--> |

- Title Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures Using Python
- Author(s) Brad Miller, David Ranum.
- Publisher: Franklin, Beedle & Associates (2011), eBook (Creative Commons Edition, 2013)
- License(s): CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
- Hardcover/Papeback 438 pages
- eBook HTML and PDF
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 1590282574
- ISBN-13: 978-1590282571

Tis textbook is about computer science. It is also about Python. However, there is much more. The study of algorithms and data structures is central to understanding what computer science is all about. Learning computer science is not unlike learning any other type of difficult subject matter.

The only way to be successful is through deliberate and incremental exposure to the fundamental ideas. A beginning computer scientist needs practice so that there is a thorough understanding before continuing on to the more complex parts of the curriculum. In addition, a beginner needs to be given the opportunity to be successful and gain confidence.

This textbook is designed to serve as a text for a first course on data structures and algorithms, typically taught as the second course in the computer science curriculum. Even though the second course is considered more advanced than the first course, this book assumes you are beginners at this level.

You may still be struggling with some of the basic ideas and skills from a first computer science course and yet be ready to further explore the discipline and continue to practice problem solving. We cover abstract data types and data structures, writing algorithms, and solving problems. We look at a number of data structures and solve classic problems that arise.

The tools and techniques that you learn here will be applied over and over as you continue your study of computer science.

- Python Programming
- Algorithms and Data Structures
- Computational Complexity
- Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures Using Python (Brad Miller, et al)
- The Mirror Site (1) - HTML
- The Mirror Site (2) - PDF
- The Mirror Site (3) - PDF
- The Mirror Site (4) - PDF (770 pages)

This textbook serves as a gentle introduction for undergraduates to theoretical concepts in data structures and algorithms in computer science while providing coverage of practical implementation (coding) issues.

This introduction to computer programming with Python begins with some of the basics of computing and programming before diving into the fundamental elements and building blocks of computer programs in Python language.

This book covers Analysis and Design of Algorithms, Scientific Computing, Monte Carlo Simulations, and Parallel Algorithms. It teaches the core knowledge required by any scientist interested in numerical algorithms and computational finance.

This book uses Python to introduce folks to programming and algorithmic thinking. It is sharply focused on classical algorithms, but it also gives a solid understanding of fundamental algorithmic problem-solving techniques.

It promotes object-oriented design using Python and illustrates the use of the latest object-oriented design patterns. Virtually all the data structures are discussed in the context of a single class hierarchy.

Learn how to use Python to write programs that do in minutes what would take you hours to do by hand - no prior programming experience required. You'll create Python programs that effortlessly perform useful and impressive feats of automation.

This hands-on guide takes you through the Python programming language a step at a time, beginning with basic programming concepts before moving on to functions, recursion, data structures, and object-oriented design. 2nd edition updated for Python 3.

It focuses on introducing programming techniques and developing good habits. To that end, our approach avoids some of the more esoteric features of Python and concentrates on the programming basics that transfer directly to other imperative programming.

This book deepens your knowledge of problem-solving techniques from the realm of computer science by challenging you with time-tested scenarios, exercises, and algorithms. As you work through examples in search, clustering, graphs, and more.

The algorithmic approach to solving problems in computer technology is an essential tool. This book presents a readable, entertaining, and energetic book that will motivate and challenge students to open their minds to the algorithmic nature of problem solving.

-->: | |

- IT Research Library
- Books by O'Reilly®
- Pro Certificates Studies
- Careers and Job Interviews
- Project Management
- Search Engines
- Developer Tools
- Bargin Computer Books
- Free IT Magazines
- About This Site

- Runestone in social media: Follow @iRunestone Our Facebook Page
- Table of Contents
- Assignments
- Peer Instruction (Instructor)
- Peer Instruction (Student)
- Change Course
- Instructor's Page
- Progress Page
- Edit Profile
- Change Password
- Scratch ActiveCode
- Scratch Activecode
- Instructors Guide
- About Runestone
- Report A Problem
- This Chapter
- 1. Introduction' data-toggle="tooltip" >

## Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures using Python ¶

By Brad Miller and David Ranum, Luther College

There is a wonderful collection of YouTube videos recorded by Gerry Jenkins to support all of the chapters in this text.

- 1.1. Objectives
- 1.2. Getting Started
- 1.3. What Is Computer Science?
- 1.4. What Is Programming?
- 1.5. Why Study Data Structures and Abstract Data Types?
- 1.6. Why Study Algorithms?
- 1.7. Review of Basic Python
- 1.8.1. Built-in Atomic Data Types
- 1.8.2. Built-in Collection Data Types
- 1.9.1. String Formatting
- 1.10. Control Structures
- 1.11. Exception Handling
- 1.12. Defining Functions
- 1.13.1. A Fraction Class
- 1.13.2. Inheritance: Logic Gates and Circuits
- 1.14. Summary
- 1.15. Key Terms
- 1.16. Discussion Questions
- 1.17. Programming Exercises
- 2.1.1. A Basic implementation of the MSDie class
- 2.2. Making your Class Comparable
- 3.1. Objectives
- 3.2. What Is Algorithm Analysis?
- 3.3. Big-O Notation
- 3.4.1. Solution 1: Checking Off
- 3.4.2. Solution 2: Sort and Compare
- 3.4.3. Solution 3: Brute Force
- 3.4.4. Solution 4: Count and Compare
- 3.5. Performance of Python Data Structures
- 3.7. Dictionaries
- 3.8. Summary
- 3.9. Key Terms
- 3.10. Discussion Questions
- 3.11. Programming Exercises
- 4.1. Objectives
- 4.2. What Are Linear Structures?
- 4.3. What is a Stack?
- 4.4. The Stack Abstract Data Type
- 4.5. Implementing a Stack in Python
- 4.6. Simple Balanced Parentheses
- 4.7. Balanced Symbols (A General Case)
- 4.8. Converting Decimal Numbers to Binary Numbers
- 4.9.1. Conversion of Infix Expressions to Prefix and Postfix
- 4.9.2. General Infix-to-Postfix Conversion
- 4.9.3. Postfix Evaluation
- 4.10. What Is a Queue?
- 4.11. The Queue Abstract Data Type
- 4.12. Implementing a Queue in Python
- 4.13. Simulation: Hot Potato
- 4.14.1. Main Simulation Steps
- 4.14.2. Python Implementation
- 4.14.3. Discussion
- 4.15. What Is a Deque?
- 4.16. The Deque Abstract Data Type
- 4.17. Implementing a Deque in Python
- 4.18. Palindrome-Checker
- 4.19. Lists
- 4.20. The Unordered List Abstract Data Type
- 4.21.1. The Node Class
- 4.21.2. The Unordered List Class
- 4.22. The Ordered List Abstract Data Type
- 4.23.1. Analysis of Linked Lists
- 4.24. Summary
- 4.25. Key Terms
- 4.26. Discussion Questions
- 4.27. Programming Exercises
- 5.1. Objectives
- 5.2. What Is Recursion?
- 5.3. Calculating the Sum of a List of Numbers
- 5.4. The Three Laws of Recursion
- 5.5. Converting an Integer to a String in Any Base
- 5.6. Stack Frames: Implementing Recursion
- 5.7. Introduction: Visualizing Recursion
- 5.8. Sierpinski Triangle
- 5.9. Complex Recursive Problems
- 5.10. Tower of Hanoi
- 5.11. Exploring a Maze
- 5.12. Dynamic Programming
- 5.13. Summary
- 5.14. Key Terms
- 5.15. Discussion Questions
- 5.16. Glossary
- 5.17. Programming Exercises
- 6.1. Objectives
- 6.2. Searching
- 6.3.1. Analysis of Sequential Search
- 6.4.1. Analysis of Binary Search
- 6.5.1. Hash Functions
- 6.5.2. Collision Resolution
- 6.5.3. Implementing the Map Abstract Data Type
- 6.5.4. Analysis of Hashing
- 6.6. Sorting
- 6.7. The Bubble Sort
- 6.8. The Selection Sort
- 6.9. The Insertion Sort
- 6.10. The Shell Sort
- 6.11. The Merge Sort
- 6.12. The Quick Sort
- 6.13. Summary
- 6.14. Key Terms
- 6.15. Discussion Questions
- 6.16. Programming Exercises
- 7.1. Objectives
- 7.2. Examples of Trees
- 7.3. Vocabulary and Definitions
- 7.4. List of Lists Representation
- 7.5. Nodes and References
- 7.6. Parse Tree
- 7.7. Tree Traversals
- 7.8. Priority Queues with Binary Heaps
- 7.9. Binary Heap Operations
- 7.10.1. The Structure Property
- 7.10.2. The Heap Order Property
- 7.10.3. Heap Operations
- 7.11. Binary Search Trees
- 7.12. Search Tree Operations
- 7.13. Search Tree Implementation
- 7.14. Search Tree Analysis
- 7.15. Balanced Binary Search Trees
- 7.16. AVL Tree Performance
- 7.17. AVL Tree Implementation
- 7.18. Summary of Map ADT Implementations
- 7.19. Summary
- 7.20. Key Terms
- 7.21. Discussion Questions
- 7.22. Programming Exercises
- 8.1. Objectives
- 8.2. Vocabulary and Definitions
- 8.3. The Graph Abstract Data Type
- 8.4. An Adjacency Matrix
- 8.5. An Adjacency List
- 8.6. Implementation
- 8.7. The Word Ladder Problem
- 8.8. Building the Word Ladder Graph
- 8.9. Implementing Breadth First Search
- 8.10. Breadth First Search Analysis
- 8.11. The Knight’s Tour Problem
- 8.12. Building the Knight’s Tour Graph
- 8.13. Implementing Knight’s Tour
- 8.14. Knight’s Tour Analysis
- 8.15. General Depth First Search
- 8.16. Depth First Search Analysis
- 8.17. Topological Sorting
- 8.18. Strongly Connected Components
- 8.19. Shortest Path Problems
- 8.20. Dijkstra’s Algorithm
- 8.21. Analysis of Dijkstra’s Algorithm
- 8.22. Prim’s Spanning Tree Algorithm
- 8.23. Summary
- 8.24. Key Terms
- 8.25. Discussion Questions
- 8.26. Programming Exercises

## Acknowledgements ¶

We are very grateful to Franklin Beedle Publishers for allowing us to make this interactive textbook freely available. This online version is dedicated to the memory of our first editor, Jim Leisy, who wanted us to “change the world.”

## Indices and tables ¶

Search Page

- Table of Contents
- Scratch ActiveCode
- Navigation Help
- Help for Instructors
- About Runestone
- Report A Problem
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Analysis
- 3. Basic Data Structures
- 4. Recursion
- 5. Sorting and Searching
- 6. Trees and Tree Algorithms
- 7. Graphs and Graph Algorithms

## Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures using Python ¶

By Brad Miller and David Ranum, Luther College (as remixed by Jeffrey Elkner)

- 1.1. Objectives
- 1.2. Getting Started
- 1.3. What Is Computer Science?
- 1.4. What Is Programming?
- 1.5. Why Study Data Structures and Abstract Data Types?
- 1.6. Why Study Algorithms?
- 1.7. Review of Basic Python
- 1.8.1. Built-in Atomic Data Types
- 1.8.2. Built-in Collection Data Types
- 1.9.1. String Formatting
- 1.10. Control Structures
- 1.11. Exception Handling
- 1.12. Defining Functions
- 1.13.1. A Fraction Class
- 1.13.2. Inheritance: Logic Gates and Circuits
- 1.14. Summary
- 1.15. Key Terms
- 1.16. Discussion Questions
- 1.17. Programming Exercises
- 2.1. Objectives
- 2.2. What Is Algorithm Analysis?
- 2.3. Big-O Notation
- 2.4.1. Solution 1: Checking Off
- 2.4.2. Solution 2: Sort and Compare
- 2.4.3. Solution 3: Brute Force
- 2.4.4. Solution 4: Count and Compare
- 2.5. Performance of Python Data Structures
- 2.7. Dictionaries
- 2.8. Summary
- 2.9. Key Terms
- 2.10. Discussion Questions
- 2.11. Programming Exercises
- 3.1. Objectives
- 3.2. What Are Linear Structures?
- 3.3. What is a Stack?
- 3.4. The Stack Abstract Data Type
- 3.5. Implementing a Stack in Python
- 3.6. Simple Balanced Parentheses
- 3.7. Balanced Symbols (A General Case)
- 3.8. Converting Decimal Numbers to Binary Numbers
- 3.9.1. Conversion of Infix Expressions to Prefix and Postfix
- 3.9.2. General Infix-to-Postfix Conversion
- 3.9.3. Postfix Evaluation
- 3.10. What Is a Queue?
- 3.11. The Queue Abstract Data Type
- 3.12. Implementing a Queue in Python
- 3.13. Simulation: Hot Potato
- 3.14.1. Main Simulation Steps
- 3.14.2. Python Implementation
- 3.14.3. Discussion
- 3.15. What Is a Deque?
- 3.16. The Deque Abstract Data Type
- 3.17. Implementing a Deque in Python
- 3.18. Palindrome-Checker
- 3.19. Lists
- 3.20. The Unordered List Abstract Data Type
- 3.21.1. The Node Class
- 3.21.2. The Unordered List Class
- 3.22. The Ordered List Abstract Data Type
- 3.23.1. Analysis of Linked Lists
- 3.24. Summary
- 3.25. Key Terms
- 3.26. Discussion Questions
- 3.27. Programming Exercises
- 4.1. Objectives
- 4.2. What Is Recursion?
- 4.3. Calculating the Sum of a List of Numbers
- 4.4. The Three Laws of Recursion
- 4.5. Converting an Integer to a String in Any Base
- 4.6. Stack Frames: Implementing Recursion
- 4.7. Introduction: Visualizing Recursion
- 4.8. Sierpinski Triangle
- 4.9. Complex Recursive Problems
- 4.10. Tower of Hanoi
- 4.11. Exploring a Maze
- 4.12. Dynamic Programming
- 4.13. Summary
- 4.14. Key Terms
- 4.15. Discussion Questions
- 4.16. Glossary
- 4.17. Programming Exercises
- 5.1. Objectives
- 5.2. Searching
- 5.3.1. Analysis of Sequential Search
- 5.4.1. Analysis of Binary Search
- 5.5.1. Hash Functions
- 5.5.2. Collision Resolution
- 5.5.3. Implementing the Map Abstract Data Type
- 5.5.4. Analysis of Hashing
- 5.6. Sorting
- 5.7. The Bubble Sort
- 5.8. The Selection Sort
- 5.9. The Insertion Sort
- 5.10. The Shell Sort
- 5.11. The Merge Sort
- 5.12. The Quick Sort
- 5.13. Summary
- 5.14. Key Terms
- 5.15. Discussion Questions
- 5.16. Programming Exercises
- 6.1. Objectives
- 6.2. Examples of Trees
- 6.3. Vocabulary and Definitions
- 6.4. List of Lists Representation
- 6.5. Nodes and References
- 6.6. Parse Tree
- 6.7. Tree Traversals
- 6.8. Priority Queues with Binary Heaps
- 6.9. Binary Heap Operations
- 6.10.1. The Structure Property
- 6.10.2. The Heap Order Property
- 6.10.3. Heap Operations
- 6.11. Binary Search Trees
- 6.12. Search Tree Operations
- 6.13. Search Tree Implementation
- 6.14. Search Tree Analysis
- 6.15. Balanced Binary Search Trees
- 6.16. AVL Tree Performance
- 6.17. AVL Tree Implementation
- 6.18. Summary of Map ADT Implementations
- 6.19. Summary
- 6.20. Key Terms
- 6.21. Discussion Questions
- 6.22. Programming Exercises
- 7.1. Objectives
- 7.2. Vocabulary and Definitions
- 7.3. The Graph Abstract Data Type
- 7.4. An Adjacency Matrix
- 7.5. An Adjacency List
- 7.6. Implementation
- 7.7. The Word Ladder Problem
- 7.8. Building the Word Ladder Graph
- 7.9. Implementing Breadth First Search
- 7.10. Breadth First Search Analysis
- 7.11. The Knight’s Tour Problem
- 7.12. Building the Knight’s Tour Graph
- 7.13. Implementing Knight’s Tour
- 7.14. Knight’s Tour Analysis
- 7.15. General Depth First Search
- 7.16. Depth First Search Analysis
- 7.17. Topological Sorting
- 7.18. Strongly Connected Components
- 7.19. Shortest Path Problems
- 7.20. Dijkstra’s Algorithm
- 7.21. Analysis of Dijkstra’s Algorithm
- 7.22. Prim’s Spanning Tree Algorithm
- 7.23. Summary
- 7.24. Key Terms
- 7.25. Discussion Questions
- 7.26. Programming Exercises

## Acknowledgements ¶

We are very grateful to Franklin Beedle Publishers for allowing us to make this interactive textbook freely available. This online version is dedicated to the memory of our first editor, Jim Leisy, who wanted us to “change the world.”

## Indices and tables ¶

- Module Index
- Search Page

## Learn algorithms at your own pace

Guided problem solving tailored to your level. master concepts in minutes a day with bite-sized, interactive lessons in programming, pseudocode, data structures, conditionals, loops, and more., data analysis, computer science, programming & ai, science & engineering, join over 10 million people learning on brilliant, over 50,000 5-star reviews on ios app store and google play.

## Courses covered

## Introduction to Algorithms

- Conditionals
- While loops
- Binary search
- Selection sort
- Insertion sort
- Stable matching
- Algorithmic complexity

## Computer Science Fundamentals

- Binary Search
- Brute-Force Search
- Concurrency
- Decision Trees
- Graph Abstractions
- Greedy Algorithms
- Parallelism
- Programming

## Programming with Python

- Codebreaking
- Conditional Statements
- Control Flow
- Data Visualization
- Maze Navigation
- Python Syntax
- Reading Code
- Writing Code

## See math and science in a new way

All of our courses are crafted by award-winning teachers, researchers, and professionals from MIT, Caltech, Duke, Microsoft, Google, and more.

- Foundational Math
- Software Development
- Foundational Logic
- Data Science
- High School Math
- Engineering
- Statistics and Finance

## Practice Python Exercises and Challenges with Solutions

Free Coding Exercises for Python Developers. Exercises cover Python Basics , Data structure , to Data analytics . As of now, this page contains 18 Exercises.

What included in these Python Exercises?

Each exercise contains specific Python topic questions you need to practice and solve. These free exercises are nothing but Python assignments for the practice where you need to solve different programs and challenges.

- All exercises are tested on Python 3.
- Each exercise has 10-20 Questions.
- The solution is provided for every question.
- Practice each Exercise in Online Code Editor

These Python programming exercises are suitable for all Python developers. If you are a beginner, you will have a better understanding of Python after solving these exercises. Below is the list of exercises.

Select the exercise you want to solve .

## Basic Exercise for Beginners

Practice and Quickly learn Python’s necessary skills by solving simple questions and problems.

Topics : Variables, Operators, Loops, String, Numbers, List

## Python Input and Output Exercise

Solve input and output operations in Python. Also, we practice file handling.

Topics : print() and input() , File I/O

## Python Loop Exercise

This Python loop exercise aims to help developers to practice branching and Looping techniques in Python.

Topics : If-else statements, loop, and while loop.

## Python Functions Exercise

Practice how to create a function, nested functions, and use the function arguments effectively in Python by solving different questions.

Topics : Functions arguments, built-in functions.

## Python String Exercise

Solve Python String exercise to learn and practice String operations and manipulations.

## Python Data Structure Exercise

Practice widely used Python types such as List, Set, Dictionary, and Tuple operations in Python

## Python List Exercise

This Python list exercise aims to help Python developers to learn and practice list operations.

## Python Dictionary Exercise

This Python dictionary exercise aims to help Python developers to learn and practice dictionary operations.

## Python Set Exercise

This exercise aims to help Python developers to learn and practice set operations.

## Python Tuple Exercise

This exercise aims to help Python developers to learn and practice tuple operations.

## Python Date and Time Exercise

This exercise aims to help Python developers to learn and practice DateTime and timestamp questions and problems.

Topics : Date, time, DateTime, Calendar.

## Python OOP Exercise

This Python Object-oriented programming (OOP) exercise aims to help Python developers to learn and practice OOP concepts.

Topics : Object, Classes, Inheritance

## Python JSON Exercise

Practice and Learn JSON creation, manipulation, Encoding, Decoding, and parsing using Python

## Python NumPy Exercise

Practice NumPy questions such as Array manipulations, numeric ranges, Slicing, indexing, Searching, Sorting, and splitting, and more.

## Python Pandas Exercise

Practice Data Analysis using Python Pandas. Practice Data-frame, Data selection, group-by, Series, sorting, searching, and statistics.

## Python Matplotlib Exercise

Practice Data visualization using Python Matplotlib. Line plot, Style properties, multi-line plot, scatter plot, bar chart, histogram, Pie chart, Subplot, stack plot.

## Random Data Generation Exercise

Practice and Learn the various techniques to generate random data in Python.

Topics : random module, secrets module, UUID module

## Python Database Exercise

Practice Python database programming skills by solving the questions step by step.

Use any of the MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite to solve the exercise

## Exercises for Intermediate developers

The following practice questions are for intermediate Python developers.

If you have not solved the above exercises, please complete them to understand and practice each topic in detail. After that, you can solve the below questions quickly.

## Exercise 1: Reverse each word of a string

Expected Output

- Use the split() method to split a string into a list of words.
- Reverse each word from a list
- finally, use the join() function to convert a list into a string

Steps to solve this question :

- Split the given string into a list of words using the split() method
- Use a list comprehension to create a new list by reversing each word from a list.
- Use the join() function to convert the new list into a string
- Display the resultant string

## Exercise 2: Read text file into a variable and replace all newlines with space

Given : Assume you have a following text file (sample.txt).

Expected Output :

- First, read a text file.
- Next, use string replace() function to replace all newlines ( \n ) with space ( ' ' ).

Steps to solve this question : -

- First, open the file in a read mode
- Next, read all content from a file using the read() function and assign it to a variable.
- Display final string

## Exercise 3: Remove items from a list while iterating

Description :

In this question, You need to remove items from a list while iterating but without creating a different copy of a list.

Remove numbers greater than 50

Expected Output : -

- Get the list's size
- Iterate list using while loop
- Check if the number is greater than 50
- If yes, delete the item using a del keyword
- Reduce the list size

Solution 1: Using while loop

Solution 2: Using for loop and range()

## Exercise 4: Reverse Dictionary mapping

Exercise 5: display all duplicate items from a list.

- Use the counter() method of the collection module.
- Create a dictionary that will maintain the count of each item of a list. Next, Fetch all keys whose value is greater than 2

Solution 1 : - Using collections.Counter()

Solution 2 : -

## Exercise 6: Filter dictionary to contain keys present in the given list

Exercise 7: print the following number pattern.

Refer to Print patterns in Python to solve this question.

- Use two for loops
- The outer loop is reverse for loop from 5 to 0
- Increment value of x by 1 in each iteration of an outer loop
- The inner loop will iterate from 0 to the value of i of the outer loop
- Print value of x in each iteration of an inner loop
- Print newline at the end of each outer loop

## Exercise 8: Create an inner function

Question description : -

- Create an outer function that will accept two strings, x and y . ( x= 'Emma' and y = 'Kelly' .
- Create an inner function inside an outer function that will concatenate x and y.
- At last, an outer function will join the word 'developer' to it.

## Exercise 9: Modify the element of a nested list inside the following list

Change the element 35 to 3500

## Exercise 10: Access the nested key increment from the following dictionary

Under Exercises: -

## Python Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Exercise: Classes and Objects Exercises

Updated on: December 8, 2021 | 52 Comments

## Python Date and Time Exercise with Solutions

Updated on: December 8, 2021 | 10 Comments

## Python Dictionary Exercise with Solutions

Updated on: May 6, 2023 | 56 Comments

## Python Tuple Exercise with Solutions

Updated on: December 8, 2021 | 96 Comments

## Python Set Exercise with Solutions

Updated on: October 20, 2022 | 27 Comments

## Python if else, for loop, and range() Exercises with Solutions

Updated on: September 3, 2024 | 298 Comments

Updated on: August 2, 2022 | 155 Comments

Updated on: September 6, 2021 | 109 Comments

## Python List Exercise with Solutions

Updated on: December 8, 2021 | 201 Comments

Updated on: December 8, 2021 | 7 Comments

## Python Data Structure Exercise for Beginners

Updated on: December 8, 2021 | 116 Comments

## Python String Exercise with Solutions

Updated on: October 6, 2021 | 221 Comments

Updated on: March 9, 2021 | 23 Comments

Updated on: March 9, 2021 | 51 Comments

Updated on: July 20, 2021 | 29 Comments

## Python Basic Exercise for Beginners

Updated on: August 29, 2024 | 498 Comments

## Useful Python Tips and Tricks Every Programmer Should Know

Updated on: May 17, 2021 | 23 Comments

## Python random Data generation Exercise

Updated on: December 8, 2021 | 13 Comments

## Python Database Programming Exercise

Updated on: March 9, 2021 | 17 Comments

- Online Python Code Editor

Updated on: June 1, 2022 |

## About PYnative

PYnative.com is for Python lovers. Here, You can get Tutorials, Exercises, and Quizzes to practice and improve your Python skills .

## Explore Python

- Learn Python
- Python Basics
- Python Databases
- Python Exercises
- Python Quizzes
- Python Tricks

To get New Python Tutorials, Exercises, and Quizzes

## Legal Stuff

We use cookies to improve your experience. While using PYnative, you agree to have read and accepted our Terms Of Use , Cookie Policy , and Privacy Policy .

Copyright © 2018–2024 pynative.com

## Problems on Algorithms

A Comprehensive Exercise Book for Students in Software Engineering

- © 2022
- Habib Izadkhah 0

## Faculty of Mathematical Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

- Provides a comprehensive collection of practical problems on the design, analysis and verification of algorithms
- Includes approximately 1500 designed problems
- Presents algorithms which are supported by figures, hints, solutions, and comments

9723 Accesses

3 Citations

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

## Access this book

Subscribe and save.

- Get 10 units per month
- Download Article/Chapter or eBook
- 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
- Cancel anytime
- Available as EPUB and PDF
- Read on any device
- Instant download
- Own it forever
- Compact, lightweight edition
- Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
- Free shipping worldwide - see info
- Durable hardcover edition

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

## Other ways to access

Licence this eBook for your library

Institutional subscriptions

## About this book

Similar content being viewed by others.

## Advice for Future Steps

## Algorithmics

## Algorithm Design

- Software Engineering
- Design of Algorithms
- Analysis of Algorithms
- Data Analysis in Engineering
- Data Engineering

## Table of contents (15 chapters)

Front matter, mathematical induction.

Habib Izadkhah

## Growth of Functions

Recurrence relations, algorithm analysis, basic data structure, divide and conquer, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, backtracking algorithms, p, np, np-complete, and np-hard problems, back matter, authors and affiliations, about the author, bibliographic information.

Book Title : Problems on Algorithms

Book Subtitle : A Comprehensive Exercise Book for Students in Software Engineering

Authors : Habib Izadkhah

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-17043-0

Publisher : Springer Cham

eBook Packages : Computer Science , Computer Science (R0)

Copyright Information : The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022

Hardcover ISBN : 978-3-031-17042-3 Published: 02 November 2022

Softcover ISBN : 978-3-031-17045-4 Published: 03 November 2023

eBook ISBN : 978-3-031-17043-0 Published: 01 November 2022

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XII, 513

Number of Illustrations : 91 b/w illustrations, 4 illustrations in colour

Topics : Data Engineering , Computational Intelligence , Machine Learning , Mathematical and Computational Engineering

- Publish with us

Policies and ethics

- Find a journal
- Track your research

## Navigation Menu

Search code, repositories, users, issues, pull requests..., provide feedback.

We read every piece of feedback, and take your input very seriously.

## Saved searches

Use saved searches to filter your results more quickly.

To see all available qualifiers, see our documentation .

- Notifications You must be signed in to change notification settings

40 Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know, published by Packt

## PacktPublishing/40-Algorithms-Every-Programmer-Should-Know

Folders and files.

Name | Name | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

28 Commits | ||||

## Repository files navigation

40 algorithms every programmer should know.

This is the code repository for 40 Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know , published by Packt.

Hone your problem-solving skills by learning different algorithms and their implementation in Python

## What is this book about?

Algorithms have always played an important role in both the science and practice of computing. Beyond traditional computing, the ability to use algorithms to solve real-world problems is an important skill that any developer or programmer must have. This book will help you not only to develop the skills to select and use an algorithm to solve real-world problems but also to understand how it works.

This book covers the following exciting features:

- Explore existing data structures and algorithms found in Python libraries
- Implement graph algorithms for fraud detection using network analysis
- Work with machine learning algorithms to cluster similar tweets and process Twitter data in real time
- Predict the weather using supervised learning algorithms
- Use neural networks for object detection
- Create a recommendation engine that suggests relevant movies to subscribers
- Implement foolproof security using symmetric and asymmetric encryption on Google Cloud Platform (GCP)

If you feel this book is for you, get your copy today!

Page 37: The sentences "In the preceding code, the transformer is multiplication by two. So, we are using the map function to multiply each element in the list by two." must be read as "In the preceding code, the transformer is squaring the element. So, we are using the map function to square each element in the list."

Page 40: The sentence "Note that among the four types of Big O notation types presented, O(n2) has the worst performance and O(logn) has the best performance." must be read as "Note that among the four types of Big O notation types presented, O(n2) has the worst performance and O(1) has the best performance."

Page 43: The output of the code below:

Is incorrectly stated as: {'fire hydrant'} , the correct output is: {'leaves', 'fire hydrant'} .

Page 54: In the Terminology table, the Sibling nodes' definition reads: "Two nodes in a tree are called siblings if they are at the same level." By this definition, in the page 55 image, nodes E and F are also siblings, which is incorrect.

Instead use either one of these definitions:

Sibling nodes are nodes on the same hierarchical level under the same parent node.

Child nodes with the same parent are sibling nodes.

Page 64: The sentence "The total number of passes is shown in the following diagram:" and the following diagram are included by mistake on this page and must be ignored/omitted.

Page 66: 5th line of first code block must be read as "temp = list[i]".

Page 69: In the code for linear search, an indentation is needed in the else statement part. It works well for items that are in the searched list, but for items that aren't in the searched list, it goes to an infinite loop and needs to interrupt the kernel.

The code on page 69 is:

But should instead be indented like this:

Page 83: In the following sentence: "Any operation that can run independently on a split is called a map. In the preceding diagram, the map operation coverts ...", coverts should be replaced by converts.

Page 86: There is no explanation for what the e in Union(S, e) is. Here is the definition:

Union(S, e) e is the delta corresponding to the element k that we are adding to converge the solution.

## Instructions and Navigations

All of the code is organized into folders. For example, Chapter02.

The code will look like the following:

Following is what you need for this book: This book is for the serious programmer! Whether you are an experienced programmer looking to gain a deeper understanding of the math behind the algorithms or have limited programming or data science knowledge and want to learn more about how you can take advantage of these battle-tested algorithms to improve the way you design and write code, you’ll find this book useful. Experience with Python programming is a must, although knowledge of data science is helpful but not necessary.

With the following software and hardware list you can run all code files present in the book (Chapter 1-14).

## Software and Hardware List

Chapter | Software required | OS required |
---|---|---|

1-14 | Python version 3.7.2 or later | Windows/Linux/Mac |

We also provide a PDF file that has color images of the screenshots/diagrams used in this book. Click here to download it .

## Related products

Modern Computer Architecture and Organization [Packt] [Amazon]

Mastering Machine Learning Algorithms - Second Edition [Packt] [Amazon]

## Get to Know the Author

Imran Ahmad is a certified Google Instructor and has been teaching for Google and Learning Tree for the last many years. The topics Imran teaches include Python, Machine Learning, Algorithms, Big Data and Deep Learning. In his PhD, he proposed a new linear programming based algorithm called ATSRA , which can be used to optimally assign resources in a cloud computing environment. For the last 4 years, Imran is working in a high-profile machine learning project at the advanced analytics lab of the Canadian Federal Government. The project is to develop machine learning algorithms that can automate the process of immigration. Imran is currently working on developing algorithms to use GPUs optimally to train complex machine learning models.

## Suggestions and Feedback

Click here if you have any feedback or suggestions.

## Download a free PDF

If you have already purchased a print or Kindle version of this book, you can get a DRM-free PDF version at no cost. Simply click on the link to claim your free PDF.

https://packt.link/free-ebook/9781789801217

## Contributors 5

- Python 42.7%
- Jupyter Notebook 37.6%

## DEV Community

Posted on Jun 6, 2023 • Updated on Jun 29, 2023 • Originally published at evergrowingdev.hashnode.dev

## 🧮 Top 6 Platforms to Learn Algorithms for Free

Discover the best online resources to learn algorithms for free in 2023..

If you have a degree in Computer Science, you probably already know about algorithms.

But if you don’t have a degree and you’re learning to code , then you may be interested in learning algorithms to help strengthen your programming knowledge.

For those of you who are eager to learn algorithms, this article will guide you through the best online resources to learn algorithms for free in 2023.

## Understanding Algorithms

Algorithms, in simple terms, are step-by-step procedures or sets of instructions that computers follow to solve specific tasks.

Behind the scenes, algorithms are doing things like making our favourite websites load lightning-fast, enabling intelligent recommendations on streaming platforms, and even powering complex artificial intelligence systems (like Chat GPT).

Algorithms are the key formulas that transform raw data into meaningful outcomes, driving the way we interact with technology.

## Why Learn Algorithms?

The importance of algorithms cannot be overstated when it comes to programming. They are the building blocks upon which efficient software is constructed, providing the key to tackling real-world challenges effectively.

By using algorithms, developers can optimise the performance of their applications, reduce resource usage, and create many types of innovations.

Algorithms are not limited to just lines of code. They incorporate a mindset known as algorithmic thinking .

This approach to problem-solving involves breaking down complex tasks into smaller, more manageable steps. It encourages us to analyse problems from multiple angles, devise creative solutions, and consider the efficiency and scalability of our approaches.

Algorithmic thinking is a powerful cognitive tool that goes beyond programming languages and platforms, empowering individuals and developers to tackle challenges across various domains.

## Top Websites to Learn Algorithms for Free in 2023

To learn more, and get a better understanding of algorithms without a computer science degree, here are six websites where you can learn algorithms for free in 2023:

## #1 - GeeksforGeeks

GeeksforGeeks offers a beginner-friendly Learn Data Structures and Algorithms course that delves into the foundational aspects of data structures and algorithms (DSA).

The course breaks down the learning process into four key steps: understanding time and space complexities, grasping the basics of different data structures, familiarising with the fundamentals of algorithms, and practising problems related to DSA.

This modular approach ensures a sequential and linear learning experience. The course offers strategies, resources, and detailed explanations for thoroughly understanding the concepts of DSA from scratch.

## #2 - Khan Academy

The Algorithms course by Khan Academy, developed in partnership with Dartmouth College professors Tom Cormen and Devin Balkcom, provides a comprehensive introduction to computer science algorithms. The course covers key topics such as searching, sorting, recursion, and graph theory through a blend of articles, visualisations, quizzes, and coding challenges.

It begins with an overview of algorithms and their importance, then delves into specific more specific algorithms. The course also introduces the concept of recursion with practical examples and explores graph representation and traversal techniques like breadth-first search.

The flexible structure and interactive content make this course an excellent resource for beginners.

## #3 - freeCodeCamp

FreeCodeCamp’s 6-hour course on YouTube, taught by Pasan Premaratne and Jay McGavren, provides an in-depth introduction to algorithms and data structures . The course, now freely available, is a blend of three shorter courses: Introduction to Algorithms, Introduction to Data Structures, and Algorithms: Sorting and Searching.

It starts by explaining the concept and applications of algorithms, followed by an introduction to arrays and linked lists. The course then applies this knowledge to the problem of sorting data, specifically through the Merge Sort algorithm.

By the end of the course, learners will have a solid understanding of algorithms and data structures, including how to measure, evaluate, and apply them to problem-solving.

## #4 - Coursera

Coursera offers an intensive course on algorithms and data structures , tailored for committed programmers and emphasises practical applications and performance analysis in Java.

This course is divided into two parts, the first part introduces fundamental data structures, sorting, and searching algorithms, while the second part delves deeper into algorithms related to graph and string processing.

The entire course, rich in content and features, is available for free, although it does not provide a certificate upon completion.

## #5 - Programiz

Programiz's Learn Data Structures & Algorithms course provides extensive tutorials on a variety of data structures and algorithms, with implementations demonstrated in Python, C, C++, and Java.

The course covers introductory topics, various types of data structures including queues, stacks, linked lists, and hash tables, as well as tree and graph-based data structures. It delves into sorting and searching algorithms, greedy algorithms, dynamic programming, and other algorithmic strategies.

Each tutorial is accompanied by relevant examples, making the course suitable for beginners who are keen on exploring computer programming.

## #6 - Learn to Code With Me

The " A Beginner’s Guide to Algorithmic Thinking " article on Learn to Code With Me focuses on developing an understanding of algorithmic thinking, the crucial skill we touched upon earlier for efficient and successful software development.

It covers topics like understanding what an algorithm is, two different approaches to problem-solving (breaking a problem down and building a solution up), ways to improve and practice this skill, and an introduction to optimisation and Big O notation.

The guide emphasises the importance of not just learning individual algorithms, but also fostering a mindset that can understand and apply algorithmic logic, making the creation of new algorithms more intuitive.

The article's insights are provided by Ethan Urie of Learn to Be a Developer .

## Bonus Books

If you’d like to go deeper into your learning, you may wish to have a look at some great books on Algorithms:

- Introduction to Algorithms by Thomas H. Cormen and Charles E. Leiserson
- Algorithms by Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne
- Grokking Algorithms by Aditya Bhargava
- The Art of Computer Programming by Donald Knuth

In conclusion, as stated before, you don’t need to have a computer science degree to learn about Algorithms.

There are many online resources and books available that can give you an understanding of algorithms and thinking algorithmically, where you can learn to write code that solves complex problems efficiently and effectively.

The journey of learning algorithms often starts with understanding basic concepts and gradually moves towards more complex data structures and problem-solving strategies. And with a little bit of time and effort , you'll find that your ability to think logically and solve problems algorithmically will significantly improve, making you a more competent programmer.

Keep sorting through life, one algorithm at a time!

From your fellow ever-growing dev,

Cherlock Code

💙 If you liked this article...

I publish a weekly newsletter to a community of ever-growing developers, seeking to improve programming skills and stay on a journey of continuous self-improvement. Focusing on tips for powering up your programming productivity 🚀.

Get more articles like this straight to your inbox.

Let’s grow together 🌱

And stay in touch on 🐦 @evergrowingdev

## Top comments (0)

Templates let you quickly answer FAQs or store snippets for re-use.

Are you sure you want to hide this comment? It will become hidden in your post, but will still be visible via the comment's permalink .

Hide child comments as well

For further actions, you may consider blocking this person and/or reporting abuse

## Redis Singleton in Your Express Application

hoangbui - Aug 6

## The Business Side Of Tech : Where The Money Is

Oladipupo Isaac Tunji - Aug 25

## Absolutely Best Free Tools for Web Developers

Angela Swift - Aug 29

## The Art of Effective Open Source Contribution

BekahHW - Aug 29

We're a place where coders share, stay up-to-date and grow their careers.

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

- We're Hiring!
- Help Center

## Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know Hone your problem-solving skills by learning different algorithms and their implementation in Python

## Related Papers

Camilo Vargas

alexander shen

Nakul Singh

IEEE Software

John Favaro

Enormous advances in computing power and programming environments have obscured the importance of algorithms, one of the foundational pillars of software engineering. Today, even university curricula too often pay only lip service to the teaching of algorithmic fundamentals, reinforcing the popular belief that their place at the core of a software engineer's education is past. Yet even today, the importance of algorithms in software engineering has not diminished, and the effects of neglect are evident everywhere in needlessly inefficient industrial applications. The study of algorithms must regain its rightful place of central importance in the everyday work of today's practitioner.

Diego Fernando Aguilar Mateus

In this book, Thomas Cormen, talks about most of the commonly used algorithms used in Software development

Luis Garcia

Nurullah Shahin

Marcos Porto

jyothi gandhamaneni

Loading Preview

Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the button above.

## RELATED PAPERS

IntechOpen eBooks

Dinesh Harkut

Nicholas Bennett

Zhishan Guo

Ivone Yanira Choquetico Iquiapaza

Lara Alnajjar

Özlem Ekici

Lambert Meertens

Camil Demetrescu

Manjunath R

Navneet Chaurasiya

Academic Press/Elsevier

Xin-She Yang

Lokesh Venkat

Andrea Addis

Kartikay Bhutani

ACM SIGACT News

William Gasarch

Data Structures, Near Neighbor Searches, and Methodology: Fifth and Sixth DIMACS Implementation Challenges

Catherine McGeoch

Minh Hieu Tran

Peter Norvig

tuyệt thiên vô tình

Luu Dinh Chuan

Le Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe - HAL - memSIC

Maryna Rafalska

Frank Tettey

- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
- Find new research papers in:
- Health Sciences
- Earth Sciences
- Cognitive Science
- Mathematics
- Computer Science
- Academia ©2024

## Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures

by Brad Miller, David Ranum

## Subscribe to new books via dBooks.org telegram channel

Book description.

This open book is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY). You can download Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures ebook for free in PDF format (4.9 MB).

## Table of Contents

Book details.

## Book Hashtags

Related books.

## Login Admin

- eTheses Home
- Depositing eTheses
- About Nottingham eTheses
- Nottingham ePrints

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

This free book is about computer science. It is also about Python. However, there is much more. It is designed to serve as a text for a first course on data structures and algorithms using Python, typically taught as the second course in the computer science curriculum. - free book at FreeComputerBooks.com - download here

An interactive version of Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures using Python. ... Shortest Path Problems; 8.20. Dijkstra's Algorithm; 8.21. Analysis of Dijkstra's Algorithm; 8.22. Prim's Spanning Tree Algorithm; 8.23. Summary; 8.24. Key Terms; 8.25. Discussion Questions;

gramming concepts. Algorithm textbooks teach primarily algorithm analysis, basic algorithm design, and some standard algorithms and data structures. They seldom include as much problem solving as this book does. The book also falls somewhere between the practical nature of a programming book and the heavy theory of algorithm textbooks.

Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures, Release 3.0 Control constructs allow algorithmic steps to be represented in a convenient yet unambiguous way. At a minimum, algorithms require constructs that perform sequential processing, selection for decision-making, and iteration for repetitive control. As long as the language provides these

Algorithmic Problem Solving with Python John B. Schneider Shira Lynn Broschat Jess Dahmen February 22, 2019

A practical and unique approach to data structures that separates interface from implementation. This book provides ... (available as a free download), available online and also via the iPad and Android apps. Upon purchase, you'll gain instant ... Problem-solving, Algorithms, and Data Structures Daniel U. Wilde,1973 Author is

Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures using Python by Bradley N. Miller, David L. Ranum is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Learn algorithms at your own pace. Guided problem solving tailored to your level. Master concepts in minutes a day with bite-sized, interactive lessons in programming, pseudocode, data structures, conditionals, loops, and more. Get started.

Practical Problem Solving with Algorithms. April 15, 2023 Courses. English | MP4 | AVC 1920×1080 | AAC 44KHz 2ch | 43 Lessons (9h 14m) | 1.60 GB. If you don't already have a solid computer science background, most of the typical algorithms used in industry-wide job interviews can be intimidating.

Learn algorithms for solving classic computer science problems with this concise guide covering everything from fundamental algorithms, such as sorting and searching, to modern algorithms used in machine learning and cryptographyKey FeaturesLearn the techniques you need to know to design algorithms for solving complex problemsBecome familiar with neural networks and deep learning ...

These free exercises are nothing but Python assignments for the practice where you need to solve different programs and challenges. All exercises are tested on Python 3. Each exercise has 10-20 Questions. The solution is provided for every question. These Python programming exercises are suitable for all Python developers.

Boost your coding interview skills and confidence by practicing real interview questions with LeetCode. Our platform offers a range of essential problems for practice, as well as the latest questions being asked by top-tier companies.

Practical Problem Solving with Algorithms. Kyle Simpson. You Don't Know JS. 9 hours, 14 minutes CC. Course Description. You've likely taken several algorithms and data structures courses and know the "what", and now it's time to put the knowledge to practice! Develop better problem-solving skills by thinking through challenges and ...

With approximately 2500 problems, this book provides a collection of practical problems on the basic and advanced data structures, design, and analysis of algorithms. To make this book suitable for self-instruction, about one-third of the algorithms are supported by solutions, and some others are supported by hints and comments.

Beyond traditional computing, the ability to use algorithms to solve real-world problems is an important skill that any developer or programmer must have. This book will help you not only to develop the skills to select and use an algorithm to solve real-world problems but also to understand how it works. ... Download a free PDF. If you have ...

Check out a free preview of the full Practical Problem Solving with Algorithms course. The "Introduction" Lesson is part of the full, Practical Problem Solving with Algorithms course featured in this preview video. ... And that's just sort of, it seems in the JavaScript world as a free operation, but you're creating a tremendous amount of ...

FreeCodeCamp's 6-hour course on YouTube, taught by Pasan Premaratne and Jay McGavren, provides an in-depth introduction to algorithms and data structures. The course, now freely available, is a blend of three shorter courses: Introduction to Algorithms, Introduction to Data Structures, and Algorithms: Sorting and Searching.

Exercises for Programming in C++ (Alpha Release, Version 2021-04-01) Michael D. Adams To obtain themost recent versionof this book (with functional hyperlinks) or for additional informa-

Download Free PDF. Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know Hone your problem-solving skills by learning different algorithms and their implementation in Python ... Algorithms Mastering Basic Algorithms in the Python Language Learn to implement classic algorithms and design new problem-solving algorithms using Python. Camilo Vargas. Download ...

We cover abstract data types and data structures, writing algorithms, and solving problems. We look at a number of data structures and solve classic problems that arise. The tools and techniques that you learn here will be applied over and over as you continue your study of computer science.

Abstract. Algorithmic problem solving provides a radically new way of approaching and solving problems in general by using the advances that have been made in the basic principles of correct-by-construction algorithm design. The aim of this thesis is to provide educational material that shows how these advances can be used to support the ...

Title: 40 Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know. Author (s): Imran Ahmad. Release date: June 2020. Publisher (s): Packt Publishing. ISBN: 9781789801217. Learn algorithms for solving classic computer science problems with this concise guide covering everything from fundamental algorithms, such as sorting and searching, to modern algorithms ...

You'll learn to solve algorithms and analyze space and time complexity in both an interview setting and in your day-to-day development. Following along with the course, you'll practice algorithms with common interview questions using a handful of algorithm techniques. Take a practical look at recursion and learn to optimize your solutions using ...

In particular, the information portrayed in the diagrams have assisted students to formulate equations to solve word problems. In fact, this is the algebra approach which has been shown to be a powerful means for solving word problems (Kieran, Citation 1992). However, the merit of incorporating a diagram for learning to solve word problems goes ...