-known Baroque artists, including prominent painters, architects, and their buildings, as well as sculptors and their sculptures. However, this does not exclude the many other masterpieces created during the Baroque period and what they contributed to this period of art and culture. Baroque paintings were found far and wide around Europe, and we will see paintings from Italy, France, Spain, Flanders, Holland, England, and Germany.

Many artists had other creative attributes that made them not only painters, but sculptors, draftsmen, drawers, and architects, among others. Among the most celebrated Dutch painters in art history include figures like Johannes Vermeer and Rembrandt van Rijn, while French painters like Claude Lorrain and Charles Le Brun went on to influence many artists in the centuries to follow, with contributions to major institutions such as the Palace of Versailles. Other prolific painters like Nicolas Poussin and Anthony van Dyck were also known to establish unique and impactful history and landscape paintings.

We will see that there is a lot of crossover between many of these painters, as each of them drew inspiration from many sources during this time, including the styles of prominent masters from the Renaissance period like Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael.

Annibale Carracci (1560 – 1609)

Annibale Carracci
3 November 1560
15 July 1609
Italian
Baroque art, Classicism, mythology, religious art, portraiture, and landscape painting
Painting 

Annibale Carracci pioneered Baroque painting along with his brother, Agostino Carracci (1557-1602), and their cousin, Ludovico Carracci (1555-1619). They are well known for starting the Bolognese School of Art (1590-1630), initially named Accademia dei Desiderosi , which they later changed to Accademia degli Incamminati (Academy of the Progressives). This was a turning point for art in Italy as it moved away from the styles called Realism and Mannerism. Annibale Carracci sought to depict elements of Classicism and Naturalism in his artworks. He is remembered as having a realistic style with large brushstrokes.

He drew from the High Renaissance’s stylistic theories of perspective and proportion to enhance the aesthetic and naturalistic appeal.

Carracci’s artworks had a lively effect and were painted in life-size and full-length in order to create a deeper emotional connection with the viewer. Additionally, he used the technique of illusion, as his paintings almost invited the viewer to become a part of the subject matter through realistic portrayals, often of religious figures and landscapes. Examples include Piet à (1585) and Resurrection of Christ (1593).

Baroque Style

Caravaggio (1571 – 1610)

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
29 September 1571
18 July 1610
Italian
Baroque art, Renaissance, mythology,  painting, and still-life
Painting

Caravaggio was a revolutionary artist of his time, and lived a more conflicted lifestyle, being involved in numerous crimes. He started his artistic training in Mannerism in Rome, but he eventually moved away from this style and adopted a more naturalistic approach. He became a popular artist due to his innovative style of painting and use of subject matter.

Caravaggio painted from the world around him and would often incorporate everyday imagery with the sacred figures. In a way, he bridged a gap between the normalcy of life with the sacred. He made saints human, and some sources refer to the concept of “spiritual populism”, in which he made sacred, religious art available to the ordinary man on the street.

The divine was not a far-off ideal of perfection anymore, which was in line with what the Catholic Church wanted from art during the Counter-Reformation.

Many of the great examples of Caravaggio paintings include The Calling of Saint Matthew (1600), The Martyrdom of Saint Matthew (1600), Crucifixion of Saint Peter (1601), Death of the Virgin (1606), and the Flagellation of Christ (1607), among many others. You may notice Caravaggio’s radical Realism in his painting, Death of the Virgin (1606), which was criticized for its portrayal of Mary. The dead virgin in this painting was Mary, but the artist depicted her lifeless body as just another woman, which leads viewers to believe that the woman was a commoner. 

Baroque Period

Caravaggio emphasizes the naturalness of this composition with various elements, such as the simplicity of her clothing, her hands and feet appearing swollen, and the simplicity of the scene and men around her body mourning her. The only indication of her being a holy figure is the thin halo around her head. Caravaggio opens the whole scene to the viewer in the forefront, with the various mourners seemingly creating a backdrop in the background, thus forcing the viewer to be there with the dead body of Mother Mary.

Additionally, we see the use of stark contrast of dark and light in many of Caravaggio’s paintings. His use of the chiaroscuro technique became a signature characteristic of his artworks. This also influenced many other artists around Europe and became a phenomenon called Carravagism.

Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1656)

Artemisia Lomi or Artemisia Gentileschi
8 July 1593
1653
Italian
Baroque art, portraiture, , Feminism, painting, and Realism
Painting

Artemisia Gentileschi was a prominent female artist during the Baroque period. She is remembered for her use of techniques like chiaroscuro , a close second to Caravaggio. She also portrayed many women from biblical stories, scenes of rape, and various power struggles, as well as emphasizing the role of a woman within a man’s world, as the art world was mainly dominated by men at the time. Her scenes depicted the realism we so often see from many Baroque masters.

Some of her popular works include Susanna and the Elders (1610), Danae (1612), and Judith Slaying Holofernes (c. 1620), which is a dynamic artwork and one also done by Caravaggio. In Gentileschi’s version of Judith Slaying Holofernes (c. 1620) we see the artist focusing more on the women slaying the male figure, who appears to struggle as they pin him down and begin the beheading process.

Baroque Paintings

This composition takes place in the heat of the moment, so to say, as we also notice how the blood sprays out of the neck, making the whole scene all the more emotionally intense and severe. She also used darker areas of color with the chiaroscuro technique in addition to a deep palette of colors.

Other aspects of this composition point to the power Gentileschi displayed as an artist herself, being able to portray her subject matter the way she wanted to. The violent display of power and death in this painting also points to the underlying motivation for painting a scene like this, as she was the victim of sexual assault as a young woman.

Baroque Architecture

Baroque architecture was characterized by ornate decorations, high ceilings decorated with frescos, and lavish ornamentation to draw viewers’ attention and spark an emotional reaction of awe. It is important to note the role of the Jesuits in Baroque architecture. 

The Jesuits were a religious order at the time of the Counter-Reformation and sought to create a new type of architecture to inspire the people and depict the majesty of the Catholic Church.

Giacomo Della Porta (1532 – 1602)

Giacomo della Porta
1532
1602
Italian
Baroque art and Baroque architecture
Architecture and sculpture

Baroque architecture is believed to have started with the Church of the Ges ù (1584) and the pioneering style of its façade, which was designed by Giacomo Della Porta, a sculptor and architect in Italy. Giacomo Della Porta was an important architect of the Baroque period. He learned from other great masters of art like Michelangelo and was instructed by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola (1507-1573), a leading Mannerist architect in Italy.

Baroque Style Architecture

The Church of the Ges ù  was constructed for the Society of Jesus, also called the Jesuits. Della Porta worked alongside Vignola on this building, and although the appearance of the façade was not as elaborate as the later Baroque buildings, we can see it appears minimally decorated overall with only a concentration of architectural adornments near the entrance, which set the tone for the beginning of Baroque architecture.

Baroque Sculpture

There were many great sculptors during the Baroque period but there was one artist who stood out among everyone else and laid the foundations of what sculpture was. Baroque sculpture was made, as ordered by the Catholic Church, to create awe and inspire the common people.

Baroque sculpture was characterized by various features, namely its interactivity, as viewers were able to walk around the whole sculpture and view its completeness, which made its message more impactful.

It was also used in churches to accentuate architectural structures. Sculptors were so skilled in their art they created works with extensive attention to detail, from gender to the diaphanous nature of the fabric on the sculpted figure.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680)

Gian Lorenzo Bernini
7 December 1598
28 November 1680
Italian
Baroque art and Baroque architecture
Sculpture and architecture 

This brings us to Gian Lorenzo Bernini, a famous architect and sculptor in Italy. He was predominantly a sculptor and has been compared by some scholars to possess the same importance that Shakespeare had for the world of theater and literature.

Bernini was considered a prodigy during his early years, with many comparing him to Michelangelo.

Bernini’s sculptures depicted the moment of action taking place, which added to the intensity of the work upon viewing it. His subject matter consisted of biblical and mythological scenes and figures, and we can see examples of this in his sculptures like Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (1619), The Rape of Proserpina (1621-1622), Apollo and Daphne  (1622-1625), and David (1623-1624).

Baroque Style Sculpture

One of Bernini’s greatest sculptures to date is the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1647-1652). Made of pure marble, it is housed in the Cornaro Chapel in Rome. The sculpture depicts Saint Teresa of Avila lying half-conscious on a cloud with an angel. The angel is slightly elevated, next to her body on her right, and just about to pierce her heart with a spear.

The marble is carved in such a way that makes the Saint appear as light as a feather floating on a cloud, which highlights the story Bernini is portraying here.

Here, we see Saint Teresa experiencing a deep moment of ecstasy. It appears spiritual in nature, but Bernini also focused on the physical and sensual effects this experience gave the Saint. We see this in the way her body lies as well as her facial expression. Behind the central figures, we also notice what appears like rays of light shining down on the moment of pure bliss.

When we look at the whole composition, we will also notice the central figures are within a columned structure with two theater boxes on either side of the main subject of the Saint and Angel. The theater boxes are directly opposite each other and contain sculptures of the Cornaro family.

Baroque Art Sculpture

Notable Baroque Painters Beyond Italy 

While styles in Baroque architecture had a lasting influence on generation of artists to follow the 17th century, other art forms such as furniture design also thrived solely in the 17th century. Below are other famous Baroque artists worth noting, especially those who came from different European countries other than Italy.

Flemish Baroque Artists

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) was an influential Flemish artist, who created artworks with religious and mythological themes. His portfolio was diverse and ranged from landscapes and portraits to altarpieces and large paintings. This Baroque period artist was known to give Northern Baroque painting a new perspective. He was influenced by artists like Titian and incorporated a diversity of male and female figures in the nude in his paintings.

Furthermore, his paintings depicted strong emotional vibrancy and were often described as exuberant in style.

Some of his famous artworks include The Elevation of the Cross (1611), Massacre of the Innocents (1612), Prometheus Bound (1618), The Adoration of the Magi (1624), Venus and Adonis (1635), The Three Graces  (1639), and the Return of the Peasants (1640), the latter of which depicts Ruben’s passion for landscapes. Apart from figures like Rubens, other Flemish painters of the Baroque style included Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690), and Pieter van Bloemen (1657-1720). 

When Was the Baroque Period

French Baroque Artists

There are many renowned French Baroque artists who have left a significant impact on the development of French Baroque art. These include figures like Philippe de Champaigne (1602-1674), Laurent de La Hyre (1606-1656), Louise Moillon (1610-1696), and Charles Le Brun (1619-1690). Among the most prolific figures was Georges de La Tour (1593-1652), who created artworks using strong chiaroscuro effects similar to that of Caravaggio’s approach.

What made La Tour’s paintings different was his simplified approach and rendering of figures. He was known for depicting scenes that feature candlelit settings. Where Caravaggio’s paintings depicted emotional intensity, La Tour’s paintings depicted an emotional stillness. His subject matter included religious figures and narratives. Famous examples of his artworks include The Penitent Magdalene (c. 1640), Joseph the Carpenter (1642), Nativity (1644), and The Newborn Christ (1645).

Baroque Style Painting

Spanish Baroque Artists

Diego Rodríquez de Silva y Velázquez (1599-1660) was a Spanish Baroque period artist who also painted for King Philip IV’s court, which led him to paint numerous portraits of court officials as well as of the Spanish royal family. He was well-known as one of the pioneering portraiture artists of his time. Many sources also refer to him as the “the painter’s painter” due to his extensive attention to detail in his paintings. He often painted everyday scenes of people and nature.

Some of his famous artworks include The Supper at Emmaus (1618-1623), The Surrender of Breda (1635), Portrait of Juan de Pareja (1650), Portrait of Innocent X (1650), and Las Meninas (1656), the latter of which was one of the most famous artworks by the artist due to the strategic rendering of compositional elements like space, color, perspective, and line. Other renowned Spanish Baroque painters include artists like Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652), Juan de Pareja (1606-1670), and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682). 

Baroque Period Artist

Dutch Baroque Artists

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606-1669) was one of the most influential and well-known Dutch painters, who to this day, is remembered as an important artist. This Dutch Baroque period artist produced many great artworks during his career, including the masterpiece, The Night Watch (1642). Rembrandt created different scenes of everyday life, landscapes, as well as religious and mythological subjects. Rembrandt’s paintings are known to have captured the affluence during the Dutch Golden Age , and was admired by other Dutch contemporaries such as Johannes Vermeer, Frans Hals the Elder, Pieter de Hooch, and Jan Havickszoon Steen. 

Rembrandt’s paintings showed varied emotional states including a keen eye for detail while painting his scenes.

He also utilized techniques of light and dark contrasts ( chiaroscuro ) and innovative ways of handling his paint and brushstrokes, often using different textures. Some of his famous paintings include  The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp (1632), Man in Oriental Costume  (1632), The Night Watch (1642), Slaughtered Ox (1655), Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph (1656), and  Self-Portrait with Two Circles (1660).

Baroque Period Artwork

From Dark to Light: Baroque and Rococo

The Baroque period, which started in Rome, eventually evolved into what was called the Rococo period , which started around 1702 until 1780 in France. The Rococo period was a time during which art portrayed a sense of lightness as opposed to the darker portrayals we see from the Baroque period. What both art movements shared was the dramatic flair in their artworks and the use of ornate decorations, as seen in paintings, sculpture, and architecture.

Baroque continued to live on in the future with many Baroque period artists influencing other artists from the Rococo period, as well as subsequent art movements like Romanticism, Impressionism , and Post-Impressionism. Contemporary artists and architects like I.M. Pei and Frank Gehry have also drawn inspiration from Bernini’s creations.

Baroque art was an innovative art period led by many great artists of its time who sought to move beyond the boundaries of what art was before. With a foundation in depicting the realness and naturalness of life and its people in combination with the sacred imagery of biblical and mythological figures, Baroque art brought the idealistic aspects of art down to earth.

You can also read our Baroque art facts webstory .

Frequently Asked Questions

Baroque art was an art period during the Counter-Reformation when the Catholic Church was in opposition to the Protestants, who had started the Reformation. As part of the reaction, the Catholic Church wanted art to inspire the masses and leave them in awe of the magnificence and beauty of not only the Church, but the power and majesty of the biblical and mythological narratives portrayed in paintings, sculpture, and architecture. Baroque art flourished since the early 17th century in Europe and lasted until the mid-18th century. 

What Are the Characteristics of Baroque Art?

Baroque art was characterized by the use of ornate decorations in paintings, sculpture, and architecture. Baroque artists portrayed a heightened sense of emotion in their paintings, often through the depiction of a scene with intense action and movement. Furthermore, the Baroque period was also known to be theatrical while remaining true to the styles of Classicism and Naturalism. Many artists used new techniques to emphasize emotion, including chiaroscuro , which explored light and dark contrasts.

When Was the Baroque Period?

The Baroque period started as an art movement after the Renaissance and Mannerism art periods, and was followed by the Rococo art movement. The Baroque era in art history is widely understood to have reached its height in the 17th century in Rome and was used to appeal to the intensity of human emotions, including drama, exaggeration, dynamism, and grandeur.

Emma Littleton

Emma completed her Bachelor’s Degree in International Studies at the University of Stellenbosch. She majored in French, Political Science, and History. She graduated cum laude with a Postgraduate Diploma in Intercultural Communication. However, with all of these diverse interests, she became confused about what occupation to pursue. While exploring career options Emma interned at a nonprofit organization as a social media manager and content creator. This confirmed what she had always known deep down, that writing was her true passion.

Growing up, Emma was exposed to the world of art at an early age thanks to her artist father. As she grew older her interests in art and history collided and she spent hours pouring over artists’ biographies and books about art movements. Primitivism, Art Nouveau, and Surrealism are some of her favorite art movements. By joining the Art in Context team, she has set foot on a career path that has allowed her to explore all of her interests in a creative and dynamic way.

Learn more about the Art in Context Team .

Cite this Article

Emma, Littleton, “Baroque Art – Exploring the Exuberance of Baroque Period Art.” Art in Context. April 23, 2021. URL: https://artincontext.org/baroque-art/

Littleton, E. (2021, 23 April). Baroque Art – Exploring the Exuberance of Baroque Period Art. Art in Context. https://artincontext.org/baroque-art/

Littleton, Emma. “Baroque Art – Exploring the Exuberance of Baroque Period Art.” Art in Context , April 23, 2021. https://artincontext.org/baroque-art/ .

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The Most Famous Artists and Artworks

Discover the most famous artists, paintings, sculptors…in all of history! 

baroque period essay

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Analysis of Baroque Period of the Art Essay

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The art period of Baroque has Italy as the place of its birth and the timeframe between 1600 and 1750 as the years of its existence. The 17th century saw the spread of this art style to the other countries of Europe, including France, Germany, Netherlands, etc. The topics depicted by the Baroque artists vary from still life and landscape pictures to portraits and religious topics. The latter constitute probably the largest share of Baroque as the period during which the Reformation and struggle between the Catholics and Protestants took place (The Humanities, 1993). Thus, Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt van Rijn, and Michelangelo Caravaggio are the prominent representatives of the Baroque fine arts, in whose works religious topics were skillfully disclosed.

To begin with, Michelangelo Caravaggio (1573 – 1610) was the first, according to the chronological order, to create his masterpieces in Baroque Italy. John the Baptist is one of his first works, which reflects the features typical of Caravaggio’s art:

Art History. (2009). Baroque. Web.

Created in 1598 using the oil in canvas technique, this painting is remarkable for the author’s use of light and shadow to emphasize the emotional state of the painting’s main character. John the Baptist is placed in the center of the painting, and his critical attitude to life is seen from the expression on his face. This expression also explains the pessimistic attitude Caravaggio had towards this world (The Humanities, 1993).

Further on, the famous Dutch painter Peter Paul Rubens managed to combine the religious topics in his art with his own philosophy or art and life. The painting Christ and St. John with Angels is one of his masterpieces that reflects the features of Baroque and the personal philosophy of the painter:

The picture presents four children playing together on the background of the dark sky. These children symbolize the beginning of the new life that the Christianity awaits, while the dark sky is the symbol of the harsh reality of the actual life. In this, Ruben’s critical philosophy and the hope for the best can be observed.

The religious topics were also explored by Rembrandt in his art. Created in 1668 – 1669, The Return of the Prodigal Son is the piece of art depicting one of the biblical myths and a group of its participants:

Thus, the painting displays the images of five people, among whom the prodigal son and his father are in the spotlight, while the rest of the characters are placed in the shadow to stress the major roles of the first two people. The playing of light and shadow is a remarkable feature of Rembrandt’s works, while the biblical topics reflect the reality of the Baroque epoch when the Catholic Church by means of art tried to win new supporters in its struggle with Protestantism (The Humanities, 1993).

To conclude, Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt van Rijn, and Michelangelo Caravaggio are the prominent representatives of the Baroque fine arts, in whose works religious topics were skillfully disclosed. The personal philosophies of these painters are intertwined with their major art topics, which makes their works the greatest masterpieces of the Baroque art.

The Humanities: Cultural Roots and Continuities. (1993). D.C. Heath and Company. Lexington, Massachusetts.

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Yann Nury’s Cherry Tomato Tart

Makes one 12-inch tart

Ingredients

3 pounds cherry tomatoes

1 tablespoon Dijon mustard

1 red onion

Dried oregano to taste

For the crust

350 grams all-purpose flour

100 grams warm water

100 grams olive oil

12 grams dry instant yeast (or 24 grams fresh yeast)

10 grams salt

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  1. Essay about The Baroque Period

    The Baroque Period (1600-1750) was mainly a period of newly discovered ideas. From major new innovations in science, to vivid changes in geography, people were exploring more of the world around them. The music of the baroque period was just as extreme as the new changes. Newly recognized composers such as Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, and Monteverdi ...

  2. Baroque period summary

    Baroque period, (17th-18th century) Era in the arts that originated in Italy in the 17th century and flourished elsewhere well into the 18th century.It embraced painting, sculpture, architecture, decorative arts, and music. The word, derived from a Portuguese term for an irregularly shaped pearl and originally used derogatorily, has long been employed to describe a variety of characteristics ...

  3. Baroque Rome

    The Rome of Alexander VII, 1655-1667. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985. Baroque architects, artists, and urban planners so magnified and invigorated the classical and ecclesiastical traditions of the city that it became for centuries after the acknowledged capital of the European art world.

  4. Baroque art, an introduction (article)

    In the context of European history, the period from c. 1585 to c. 1700/1730 is often called the Baroque era. The word "baroque" derives from the Portuguese and Spanish words for a large, irregularly shaped pearl ("barroco" and "barrueco," respectively). Eighteenth-century critics were the first to apply the term to the art of the ...

  5. Baroque

    The Baroque (UK: / b ə ˈ r ɒ k / bə-ROK, US: /-ˈ r oʊ k /-⁠ ROHK; French:) is a Western style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished from the early 17th century until the 1750s. It followed Renaissance art and Mannerism and preceded the Rococo (in the past often referred to as "late Baroque") and Neoclassical styles.

  6. Baroque art and architecture

    The work that distinguishes the Baroque period is stylistically complex and even contradictory. Currents of naturalism and Classicism, for example, coexisted and intermingled with the typical Baroque style.In general, however, the desire to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses, often in dramatic ways, underlies its manifestations.

  7. The European Baroque Era

    The European Baroque Era Essay. Exclusively available on IvyPanda®. Baroque is an artistic style which gained its popularity in the 17 th century and lasted till the early 18 th century. This style was quite widespread in a number of the world countries. It emerged as a demand for new art which would be more expressive and realistic.

  8. Art: The Baroque Period Overview

    Get a custom Essay on Art: The Baroque Period Overview. This is clear in the Baroque period through the example of Bernini's Fountain of the Four Rivers. The Baroque period was heavily concerned with reinforcing natural rhythm and a sense of time into the artwork produced. Bernini's Fountain of the Four Rivers represents the four continents ...

  9. The Influential Baroque Era: Music, Art, and Legacy

    The Baroque period was a prolific era for the arts, particularly in music and architecture. Baroque music is characterized by its elaborate melodic lines, ornate harmonies, and complex musical structures. This period of music and art spans from 1600 to 1750.

  10. The Baroque Period: a Flourishing Era of Artistic Expression

    This essay about the Baroque period outlines its significance as a dynamic era spanning from 1600 to 1750, marked by emotional depth and ornate styles in art, architecture, and music. It discusses how the Baroque emerged in Rome as a response to the Protestant Reformation, emphasizing the Catholic Church's use of art to evoke spiritual fervor.

  11. The Baroque Era

    It was during the baroque period that natural phenomena and human spirits were incorporated in music composed (Winterer, 2005). This essay explores styles of music that were used during Baroque Era. The Baroque Era and music style (1600-1750) The period covered by Baroque era began from 1600 C.E. It commenced with the birth of opera.

  12. Baroque And Classical Period: [Essay Example], 691 words

    The Influential Baroque Era: Music, Art, and Legacy Essay The Baroque period was a prolific era for the arts, particularly in music and architecture. Baroque music is characterized by its elaborate melodic lines, ornate harmonies, and complex musical structures.

  13. Baroque Period Essay

    The Baroque Period Essay. reached its peak of success between the 17th and 18th century. This time period is known as the Baroque period. Countless composers achieved immense success during this point in history, two of the most famous being, Johann Bach and George Frideric Handel. The first opera, oratorio, and cantata occurred during the ...

  14. Baroque Art

    The Baroque period started as an art movement after the Renaissance and Mannerism art periods, and was followed by the Rococo art movement. The Baroque era in art history is widely understood to have reached its height in the 17th century in Rome and was used to appeal to the intensity of human emotions, including drama, exaggeration, dynamism ...

  15. The Baroque Era Essay examples

    The Baroque era was a unique period in music that began during the 1600's and ended around 1750. The word "baroque" is define by Merriam's Collegiate Dictionary as, "of, relating to, or having the characteristics of a style of artistic expression prevalent esp. in the 17th century that is marked generally by use of complex forms, bold ...

  16. 124 Baroque Essay Topics & Samples

    The era of baroque was an outcome of the struggle of the artists who denied a chance to exhibit their talents in the renaissance period. Baroque and Rococo: Different Styles and Their Purposes An example of such a confrontation could be found between the adepts of two different art styles that were prevalent in the 18th century Baroque and Rococo.

  17. Baroque Essays: Examples, Topics, & Outlines

    Baroque vs. Classical Music Although music from the 17th, 18th, and 19th century is all often grouped under the designation of 'classical' music today, the Baroque and the Classical periods have distinctive features and stylization that are immediately apparent when listening to the great composers of both eras. When listening to a Baroque work, the contrast between different 'movements' is ...

  18. The Baroque Period Essay

    The Baroque Period Essay. Music reached its peak of success between the 17th and 18th century. This time period is known as the Baroque period. Countless composers achieved immense success during this point in history, two of the most famous being, Johann Bach and George Frideric Handel. The first opera, oratorio, and cantata occurred during ...

  19. Baroque Period

    Baroque Period. Baroque was the artistic period dating from 1600 to 1750 in European history. Derived from the Portuguese word barocco, Baroque literally means an 'uneven pearl. ' Often compared to Hellenistic art, Baroque artists discovered emotions and used strong contrasts of light and shade showcasing continued motion in their works.

  20. Analysis of Baroque Period of the Art

    The art period of Baroque has Italy as the place of its birth and the timeframe between 1600 and 1750 as the years of its existence. The 17th century saw the spread of this art style to the other countries of Europe, including France, Germany, Netherlands, etc. The topics depicted by the Baroque artists vary from still life and landscape ...

  21. Baroque Period And Opera

    From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. ... Over the baroque period opera evolved and developed into different types and varied in different areas. Orfeo was characteristic of a Florentine opera and an opera seria. All forms of opera shared similar musical ...

  22. Baroque Art Essay

    Baroque Art Essay. Baroque art can be described as a "distinctive new style" in which artists embraced "dynamism, theatricality, and elaborate ornamentation, all used to spectacular effect, often on a grandiose scale". Baroque art encompasses a vast range of art from the dramatic and theatrical Italian pieces, as the quote suggests, to ...

  23. An Easy, Beautiful Tomato Tart to Make All Summer Long

    1. Lightly brush a 12-inch round metal tart pan with olive oil. 2. Make the dough: Mix the warm water, olive oil and yeast in a small bowl until completely incorporated.

  24. Baroque Period Essay

    Decent Essays. 146 Words. 1 Page. Open Document. In the early Baroque period, an era that started around 1600 and ended around 1750, the music went through rapid changes. During this time opera kicked off in a huge way and also gave soloists the chance to properly show off. The baroque period is prominent for the development of counterpoint, a ...