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Green Revolution Essay in 100, 200, and 500 Words

essay on green revolution in india

  • Updated on  
  • Feb 26, 2024

Essay On Green Revolution

Norman Borlaug, an American Agronomist, is regarded as the father of the Green Revolution. His scientific methods of introducing modern agricultural techniques allowed the world to sustain agricultural production. In India, M.S. Swaminathan is known as the father of the green revolution. 

Green Revolution essay requires you to write compelling details about its history, early developments, modern techniques used, how it helped with production, etc. In this article, we will discuss some samples of Green Revolution essays. 

Table of Contents

  • 1 Green Revolution Essay in 100 Words
  • 2 Green Revolution Essay in 200 Words
  • 3.1 Green Revolution in India
  • 3.2 Challenges and Concerns

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Green Revolution Essay in 100 Words

‘Agriculture is one of the most popular essay topics in school and higher education. Several reasons make agriculture an important point of discussion, as it forms the basis of economic, social, and environmental aspects of countries. A country with a surplus amount of agricultural production not only sustains its population but also exports products to different countries.

Major developments in the agricultural sector started in the 1950s when modern technologies to increase production were introduced. However, an American agronomist, Norman Borlaug , changed the entire agricultural market, by introducing the Green Revolution. In India, it was Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, who is credited with the development of agricultural production and was given the title of the Father of Green Revolution in India.’

Also Read: Essay on Cleanliness for School Students

Green Revolution Essay in 200 Words

‘Green revolution refers to the introduction of modern technologies to increase agricultural productivity. The credit for the Green Revolution is given to Norman Borlaug , who, in the 1960s, conducted multiple studies to increase farm productivity. Norman’s research focused on two aspects; to increase agricultural production and enhance the food quality.

Agricultural production is the primary source of food for humans and various other animals. It provides a diverse range of crops, livestock, and other food products necessary for sustaining human life. A reliable and sufficient agricultural sector is essential for ensuring food security and preventing hunger.

In India, M.S. Swaminathan is regarded as the Father of the Green Revolution. His scientific methods and studies allowed India to increase its agricultural production and become a sustainable country. Swaminathan’s efforts also contributed to India’s economic growth. In India, more than 50% of the population is employed in agriculture or related occupations. These people were able to extract natural resources to their full potential with the modern techniques introduced by MS Swaminathan.

Today, India is the largest producer of milk, pulses, and jute. Not only this, India is the second largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, groundnut, vegetables, fruit, and cotton. The Green Revolution was a transformative phase in the history of India and the world, where agricultural production was able to sustain the entire population.’

Also Read: Essay on Save Trees: Trees for Generations

Green Revolution Essay in 500 Words

‘The Green Revolution was the period of agricultural transformation where modern approaches were introduced for high-yielding crop varieties, advanced agricultural technologies, and improved management practices. The real game changer was Norman Borlaug, who developed high-yielding varieties of wheat that were resistant to diseases, adapted to different climates, and responsive to fertilizers. His efforts earned him the title of ‘Father of the Green Revolution.’

The high-yielding crop varieties, coupled with the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, revolutionized farming methods. Simultaneously, mechanization and irrigation practices were also developed, which played a crucial role in enhancing productivity. These developments transformed the farmers from traditional, subsistence-oriented practices to intensive, commercially driven agriculture.

Green Revolution in India

In India, the situation was quite different. India is naturally blessed with the most fertile land on the earth, which allows us to grow two types of crops on the same soil. The cropping pattern in India is different into different groups; Rabi, Kharif, and Zaid. An Indian Agroscientist, MS Swaminathan, took on the arduous task of introducing modern techniques and high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice.

To support the high-yielding varieties, there was a simultaneous effort to expand irrigation facilities across the country. The construction of dams, canals, and tube wells helped ensure a more reliable water supply for crops, reducing dependence on monsoon rains.

The Green Revolution promoted the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to enhance soil fertility and protect crops from pests and diseases. This approach aimed at maximizing yields through intensive agricultural practices. 

One of the primary achievements of the Green Revolution was a substantial increase in agricultural productivity. India transformed from a food-deficient nation to achieving self-sufficiency in food production, particularly in wheat and rice. 

The increased production of food grains contributed significantly to improving food security in the country. The availability of staple crops increased, leading to a more stable food supply and reduced dependence on imports.

The Green Revolution had positive economic implications. Increased agricultural productivity contributed to rural development, reduced poverty, and provided a foundation for overall economic growth.

Challenges and Concerns

The Green Revolution also had some negative effects. The intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides raised environmental concerns, leading to issues such as soil degradation, water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. 

Social and economic disparities emerged due to the uneven distribution of land and other resources. Large landowners and farmers with access to resources benefited more than small and marginal farmers, contributing to social and economic disparities.

The expansion of irrigation, particularly through groundwater extraction, led to concerns about the depletion of water resources in certain regions. 

The emphasis on high-yielding varieties of a limited number of crops, primarily wheat and rice, has led to concerns about the lack of crop diversity and its impact on long-term sustainability.

The Green Revolution was a game-changer in agriculture and its related activities. It generated employment, made countries self-sustained, introduced modern technologies, and several others. But there were certain challenges also which cannot be overlooked. Therefore, it is important to have a more realistic and environmentally sustainable approach for making agricultural production.

Also Read: Essay on Beat Plastic Pollution for School Students

Ans: The Green Revolution was the period of agricultural transformation where modern approaches were introduced for high-yielding crop varieties, advanced agricultural technologies, and improved management practices. The real game changer was Norman Borlaug, who developed high-yielding varieties of wheat that were resistant to diseases, adapted to different climates, and responsive to fertilizers. His efforts earned him the title of ‘Father of the Green Revolution.’

Ans: M.S. Swaminathan is the father of the Green Revolution in India.

Ans: The Green Revolution refers to agricultural transformation by the introduction of high-yielding crop varieties. M.S. Swaminathan introduced the Green Revolution in 1965. On the other hand, the White Revolution refers to the production of milk and other dairy products. Verghese Kurian is regarded as the father of the White Revolution in India.

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Green Revolution Essay for Students and Children

Green revolution essay.

Green Revolution is actually the process of increasing agricultural production by using modern machines and techniques. It was a scientific research-based technology initiative performed between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. It used HYV seeds, increased use of fertilizer and more technical methods of irrigation to increase the production of food grains.

green revolution essay

Green Revolution in India

In India Green Revolution commenced in the early 1960s that led to an increase in food grain production , especially in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. Major milestones in this undertaking were the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat. The Green revolution is revolutionary in character due to the introduction of new technology, new ideas, the new application of inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers, irrigation water, pesticides, etc. As all these were brought suddenly and spread quickly to attain dramatic results thus it is termed as a revolution in green agriculture.

Statistical Results

A record grain output in 1978-79 around 131 million tons occurred due to the Green Revolution. Hence, it made India as one of the world’s biggest agricultural producer. In India Green Revolution recorded a high level of success. India also became an exporter of food grains around that time.

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Economic Results

Crop areas under this project needed more water, more fertilizers , more pesticides, and certain other chemicals. This increased the growth of the local manufacturing sector. Increased industrial growth created new jobs and contributed to the country’s GDP . The increase in irrigation created the need for new dams to harness monsoon water. The stored water was used to create hydro-electric power. All of this resulted in industrial growth, created jobs and improved the quality of life of the people in villages.

Sociological Results

This new technology used frequent application of water, fertilizers, insecticides , larger volumes of transportation, electricity, etc. Not only the agricultural workers but also industrial workers got plenty of jobs because of the creation of facilities such as factories, hydro-electric power stations, etc. to back up the revolution.

Political Results

One of the most important factors that made Mrs. Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) and her party the Indian National Congress, a very powerful political force in India is this Green Revolution. India transformed itself from a starving nation to an exporter of food. This gave India admiration and appreciation from all over the world, especially from the Third world country.

Disadvantages of the Green Revolution

The negative social effect of the Revolution was also soon visible. Disparities in income have been widened by these innovations in agriculture. Rich landlords have control over the agricultural input and improved chemical fertilizers. The worst part is that the poor farmers found themselves handicapped by small farms of land and inadequate water supply. With complete agricultural techniques and inputs, the Green revaluation tended to have its most concentrated application on large farms.

As a concentration of the new technology to large farms, the Inequalities have further Increased. The poor farmers have been adversely affected by a growing tendency among the rich farmers to reclaim land previously leased out under tenancy agreement, which has been made profitable by higher returns from new technology.

The poor and backward class of farmers has been increasingly pushed into the rank of the landless laborer. A drastic increase in a higher level of rent with land value soaring. Also because of excessive use of fertilizers soil started to become alkaline or acidic depending upon the nature of the fertilizer used.

India has made a huge achievement in term of the Green Revolution, as it has provided an unprecedented level of food security. It has pulled a large number of poor people out of poverty and helped many non-poor people avoid the poverty and hunger they would have experienced had it not taken place. This revolution has saved over a billion people all over the world from famine.

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Green Revolution

Green revolution [latest news].

The Green Revolution (a term used for rapid increases in wheat and rice yields in developing countries brought about by improved varieties combined with the expanded use of fertilizers and other chemical inputs) has had a dramatic impact on incomes and food supplies in many developing countries.

Green Revolution In India PDF Download PDF Here

Green Revolution In News (MS Swaminathan Passes Away)

MS Swaminathan, the Father of the Indian Green Revolution, passed away on 28 September 2023, in Chennai aged 98. To know more about M S Swaminathan, ( August 7, 1925) the father of the Green Revolution in India, kindly check the linked article. 

The term green revolution was first used by William Gaud. Norman Borlaug is considered the Father of the Green Revolution. 

In the year 1965, the government of India launched the Green Revolution with the help of a geneticist, now known as the father of the Green Revolution (India) M.S. Swaminathan . The movement of the Green Revolution was a great success and changed the country’s status from a food-deficient economy to one of the world’s leading agricultural nations. It started in 1967 and lasted till 1978.

Aspirants must go through all important agricultural revolutions that have taken place, for the IAS Exam preparation:

This article shares details on the Green Revolution, its meaning and features, and how there has been a boost in agricultural production efficiency because of the green revolution in India. You will also know about various schemes under the Green Revolution in India. 

The Green Revolution within India led to an increase in agricultural production, especially in Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh. Major milestones in this undertaking were the development of a high-yielding variety of seeds of wheat and rust-resistant strains of wheat.

Knowledge of the Green Revolution in India is important from the point of view of various competitive exams. Candidates preparing for bank exams, SSC, RRB, Insurance exam, or other Government exams must keep abreast with the Green Revolution as questions related to this topic are asked in the general awareness section of the exams. 

Aspirants of the UPSC exam should understand the Green Revolution topic for Static GK section and Geography GS I Paper.  

Table of Contents:

Aspects of Green Revolution in India

  • High Yielding Varieties (HYV)
  • Mechanization of Agriculture
  • Use of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides

essay on green revolution in india

The Green Revolution is referred to as the process of increasing agricultural production by incorporating modern tools and techniques.  Green Revolution is associated with agricultural production. It is the period when agriculture of the country was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and techniques like the use of high yielding variety seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.  Until 1967, the government majorly concentrated on expanding the farming areas. But the rapidly increasing population than the food production called for a drastic and immediate action to increase yield which came in the form of the Green Revolution.

The method of green revolution focused on three basic elements, that are:

  • Using seeds with improved genetics (High Yielding Variety seeds).
  • Double cropping in the existing farmland and,
  • The continuing expansion of farming areas

Schemes Under Green Revolution (India)

Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved the Umbrella Scheme Green Revolution – ‘Krishonnati Yojana’ in the agriculture sector for the period of three years from 2017 to 2020 with the Central Share of Rs. 33,269.976 crore.The Umbrella scheme Green revolution- Krishonnati Yojana comprises 11 Schemes under it and all these schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a scientific and holistic manner so as to increase the income of farmers by increasing productivity, production, and better returns on produce, strengthening production infrastructure, reducing the cost of production and marketing of agriculture and allied produce. The 11 schemes that are part of the Umbrella Schemes under the Green revolution are:

  • MIDH – Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture – It aims to promote the comprehensive growth of the horticulture sector, enhance the production of the sector, improve nutritional security, and increase income support to household farms. This mission was undertaken to establish production clusters and hubs to encourage the development of infrastructural facilities for processing, post-harvest management, and exports.
  • NFSM – National Food Security Mission – This includes NMOOP – National Mission on Oil Seeds and Oil Palm. The aim of this scheme is to increase the production of wheat pulses, rice, coarse cereals and commercial crops, productivity enhancement, and area expansion in a suitable manner, enhancing farm level economy, restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level. It further aims to reduce imports and increase the availability of vegetable oils and edible oils in the country.
  • NMSA – National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture – the aim is to promote sustainable agriculture practices that are best suitable to the specific agro-ecology focusing on integrated farming, appropriate soil health management, and synergizing resource conservation technology. It also strives to minimise farmers’ agricultural costs through sustainable integrated organic farming systems, hence increasing farmers’ net income per unit of land, and producing chemical-free and nutritious food for human consumption in a sustainable manner.
  • SMAE – Submission on Agriculture Extension – this scheme aims to strengthen the ongoing extension mechanism of State Governments, local bodies, etc. achieving food security and socio-economic empowerment of farmers, to forge effective linkages and synergy amongst various stakeholders, to institutionalize program planning and implementation mechanism, support HRD interventions, promote pervasive and innovative use of electronic and print media, interpersonal communication, and ICT tools, etc.
  • SMSP – Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material –  This aims to increase the production of quality seed, upgrade the quality of farm-saved seeds and increase SRR, strengthen the seed multiplication chain, and promote new methods and technologies in seed production, processing, testing, etc., to strengthen and modernize infrastructure for seed production, storage, quality, and certification, etc.
  • SMAM – Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation – aims to increase the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low, to promote ‘Custom Hiring Centres’ to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership, to create hubs for hi-tech and high-value farm equipment, to create awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities, and to ensure performance testing and certification at designated testing centres located all over the country.
  • SMPPQ – Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine –  the aim of this scheme is to minimize loss to quality and yield of agricultural crops from insects, pests, weeds, etc., to shield our agricultural bio-security from the incursions and spread of alien species, to facilitate exports of Indian agricultural commodities to global markets, and to promote good agricultural practices, particularly with respect to plant protection strategies and strategies.
  • ISACES – Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics, and Statistics – this aims to undertake the agriculture census, undertake research studies on agro-economic problems of the country, study the cost of cultivation of principal crops, fund conferences, workshops, and seminars involving eminent agricultural scientists, economists, experts so as to bring out papers to conduct short term studies, improve agricultural statistics methodology and to create a hierarchical information system on crop condition and crop production from sowing to harvest.
  • ISAC – Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation aims to provide financial assistance for improving the economic conditions of cooperatives, remove regional imbalances, to speed up cooperative development in agricultural processing, storage, marketing, computerization, and weaker section programs; ensuring the supply of quality yarn at reasonable rates to the decentralized weavers and help cotton growers fetch a remunerative price for their produce through value addition.
  • ISAM – Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing – this scheme aims to develop agricultural marketing infrastructure; to promote innovative technologies and competitive alternatives in agriculture marketing infrastructure; to provide infrastructure facilities for grading, standardization, and quality certification of agricultural produce; to establish a nation­wide marketing information network; to integrate markets through a common online market platform to facilitate pan-India trade in agricultural commodities, etc.
  • And, NeGP-A – National e-Governance Plan aims to bring farmer-centric & service-oriented programs; to improve access of farmers to information and services throughout the crop-cycle and enhance the reach and impact of extension services; to build upon, enhance and integrate the existing ICT initiatives of the Centre and States; to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of programs through providing timely and relevant information to the farmers for increasing their agriculture productivity.

Green Revolution - Krishonnati Yojana

Green Revolution (Features)

  • Introduced High Yielding Variety seeds in Indian agriculture. 
  • The HYV seeds were highly effective in regions that had rich irrigation facilities and were more successful with the wheat crop. Therefore, the Green Revolution at first focused on states with better infrastructure such as Tamil Nadu and Punjab.
  • During the second phase, the high yielding variety seeds were given to other states, and crops other than wheat were also included in the plan. 
  • The most important requirement for the high yielding variety seeds is proper irrigation. Crops grown from HYV seeds need good amounts of water supply and farmers could not depend on monsoon. Hence, the Green Revolution has improved the irrigation systems around farms in India.
  • Commercial crops and cash crops such as cotton, jute, oilseeds, etc were not a part of the plan. Green revolution in India mainly emphasized food grains such as wheat and rice. 
  • To enhance farm productivity green revolution increased the availability and use of fertilizers, weedicides, and pesticides to reduce any damage or loss to the crops.
  • It also helped in promoting commercial farming in the country with the introduction of machinery and technology like harvesters, drills, tractors, etc.

Aspirants of any competitive exams can check the important links given below to boost their preparation:

Impact of Green Revolution in India

  • Green Revolution has remarkably increased Agricultural Production. Foodgrains in India saw a great rise in output. The biggest beneficiary of the revolution was the Wheat Grain. The production increased to 55 million tonnes in the early stage of the plan itself. 
  • Not just limited to agricultural output the revolution also increased per Acre yield. Green Revolution increased the per hectare yield in the case of wheat from 850 kg per hectare to an incredible 2281 kg/hectare in its early stage.
  • With the introduction of the Green revolution, India reached its way to self-sufficiency and was less dependent on imports. The production in the country was sufficient to meet the demand of the rising population and to stock it for emergencies. Rather than depending on the import of food grains from other countries India started exporting its agricultural produce. 
  • The introduction of the revolution inhibited a fear among the masses that commercial farming would lead to unemployment and leave a lot of the labour force jobless. But the result seen was totally different there was a rise in rural employment. The tertiary industries such as transportation, irrigation, food processing, marketing, etc created employment opportunities for the workforce.
  • The Green Revolution in India majorly benefited the farmers of the country. Farmers not only survived but also prospered during the revolution their income saw a significant rise which enabled them to shift from sustenance farming to commercial farming.

Green Revolution - Statistics

Besides the positive impact, the revolution had a gloomy side too.  Some of the negative effects of the Green Revolution are stated below:

  • Retardation of agricultural growth due to inadequate irrigation cover, shrinking farm size, failure to evolve new technologies, inadequate use of technology, declining plan outlay, unbalanced use of inputs, and weaknesses in credit delivery system.
  • Regional dispersal of the evolution created regional inequalities. The benefits of the green revolution remained concentrated in the areas where the new technology was used. Moreover, since the revolution for the number of years remained limited to wheat production, its benefits were mostly accrued only to wheat-growing areas.
  • Interpersonal inequalities between large and small scale farmers. The new technologies introduced during the revolution called for substantial investments which were beyond the means of a majority of small farmers. Farmers having large farmlands continued to make greater absolute gains in income by reinvesting the earnings in farm and non-farm assets, purchasing land from the smaller cultivators, etc.

Knowledge of the Green revolution, Schemes under the Green revolution its aspects, features, and impact are important for various exams, especially the most coveted UPSC exam. Candidates can also read about the  agricultural revolutions in India in the linked article. 

FAQ about Green Revolution

Who started green revolution in india, what were the high yielding variety crops concentrated during green revolution, what was the aim of green revolution in india, what is the conclusion of green revolution in india, what are five major benefits of green revolution.

Major benefits that accrue to green revolution are:

  • Increase in Agricultural Production
  • Prosperity of Farmers
  • Reduction in import of food-grains
  • Capitalistic Farming
  • Ploughing back of profit
  • Industrial Growth
  • Rural Employment

Candidates can find out what are the topics in the UPSC Exams by visiting the UPSC Syllabus page. For more preparation materials they can refer to the links given in the table below. 

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Green Revolution in India Advantages, Impacts & Achievements_1.1

Green Revolution in India Advantages, Impacts, Achievements

Green Revolution in India started in the year 1965. Green Revolution had significant impact in agriculture in India. Green Revolution in India for UPSC. Short notes on Green Revolution, pdf.

Green Revolution in India

Table of Contents

What is Green Revolution?

The rapid gains in wheat and rice yields in developing nations caused by improved varieties and increased fertiliser and other chemical input use are known as the “Green Revolution,” which has had a significant influence on incomes and food supplies in many of these nations. William Gaud coined the phrase “green revolution,” and Norman Borlaug is regarded as its founder due to which he was honoured with Nobel Prize in 1970 for developing High Yielding Verities of Wheat.

Green Revolution in India

Green Revolution in India is the process of boosting agricultural output using contemporary methods and instruments. The Green Revolution is related to agricultural output. It was during this period that the nation’s agriculture was transformed into an industrial system by the adoption of modern agricultural practices such as the use of high-yielding seed varieties, tractors, irrigation systems, herbicides, and fertilizers.

Up until 1967, the government’s main focus was on enlarging the agricultural areas. However, the rapidly growing population demanded drastic and fast action to enhance yield, which manifested itself in the form of the Green Revolution.

Father of Green Revolution in India

In the year of 1965, the Indian Indian initiated the Green Revolution under the supervision of a geneticist, who is also known as the father of the Green Revolution in India M.S. Swaminathan . Revolution within India led to an increase in food grain production, mostly in the regions of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. A major landmark in this undertaking was the development of high-yielding varieties (HYV) seeds of wheat, and rust resistant strains of wheat. Personalities and Institutions recognized for their efforts during the Green Revolution in India are,

  • Main Architect and the Father of Green Revolution in India – M.S. Swaminathan
  • Political Father of Green Revolution and the Food and Agriculture Minister – Chidambaram Subramaniam
  • Father of Wheat Revolution – Dilbagh Singh Athwal
  • IARI – Indian Agricultural Research Institute

Important Schemes Related to Green Revolution in India

Green revolution in india’s history.

The Bengal Famine, which occurred in 1943 and was the worst food crisis ever recorded, caused an estimated 4 million people to die of starvation in eastern India. Even after independence in 1947, the government’s focus on enlarging the agricultural lands persisted until 1967. However, the rate of population growth was outpacing the rate of food production. To boost yield, an immediate and dramatic intervention was required. The Green Revolution served as the catalyst for the action. 

With the assistance of a geneticist also known as the Father of The Green Revolution (India), M.S. Swaminathan , the Indian government began the Green Revolution in 1965. The country’s status was transformed from one of the world’s leading agricultural nations as a result of the green revolution, which was a huge success.

It began in 1967 and continued until 1978. The term “green revolution” in India refers to a time when contemporary agricultural practices and technology, such as the use of HYV seeds, tractors, irrigation systems, pesticides, and fertilizers, transformed Indian agriculture into an industrial system. India’s Green Revolution increased agricultural output, particularly in Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh.

Green Revolution in India Objectives

The Green Revolution in India has several specific characteristics. 

  • Growth in the size of agricultural areas
  • Double cropping systems, or the practice of growing crops twice a year.
  • Due to the construction of dams and the adoption of other basic irrigation techniques, water was now obtained from extensive irrigation projects.
  • Using high-yield variety seeds that were generated from new strains of seeds with enhanced genetics.

Wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, and maize were the principal crops. Grain products other than food were not included in the new strategy’s scope. For many years, wheat remained the foundation of the Green Revolution.

Green Revolution in India: Positive Effects

In 1978–1979, a tremendous increase in crop production led to a grain output of 131 million tonnes, making India one of the largest agricultural producers in the world. The area of crops planted with high-yielding wheat and rice varieties increased significantly during the Green Revolution. India was able to become self-sufficient in food grains and occasionally even had enough stock in the central pool to export grains. Additionally, there are now more food grains available per person on a net basis.

The Green Revolution’s introduction assisted farmers in increasing their level of revenue. Farmers invested their extra money back into their fields to increase productivity. The major farmers who had more than 10 hectares of land gained the most from this revolution because they made significant financial investments in HYV seeds, fertilizer, machinery, etc. It supported capitalist farming as well.

Large-scale farm mechanization brought about by the Green Revolution in India increased demand for several equipment types, including tractors, harvesters, threshers, combines, diesel engines, electric motors, pumping sets, etc. Additionally, there was a significant growth in demand for chemical fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, pesticides, etc. Agro-based industries are those that utilize a variety of agricultural products as raw materials.

Due to fertilizer use and multiple cropping, there was a noticeable increase in the need for labourers. The Green Revolution produced a large number of jobs for both industrial and agricultural employees by building connected facilities including factories and hydroelectric power plants.

Impacts of Green Revolution in India

Although the revolution has benefited all food grains, including wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, and maize, other crops including coarse cereals, pulses, and oilseeds have been excluded. Major cash crops including sugarcane, cotton, jute, tea, and cotton were also largely unaffected by the Green Revolution. Only five crops were allowed under the High Yielding Variety Program (HYVP): maize, wheat, rice, jowar, and bajra. Therefore, the new method did not apply to non-food grains. The HYV seeds in the non-food crops either hadn’t been developed yet or weren’t good enough for farmers to take a chance on using them.

Growing regional and international economic imbalances are a result of the Green Revolution’s technological advancements. Only 40% of the overall cultivated area has been impacted thus far, while 60% is still unaffected. Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh in the north, and Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the south, are the region’s most severely impacted.

The Eastern region, which includes Assam, Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa, as well as the dry and semi-arid regions of Western and Southern India, has rarely been affected. Only those places that were already in a better position agriculturally were impacted by the Green Revolution. Thus, the Green Revolution has caused the issue of regional inequality to worsen.

Pesticides and synthetic nitrogen fertilizers were widely used during the Green Revolution to improve irrigation systems and crop types. To inform farmers about the substantial risk involved with the intensive use of pesticides, however, very little or no effort was taken. Typically, uneducated farm labourers sprayed pesticides on crops without taking any safety precautions or following any instructions. Crops suffer more harm than benefit from this, and they also pollute the environment and soil. The crops which were developed at the time of the green revolution required a lot of water.

The majority of these crops, which are cereals, use roughly 50% of the water used by the human body. Groundwater levels were depleted as a result of the introduction of canal systems and irrigation pumps that drained groundwater out of the ground to irrigate crops like rice and sugarcane that require large amounts of water.

The nutrients in the soil were depleted by repeated crop cycles meant to ensure higher crop yield. Farmers used more fertilizer to fulfil the need for new varieties of seeds. The use of these alkaline compounds caused the pH level of the soil to rise. Beneficial pathogens were eliminated by toxic chemicals in the soil, which further decreased production.

Farm mechanization brought about by the Green Revolution led to widespread unemployment among agricultural labourers in rural areas, with the exception of Punjab and to a lesser extent Haryana. The poor and labourers who were without land were most negatively impacted. Numerous serious ailments, such as cancer, renal failure, stillbirth, and birth deformities, were caused by the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Green Revolution in India Achievements

There have been numerous cropping pattern adjustments and agricultural advancements in India as a result of the country’s green revolution.

Farmers today enjoy wealth thanks to the Green Revolution. Agriculture is thought of as a lucrative profession. The demand for consumer products has surged in Punjab. In Punjab, the standard of living has increased. All crops, including wheat, rice, cotton, gram, maize, and bajra, have increased per hectare production. Better seeds are the cause. The Green Revolution has had a significant impact on industry development. Industries have been put up that produce agricultural equipment like tractors, diesel engines, combines, threshers, and pumping sets. 

Production growth is the Green Revolution’s primary accomplishment. 33.89 lakh tones of cereal grains were produced in 1965–1966. The output increased to 119 lakh tones in 1980–1981 The rural masses now enjoy wealth thanks to the green revolution. Bumper crops have given rural populations work options. Their quality of life has improved. The need for labour rose as a result of multiple cropping and excessive usage of chemical fertilizers. A severe labour shortage is seen during the sowing and harvesting seasons. Consequently, the green revolution has created jobs.

Second Green Revolution in India

The first Green Revolution was initiated with the objective of eradicating food scarcity in India whereas the second Green Revolution focuses on the Sustainability of Agriculture with the adoption of scientific and organic modes of agricultural practices with an objective of tackling the challenges as

  • Food Inflation
  • Crop Productivity
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Manure, Fertilizers and Biocides
  • Agriculture Marketing

The government has taken several steps to tackle these issues, Krishi Vigyan Yojana, Operation Green, eNAM, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA), Kisan Credit Card (KCC), Per Drop More Crop Initiative, Har Medh Par Ped, PM Kisan Sampada Yojana (Food Processing) etc.

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Green Revolution in India FAQs

Who is started green revolution in india.

M S Swaminathan is referred as the father of Green Revolution in India as he founded it. He was inspired from the initiative of Norman Borlaug.

Who comes Green Revolution in India?

In India, the Green Revolution was mainly led by M.S. Swaminathan. The Green Revolution resulted in a significant increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) due to the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding variety seeds, beginning in the mid-20th century.

What did the Green Revolution do for India?

The green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as increased in the area under farming, double-cropping method, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually, adoption of HYV of seeds, highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, and improved cropping pattern

Where was the Green Revolution introduced in India?

The Green revolution started in India started with its introduction in Punjab in 1966. It was part of a development program that was registered by the government of India along with international donor agencies.

Q. Was Green Revolution a success in India?

The Green Revolution yielded great economic productivity during its early years. In Punjab, where it was first introduced, the Green Revolution led to significant increases in the state’s agricultural growth, supporting India’s overall economy.

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Green Revolution

Last updated on October 15, 2023 by ClearIAS Team

green revolution

The green revolution was an important turn point for Indian agriculture. Read here to know more about the history and impact of the green revolution.

The Green Revolution in India was initiated in the 1960s by introducing high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat to increase food production to alleviate hunger and poverty.

Table of Contents

History of the Green revolution

The Green Revolution can be described as a set of research technology transfer initiatives. It gained momentum between 1950 and the late 1960s which increased agricultural production in parts of the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.

  • It is also called Third Agricultural Revolution after the  Neolithic Revolution  and the  British Agricultural Revolution.

The Green Revolution was an endeavor initiated by Norman Borlaug in the 1960s. He is known as the ‘Father of Green Revolution in the world.

  • It led to him winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his work in developing High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of wheat.

The word “Green Revolution” was coined by William S. Gaud of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 1968.

Mexico has been called the ‘birthplace’ and ‘burial ground’ of the Green Revolution. The initial success of the program was due to:

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  • high yield plants without disease resistivity
  • adaptability, and ability to utilize fertilizers;
  • improved use of soils,
  • adequate fertilizers, and control of weeds and pests; and
  • a favorable ratio between the cost of fertilizers (and other investments) to the price of the produce

Mexico became the showcase for extending the Green Revolution to other areas of Latin America and beyond, into Africa and Asia.

Green revolution in India

The advent of the green revolution in India happened in 1961 when the country was on the brink of famine.

Norman Borlaug was invited to India by the adviser to the Indian Minister of Agriculture Dr. M. S. Swaminathan.

  • S Swaminathan is known as the Father of the Green Revolution in India.

Under the leadership of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri , the Green Revolution within India commenced in 1968, leading to an increase in food grain production, especially in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.

The state of Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new wheat seeds because of its reliable water supply.

  • This Wheat Revolution increased wheat production by more than three times between 1967-68 and 2003-04.

India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals.

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Indian Agriculture was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as the use of HYV seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.

India soon adopted IR8 a semi-dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation.

By 2006, India had become one of the world’s most successful rice producers.

Also Read: Famines in Colonial India

Components of the green revolution

  • Quantitative expansion of farming areas
  • Double cropping systems, that is to have two crop seasons per year.
  • Water now came from huge irrigation projects as dams were built and other simple irrigation techniques were also adopted.
  • Using seeds with superior genetics as new strains of high-yield variety seeds were developed.

The main crops were Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra, and Maize. Non-food grains were excluded from the ambit of the new strategy. Wheat remained the mainstay of the Green Revolution for years.

Positive effects of the green revolution

  • Increase in crop production: The crop area under high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice grew considerably making India one of the world’s biggest agricultural producers.
  • Self-sufficiency: The import of goof grains reduced as India became self-sufficient in food grains, rather India started exporting at times.
  • Availability: The per capita net availability of food grains has increased.
  • Benefits to farmers: The level of income of farmers increased as agricultural productivity improved. It promoted capitalist farming as big land owners profited the most.
  • Industrialization: The large-scale mechanization of farms created a demand for machinery like tractors, harvesters, threshers, combines, diesel engines, electric motors, pumping sets, etc. Demand for chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, etc. also increased considerably.
  • Agro industries: Several agricultural products came to be used as raw materials in various industries giving rise to agro-based industries.
  • Employment: The demand for labor force increased rural employment, and the industrial workforce at the same time.

Negative effects

Impact on ecology

  • Indigenous seeds did not have the inherent ability to withstand the chemical fertilizers used hence they started dying out of usage.
  • The newly introduced high-yielding seeds had a narrow genetic base compared to the indigenous species.
  • The overuse of chemical fertilizers to get high yield caused physical and chemical degradation of the soil by altering the natural microflora and increasing the alkalinity and salinity of the soil.

Impact on other food crops

  • Non-food grains were not included- major commercial crops like cotton, jute, tea, and sugarcane were also left almost untouched by the Green Revolution.
  • The High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was restricted to only five crops: Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra, and Maize.
  • The green revolution impacted only a few states creating economic disparity among regions.

Impact on farmers

  • The excessive use of groundwater for irrigation depleted the water table in many parts of the country.
  • Eventually, small farmers sold their lands to large commercial farmers as they were unable to withstand the increasing expenses of farming and debts.
  • Many farmers left farming unable to withstand the food inflation and economic crisis.

Impact on food consumption and nutrition

  • The per capita net availability of other cereal grains such as millets and pulses decreased over the years.
  • This led to the change in the consumption pattern over the years and the shift in focus from the minor cereals and pulses to the major cereals, rice and wheat.
  • The consumption of major cereals such as rice and wheat along with pulses and a decrease in the addition of coarse cereals, foods of animal origin, and fruits and vegetables in the diet lead to a deficiency of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin A, folate, and riboflavin among the population causing anemia, keratomalacia, blindness, and infertility in severe cases.

Green Revolution – Krishonnati Yojana

The government of India introduced the Green Revolution Krishonnati Yojana in 2005 to boost the agriculture sector.

The government through the scheme plans to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic & scientific manner to increase the income of farmers.

It comprises 11 schemes and missions under a single umbrella scheme:

  • Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
  • National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
  • Submission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE)
  • Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP)
  • Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM)
  • Sub-Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine (SMPPQ)
  • Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics, and Statistics (ISACES)
  • Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC)
  • Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM)
  • National e-Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A)

The green revolution pulled India out of a major food crisis and provided unprecedented food security. The success story helped the country achieve self-sufficiency and even an export market of food grains.

But the negative impacts on the environment and lack of knowledge on heavy-duty chemical fertilizers among Indian farmers weren’t taken into account, which led to failures towards the end of it.

The advantages of indigenous crops should be realized and they should be revived as food security must also ensure the nutrition security of the nation.

Proper planning and intensive collaborative research work should be initiated by the stakeholders for the conservation of the traditional varieties and the inclusion of these varieties and practices into the food and nutrition security plans for the nation owing to their nutritional benefits.

The impact on ecology and the water table must be specially focused upon.

Related Posts

  • Genetically Modified Crops and Regulations in India
  • Green Agriculture

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Home — Essay Samples — History — Green Revolution — The Green Revolution And Its Benefits In India

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The Green Revolution and Its Benefits in India

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Published: May 14, 2021

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Essay on Green Revolution

The Green Revolution is the way toward expanding rural creation by utilizing current machines and strategies. It was a logical exploration-based innovation activity performed in 1950 and the last part of the 1960s, that expanded rural creation around the world, especially in the creating scene, starting most extraordinarily in the last part of the 1960s. It utilized HYV seeds, expanded utilization of compost, and more specialized strategies for the water systems to build the creation of food grains. This Green Revolution Essay will help us understand the benefits and impacts of the movement in different sectors.

The Green Revolution in India started somewhere around the mid-1960sand it prompted an expansion in the creation of food grain, particularly in the areas of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. Significant achievements of this included the improvement of high-yielding assortments of wheat. The Green transformation is said to be progressive due to the presentation of innovations, new thoughts, new ideas and the new use of information sources like HYV seeds, composts, water system water, pesticides, etc.

In India, the results of the Green Revolution are significant as India has an agricultural-based economy. It is, therefore, easier to understand the effects of the movement better through the results that we interpret from the statistics in India. 

Economic Results

Harvest zones required more water, more manures, more pesticides, and certain different synthetics. And this expanded the development of the nearby assembling division. Modern development made new openings and this added to the nation's GDP. The put-away water was utilized and this made up to make hydro-electric force. This brought about mechanical development, made new positions. The Green Revolution has significantly contributed to every country's GDP where it has taken place.

The Green Revolution has helped a lot of the needy people out of destitution, and have also helped numerous other individuals dodge the neediness and yearning they would have encountered had it not happened.

Green Revolution in India

The Green Revolution started in the mid-1960s that prompted an expansion in food grain creation, particularly in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. Significant achievements in this endeavour were the improvement of high-yielding assortments of wheat. The Green transformation is progressive because of the presentation of innovation, novel thoughts, the new use of information sources like HYV seeds, composts, water system water, pesticides, and so forth. As all these were brought out of nowhere and spread rapidly to accomplish sensational outcomes in this way, it is named as an upset in green agribusiness. The essay on Green Revolution provides details behind this movement and its significant outcomes along with the disadvantages faced by every country due to this movement. In India, these results are a bit more significant as India is an agricultural-based country by nature. Hence, we can understand the effects of the movement better through the results that we interpret from the statistics in India. 

Harvest zones under this task required more water, more manures, more pesticides, and certain different synthetics. This expanded the development of the nearby assembling division. Expanded modern development made new openings and added to the nation's GDP. The expansion in the water system made the requirement for new dams to bridle rainstorm water. The put-away water was utilized to make hydroelectric force. The entirety of this brought about mechanical development, made positions, and improved the personal satisfaction of the individuals in towns. The Green Revolution has significantly contributed to every country's GDP where it has taken place. 

Disadvantages

The negative social impact of the Revolution was likewise soon obvious. Variations in salary have been enlarged by these developments in agribusiness. Rich landowners have power over the agrarian info and improved compound composts. The most noticeably awful part is that the helpless ranchers ended up crippled by little homesteads of land and lacking water gracefully. With complete agrarian strategies and sources of info, the Green revolution would, in general, have its most focused application on huge ranches.

As a centralization of the innovation to enormous ranches, the Inequalities have additionally Increased. A developing inclination has antagonistically influenced the helpless ranchers among the rich ranchers to recover land recently rented out under-occupancy understanding, which has been made productive by more significant yields from an innovation.

Poor people and the lower class of farmers have been progressively driven into the position of the landless worker—an uncommon increment in a more elevated level of the lease with land esteem taking off. Additionally, because of extreme utilization of composts soil began to become soluble or acidic, relying on the idea of the manure utilized.

Short Paragraph on  Green Revolution

The essay of Green Revolution alludes to a critical increment in the volume of horticultural creation and efficiency through a selection of better quality seeds, substance manures, pesticides, and bug sprays, and guaranteed water system offices during a brief timeframe. During the mid-sixties, this HYV innovation was embraced in Indian farming to help with the creation of food grains.

This new agrarian improvement technique was first supported by the Ford Foundation, and it was specifically executed in 16 agronomically created regions. This program was first known as the Intensive Agricultural Development Program (IADP). The IADP was altered in the year 1964-65, and another plan Intensive Agricultural Area Program (IAAP) was actualized. The fundamental elements of the new methodology are: 

(I) High Yielding Variety seeds 

(ii) Chemical composts 

(iii) Pesticides 

(iv) Insecticides 

(v) Assured water system offices and 

(vi) Better social practices. 

The program has been impressively altered with the progression of time and now the dry territories and the bumpy zones have now been secured under the new farming technique. In this short paragraph on Green Revolution, we come to know about the principal methodologies used behind this movement.

The Green Revolution has pulled countless needy individuals out of destitution and helped numerous non-needy individuals dodge the neediness and yearning they would have encountered had it not occurred. This upset has spared over a billion people everywhere in the world from starvation.

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FAQs on Green Revolution Essay

1. Define AGRA, with context to this essay?

The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, which was set up in 2006, is an African based foundation that puts the smallholder ranchers at the centre point of the developing economy of the mainland by changing the agribusiness from a small single business to a business that will flourish. This change is only possible through reasonable efficiency increments and allowance of inventive accounts and markets to accomplish the potential of agribusiness dependably to make it an alternative to youth work creation.

2. What are the advantages of the Green Revolution, according to this essay?

The harvest index was one progress that was made in plant advances due to the Green Revolution, which indicates the over the ground weight of the harvest. During the Revolution, plants with the biggest seeds were utilized to make the most creation conceivable. Following this cycle of specific rearing, the bigger the seeds were, the more grain could be developed with each harvest. The over the ground crops at that point lead to an expansion in photosynthate assignment for the yield itself. The yields had the option to photosynthesize more effectively by boosting the seed of the plant.

3. What is IADP?

The intensive Agricultural Development Program (IADP) was altered in the year 1964-65, and a new plan, the Intensive Agricultural Area Program (IAAP) was actualized. The main elements of this new methodology are: 

The High Yielding Variety seeds; 

The Chemical composts; 

The use of Pesticides; 

Use of Insecticides; 

Assured water system offices and 

Better social practices.  

This program was altered with, and according to the progression of time.

4. Mention some negative effects of the Green Revolution.

Negative effects are as follows:

There have been variations in salary by these developments in the agribusiness. The helpless ranchers ended up crippled by little homesteads of land and lacking water. With complete agrarian strategies and sources of information, the Green revolution would have its most focused application on huge ranches where the Inequalities have additionally Increased. Poor people and the lower class of farmers have been progressively driven into the position of the landless worker, an uncommon increment in a more elevated level of the lease with land esteem taking off. Due to the extreme utilization of compost, the soil began to become soluble or acidic, relying on the idea of the manure utilized.

5. Where can I get study notes on the Green Revolution essay?

Essay writing is important and it is also necessary to be able to practice some of the important questions and sample essays. The online portal, Vedantu.com offers important questions along with answers and other very helpful study material on essays of  The Green Revolution, which have been formulated in a  well structured, well researched, and easy to understand manner. These study materials and solutions are all important and are very easily accessible from Vedantu.com and can be downloaded for free. 

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Green Revolution Essay for Students in English

January 17, 2022 by Sandeep

Essay on Green Revolution: The beginning of the 1960’s witnessed enormous growth in food production in India, particularly in northern regions like Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. New varieties of high-yielding crops increased with innovation in technology, better seeds, irrigation practices, and farm pesticides. A massive record of 131 million tons output was gained during this period, referred to as the Green Revolution. Mrs. Indira Gandhi’s consistent efforts and the Indian National Congress Party-led to this revolution.

Green Revolution Essay

“Food is the moral right of all who are born into this world.” – Norman Borlaug

The Green Revolution took place in the 1950’s and 1960’s. It was extremely popular in developing countries, including India. It is said to be founded by the administrator, M. S. Swaminathan. The Green Revolution changed the way agriculture was carried out and practised. It made farming an industry. There was the introduction of High Yielding Variety seeds, irrigation facilities, tractors, fertilizers and other forms of mechanization.

The areas that benefited the most and produced the highest agricultural crop of rice and wheat in India included Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Because of the green revolution, the country had an abundant amount of food grains and did not have to depend on imports from other countries anymore.

Essential Components of the Green Revolution

High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds were considered the single most prominent contribution of the green revolution. These seeds were highly responsive to chemical fertilizers and grew at the double speed. Their leaves were much more expansive, thus enhancing the process of photosynthesis. They could resist wind damage, and the maturing cycle for the crops was significantly shortened.

Because of the irregular and unseasonal rainfall nature in India, a system of proper irrigation became very vital for farmers. The importance of groundwater rather than surface water was emphasized. Groundwater was made available at all times to a farmer by the use of a pump or a tube well. Other significant contributions to the green revolution include insecticides and pesticides, rural electrification, agricultural universities, etc.

Impact of the Green Revolution

Due to the green revolution, India doubled its crop production. Wheat was the only crop that tripled in its production. The green revolution is also regarded as grain revolution and wheat revolution in India. Because of such mass production, farmers could reap the profits of commercialization, and they became prosperous with increased earnings. India became self-sufficient in food grains and not only had it stopped importing, but it had also become eligible for export.

Even after the population increased, the country’s per capita net availability remained appropriate. Due to farming at such a large scale with various specialised inputs, new industries could flourish. Newer industries and factories were set up to meet the increasing demand for insecticides, weedicides, chemical fertilizers, etc. There was a fear in people that the jobs of labour would be cut due to the shift to mechanization, but instead, the green revolution made it possible for more than 15 lakh Indians to get job opportunities because of the multiple cropping patterns.

The green revolution made it possible to keep the economy’s food prices low. The demand and supply phenomenon generally controls prices for a particular good in a nation. Because the stock with the help of HYV seeds was always so high, there was abundant food available for everyone, so prices remained low.

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essay on green revolution in india

The Positive and Negative Impacts of the Green Revolution in India | PWOnlyIAS 2023

essay on green revolution in india

  • This article is based on a news “ MS Swaminathan’s farsightedness for Punjab: Discouraged free power to tackle groundwater crisis, wanted ‘evergreen revolution’ without harming ecology ”which was published in the Indian Express. MS Swaminathan , the Father of the Green Revolution in India , who transformed India’s image from a begging bowl to a bread basket passed away recently.

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An Introduction to the Green Revolution in India:

During the 1960s , when the country was on the brink of a mass famine and faced severe food shortage s, Swaminathan collaborated with fellow scientist Norman Borlaug and others to develop high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice.  

  • His efforts helped the country to double the total crop yield of wheat from 12 million tons to 23 million tons in four crop seasons and ended our dependence on grain imports.

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What are the achievements of the Green Revolution in India?

  • India has achieved self-reliance in the production of food grains in the last several decades and is inching towards self-reliance in pulse production.
  • Today, India is the world’s largest sugar-producin g country and holds the second position in rice production only after China. India is also the second largest producer of wheat with a share of around 14.14 percent of the world’s total production in 2020. 
  • As per the 4th Advance Estimates , the production of food grains in the country is estimated at 315.72 million tonnes which is higher by 4.98 million tonnes than the production of food grains during 2020-21.
  • Though the green revolution in India helped the country move out of a ship-to-mouth situation, since the mid-1980s, its second-generation environmental impact and the intensive farming it promoted started showing its impact.

What are the positive Impacts of the Green Revolution in India?

  • Increase in net area under cultivation
  • Growing two or more crops in a year on the same piece of land
  • Use of HYV seeds
  • Since farmers and agricultural labour comprise a sizeable proportion of the rural population, a rise in their income is due to agricultural development.
  • The per capita income of Punjab stands at Rs.1,73,873 in 2022-23 (Advance Estimates) which is higher than Rs. 1,70,620 at National level.
  • Rural Expansion of demand for farm inputs, repairs & maintenance of farm tools and machines, transportation and marketing services, agro-processing, etc.
  • Reduction in poverty : Due to increased income for farmers and agricultural labor.
  • Bullock capitalism : Emergence of a new class of wealthy farmers and their subsequent impact on economic and agricultural policy evident post-Green Revolution especially Green Revolution belt.

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What are the Negative Impacts Of the Green Revolution in India?

  • Decline in Soil fertility: Due to the overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, making it less fertile and more susceptible to erosion. For example there had been a decline of 16 percent in the production of wheat and 17 percent in per acre wheat with increasing use of chemical fertilizers in Punjab.
  • Depletion of groundwater resources: It led to a significant increase in water consumption for irrigation, which has depleted groundwater resources in many areas. Punjab has 76% groundwater blocks which are overexploited, Rajasthan has 72% and Haryana has 61%. (Ground Water Resources Assessment for 2022).
  • Biodiversity and ecosystem: The Green Revolution’s focus on a few high-yielding varieties of crops ( Especially Monocroping of wheat and rice ) has reduced biodiversity and made agricultural ecosystems more vulnerable to pests and diseases.
  • Debt trap: The high cost of inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides has led many farmers to fall into debt. According to the 2019 National Sample Survey, more than 50% of India’s farmers are debt-ridden and often seek alternatives outside of agriculture, or tragically, end their own lives.
  • High production costs : The Green Revolution in India has made agriculture more capital-intensive, increasing the production costs for farmers.
  • Regional disparities:   The benefits of the Green Revolution have been unevenly distributed, with some regions benefiting more than others ( benefits concentrated in Punjab, Haryana and Western UP regions).
  • Big farmers: Small and marginal farmers have been disproportionately affected by the Green Revolution, as they have not been able to compete with large farmers who have access to more resources.
  • Health: The overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has led to health problems for farmers and consumers. For example, exposure to pesticides has been linked to cancer and other diseases. For example: The Malwa region in Punjab is known as the Cancer Belt with 14,682 of the 33,318 deaths.
  • Farmers’ suicide: The debt burden and other challenges faced by farmers have led to a high rate of suicide in many areas. A written reply in Parliament revealed that a total of 1,056 farmers committed suicide over the past five years (2017-21) in Punjab.
  • Drug abuse in Punjab: The Green Revolution in India led to a problem of drug abuse in Punjab, as many farmers turned to drugs to cope with the stress and challenges of modern agriculture.

Post challenges of Green Revolution in India: Shrinking Land holdings : At present, the per capita available land is only about 0.10 hectares. This is much below the world average of about 4.50 hectares. Over 75% of the landholding are less than one hectare.

Green Revolution In India

  • Water Scarcity: It shows that India has much lower levels of water per capita than Brazil, one of the world’s leading agricultural countries. India uses a little over 90 percent of water resources for cultivation.
  • A survey by the government showed that less than 6%, or over nine crore agricultural households, are the direct beneficiaries. Further, only 19% of farmer families sold paddy under MSP, whereas only 9.7% of wheat farmers benefited from MSP.
  • In the absence of the adoption of adaptation measures, rainfed rice yields in India are projected to reduce by 20% in 2050 and 47% in 2080 scenarios while irrigated rice yields are projected to reduce by 3.5% in 2050 and 5% in 2080 scenarios.

ALSO READ: POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES

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Way Forward

  • Need for Evergreen Revolution in India: According to most estimates, farming is no longer remunerative and over 40 percent of farmers would like to quit if they have an option. The evergreen revolution is based on an appropriate blend of different approaches to sustainable agriculture such as organic farming, green agriculture, eco-agriculture and agriculture based on effective micro-organisms.
  • Green Revolution in India 2.0 :  We need to improve productivity in dry-farming areas, which can grow pulses, oilseeds and other high-value crops that require less water, but many of which we continue to import.
  • Natural Farming:  Agroecological practices like Natural Farming are a cost-effective and ecologically compatible alternative that can help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. They can reduce input costs, improve income and financial stability, alleviate poverty, promote gender equality, and ensure sustainable production and consumption patterns.
  • Cooperative Farming: It was, therefore, necessary to make cost-effective usage of new technology on small and marginal-size holdings through some institution-building measures like the formation of group farming.
  • However, the adoption of gene technology in Indian agriculture is subject to debate and discussion, as its positive and negative effects on plants, animals and human lives have not yet been fully examined.

C onclusion

Green Revolution in India, spearheaded by visionaries like MS Swaminathan, brought about unprecedented increases in agricultural productivity and self-sufficiency, its legacy reveals a nuanced tapestry of successes and challenges. However, the green revolution technology, in spite of its severe criticism on the issues related to equity, ecology and environment, thus made a remarkable contribution in transforming the Indian economy from its notorious ship-to-mouth food-deficit status to that of not only a food-self-sufficient country but even a food-surplus country.

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Essay on green revolution in india (500+ words).

Green Revolution means the production of bumper crops in a particular land or country. Even after independence, India had to suffer from want of adequate food grains for her people. The First Five Year Plan (1951-1956) could not ensure to meet the demand for food out of the country’s production.

India faced a food deficit. In some states like Bihar and Rajasthan famine-like conditions prevailed for a time. The deficit of food became so acute in some provinces that foodstuffs had to be imported on a large scale under PL 480.

Thereafter plans were taken for growing more crops in different States of India. Improving the irrigation system under River Valley Projects is the most important of them. In addition to that, introducing better methods of cultivation by using chemical fertilizers, high-yielding strains, double cropping, etc. yielded better production. And some provinces like Punjab, Haryana, Andhra, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra turned into granaries by the Green Revolution. After some time West Bengal too could overcome the food crisis. Now India, as a whole, is in a position to export food crops and maintains a huge buffer stock of food crops. This breakthrough in our fight against food shortage is what has been characterised as the Green Revolution.

We have applied science and technology to the service of agricultural development. This has resulted in a higher yield of grains and vegetables. The scenario has greatly changed as even a few years back we were heavily dependent on imports on the food front. Alongside, we have acquired White Revolution in the milk front, especially in Haryana.

But the fruits of the Green Revolution will never be assured unless steps are taken to prevent damages caused by droughts or floods. These natural calamities are caused by the uncertainties of monsoons upon which our agriculture has to depend so much even now. Only one-third of the arable land of India is irrigated by the different river valley projects. To counteract these calamities two things are necessary. First, there should be an extensive scheme of irrigation to divert the excess water through canals to those regions that are comparatively dry by building reservoirs and digging more canals. Secondly, minor irrigational facilities should also be extended for a wide area by such devices as excavating tanks, sinking deep or shallow tubewells, etc. However, there should be a limit to sinking shallow or deep tubewells by the soil test to prevent the arsenic problem. There should be thorough research to invent and prescribe species of crops for harvesting in low-water level regions. Moreover, progressive farmers have to turn over from antiquated bullock-driven ploughs to modern tractors and modern facilities for agriculture. The grand plan of the river grid—connecting the Ganga with the Narmada—has to be implemented with an adequate rehabilitation programme.

In the meantime Food Protection Bill has been passed in the Parliament to assure food for all including BPL to get foodgrains at low prices. It calls for huge funds in the national budget. Now we can say much has been done, but much remains to be done. It is a process that must be continuous if food is to be supplied cheaply and in sufficient quantities to the coming generations. Moreover, overpopulation must be controlled. Otherwise, it will be a hide-and-seek game.

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  • Published: 01 October 2019

The impact of the Green Revolution on indigenous crops of India

  • Ann Raeboline Lincy Eliazer Nelson 1 ,
  • Kavitha Ravichandran 1 &
  • Usha Antony 1  

Journal of Ethnic Foods volume  6 , Article number:  8 ( 2019 ) Cite this article

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The Green Revolution in India was initiated in the 1960s by introducing high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat to increase food production in order to alleviate hunger and poverty. Post-Green Revolution, the production of wheat and rice doubled due to initiatives of the government, but the production of other food crops such as indigenous rice varieties and millets declined. This led to the loss of distinct indigenous crops from cultivation and also caused extinction. This review deals with the impacts the Green Revolution had on the production of indigenous crops, its effects on society, environment, nutrition intake, and per capita availability of foods, and also the methods that can be implemented to revive the indigenous crops back into cultivation and carry the knowledge to the future generation forward.

Introduction

India holds the second-largest agricultural land in the world, with 20 agro-climatic regions and 157.35 million hectares of land under cultivation [ 1 ]. Thus, agriculture plays a vital role with 58% of rural households depending on it even though India is no longer an agrarian economy. A report by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare estimates that the food grain production in India will be 279.51 million tonnes during the 2017–2018 crop year. Although India is self-sufficient in food production, its food production between 1947 and 1960 was so bad that there were risks for the occurrence of famine. Therefore, the Green Revolution was initiated in the 1960s in order to increase food production, alleviate extreme poverty and malnourishment in the country, and to feed millions. In spite of these measures, India has one quarter of the hungry population of the world with 195.9 million undernourished people lacking sufficient food to meet their daily nutritional requirements; 58.4% of children under the age of five suffer from anemia, while in the age group of 15–49, 53% of women and 22.7% of men are anemic; 23% of women and 20% of men are thin, and 21% of women and 19% of men are obese [ 2 , 3 ].

The major crops cultivated in the era preceding the Green Revolution were rice, millets, sorghum, wheat, maize, and barley [ 4 , 5 ], and the production of rice and millets were higher than the production of wheat, barley, and maize combined all together. But the production of millets has gone down, and the crops that were once consumed in every household became a fodder crop in just a few decades after the Green Revolution. Meanwhile, a number of traditional rice varieties consumed prior to the Green Revolution have become non-existent, and the availability of local rice varieties have decreased to 7000 and not all of these varieties are under cultivation. Thus, India has lost more than 1 lakh varieties of indigenous rice after the 1970s that took several thousand years to evolve [ 6 ]. This loss of species is mainly due to the focus given to the production of subsidized high-yielding hybrid crops and the emphasis of monoculture by the government.

The measures initiated by the government increased the production of rice, wheat, pulses, and other crops leading to the self-sufficiency of food in the country. But it also destroyed the diversified gene pool available. The productivity of the crops was increased by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and groundwater resources. However, mismanagement and overuse of chemical fertilizers, pesticide, and lack of crop rotation caused the land to become infertile, and loss of groundwater became a common occurrence in agricultural areas. These impacts made the farmers even more miserable, due to the increased expenditure spend on the cultivation of crops to overcome these shortcomings.

This review focuses on the genesis of the Green Revolution and its impacts and effects on the production of indigenous crops, society, environment, nutrition intake, and per capita availability of foods. Furthermore, the methods that can be implemented to revive the indigenous crops back into cultivation and carry the knowledge to the future generation forward is also discussed in detail.

  • Green Revolution

The word “Green Revolution” was coined by William S. Gaud of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 1968, for the introduction of new technology and policies implemented in the developing nations with aids from industrialized nations between the 1940s and the 1960s to increase the production and yield of food crops [ 7 , 8 ]. Many high-yielding varieties (HYVs) were introduced as part of the Green Revolution to increase agricultural productivity. These genetically improved varieties of wheat and rice were developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Mexico, and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines, respectively. The HYVs had 20% more grain than its earlier cultivars and were more responsive to the nitrogen fertilizers. The yield potential doubled due to the incorporation of several traits and specific genes for short stature in HYVs [ 9 , 10 ]. The incorporation of the gene responsible for photo-insensitivity in rice and wheat enabled cultivation possible throughout the year; regardless of day length of the region, it was cultivated [ 11 , 12 ]. Furthermore, the reduced cropping period increased the cropping intensity to 2–3 crops per year. For instance, the newly introduced IR-8 took 130 days to mature, and the varieties later developed such as IR-72 took 100 days to mature while the traditional rice cultivars took 150 to 180 days to mature [ 9 ]. The period between 1960 and 1985 saw the doubling of yield per hectare, total productivity, and total food production in developing countries [ 7 ]. Accordingly, the global production of cereals increased by 174% between 1950 and 1990 while the global population increased by 110% [ 13 ]. The increased production of cereals enabled the nations to feed their growing population and averting the Malthusian scenario predicted in the 1960s [ 14 , 15 ].

When India became independent in 1947, 90% of its population lived in 600,000 villages depending mainly on agriculture for their subsistence. For a few centuries, Indian agriculture remained unchanged without any technological changes in agricultural practices [ 16 ]. The technologies employed in agriculture were the seeds cultivated by the farmers having a genetic makeup that went back thousands of years and the involvement of wooden plows, waterwheels, and bullock carts, along with the agricultural practices driven by the energy provided by animals and humans. Therefore, failure of the agriculture sector to meet the demands of India after 1947 until 1965 reflected negatively in the growth of the industrial sector. The lack of proper technological change and land reforms combined with droughts brought India to the verge of massive famine in the mid-1960s. However, this situation was averted by massive shipments of subsidized food grains mainly wheat by the USA. This measure, in turn, depleted the reserves of the nation. So, in order to save the reserves and to increase the productivity of cereals, all the stakeholders and donor agencies decided to induce changes in agricultural technology and practices [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ].

The HYVs of rice suitable for cultivation in tropical climatic conditions of South Asia were developed by the IRRI in the 1960s, based on the genetic materials drawn from China, Taiwan, and Indonesia. The most famous rice variety introduced as a part of the Green Revolution in India was IR-8. It was developed based on experience in developing the Norin variety of Japan and Ponlai variety of Taiwan. IR-8 was short, stiff strawed, and highly responsive to the fertilizers. In India, the yield of IR-8 was 5–10 t per hectare [ 8 , 21 ].

Semi-dwarf wheat varieties developed in Japan in the 1800s were used to develop the HYVs of wheat. The two varieties namely Akakomugi and Daruma of Japan were used for the international breeding programs of wheat [ 22 ]. Norin 10 was developed by crossing Daruma and native American varieties. In 1948, the US scientists crossed Norin 10 with Brevor, a native American variety to give rise to Norin-Brevor cross. This cross was taken to CIMMYT, Mexico, in 1954; there several HYVs of wheat were developed by Norman Borlaug and others, and these varieties were transferred to India in the 1960s [ 8 , 21 ].

The HYVs of wheat and rice were tested by the Indian scientists in 1962 and 1964 respectively. Later, these tested varieties were introduced throughout the nation during the crop year of 1965–1966 [ 20 , 23 ]. Thus, the Green Revolution involved the use of HYVs of wheat and rice and adoption of new agricultural practices involving the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, tractors, controlled water supply to crops, mechanical threshers, and pumps [ 19 , 24 ]. The combination of these techniques was commonly termed as “high-yielding variety technology (HYVT).” This technology was responsible for the increased growth rate of food-grain output from 2.4% per annum before 1965 to 3.5% after 1965. Initially, the major increase in food production was due to increased production of wheat that increased from 50 million tonnes in 1950 to 79 million tonnes in 1964 and later to 95.1 million tonnes in 1968 [ 24 ]. Since then, importing food grains has declined considerably.

The success of the Green Revolution in India in terms of crop yield is attributed to the government of India, international agricultural research institutions (IRRI and CIMMYT), multilateral and bilateral donor agencies (Ford Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, and USAID), and the farmers. The Ministry of Food and Agriculture and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) meticulously executed the smooth transmission and distribution of new technology [ 19 , 25 ].

Ecological and societal impacts

In the past, Indian farms were small plots of land protected by windbreaks and tree cover. For centuries, the farmers employed several methods of organic husbandry, crop rotation, and leaving fields fallow for long periods of time in order to allow the soil to retain its nutrients. These practices lowered the demand on the land and maintained the equilibrium of soil [ 26 , 27 ].

Though the high-yielding monohybrid crops were introduced as a part of Green Revolution, the major problem with indigenous seeds was not the fact that they were not high yielding, but their inherent inability to withstand the chemical fertilizers used. On the contrary, new varieties were created to produce higher yields in conjunction with the use of chemical fertilizers and very intense irrigation [ 24 , 28 ]. The amount of chemical fertilizers used post-advent of the Green Revolution was quite high, and the increase in the consumption of chemical fertilizers for the cultivation of crop can be seen in Fig.  1 , which elucidates the steep increase in the use of fertilizers since 1981–1982. The overuse of chemical fertilizers to get high yield causes physical and chemical degradation of the soil by altering the natural microflora and increasing the alkalinity and salinity of the soil [ 30 ]. The excessive use of groundwater for irrigation depleted the water table in many parts of the country.

figure 1

Consumption of fertilizers (N, P, and K) post-Green Revolution period [ 29 ]. The consumption of N, P, and K fertilizers increased steadily post-Green Revolution era. In particular, the period after 2000–2001 saw increased consumption of inorganic fertilizers, as the application of inorganic fertilizers influenced crop yield. Nitrogen-based fertilizers such as urea, ammonia, and nitrate were widely used. The uncontrolled use of these N, P, and K adversely affected the fertility of the soil and altered the microbiota of the soil

The newly introduced high-yielding seeds had a very narrow genetic base as compared to the indigenous species. The sole cultivation of monohybrid crops in the field by the farmers caused the removal of several indigenous species from cultivation [ 19 , 27 ]. Besides, the instability of the acquired traits in modern varieties such as high-yielding rice varieties, hybrids, and genetically engineered rice and the associated environmental degradation with its cultivation has caused a regular decline in yields and quality of food grains produced. For example, in the 1960s, the high yield was recorded in the newly introduced varieties IR-8 and ADT-27 in the Cauvery Delta, Tamil Nadu, and it was publicized as a conquest of high-yielding varieties over the low-yielding indigenous varieties. Although the yields were high initially, later it declined and disappeared from cultivation within few years of its introduction [ 31 ].

The major ecological and societal impacts of the Green Revolution can be summarized as follows: (1) loss of landraces that were indigenous to our country, (2) the loss of soil nutrients making it unproductive, (3) excessive use of pesticides increases the presence of its residues in foods and environment [ 24 , 32 , 33 , 34 ], (4) the farmers shift to unsustainable practices to obtain more yield, (5) increased rates of suicide among farmers, (6) unable to withstand the increasing expenses for farming and debts small farmers sold their lands to large commercial farmers, and (7) unable to withstand the food inflation and economic crisis the farmers left farming resorting to other occupation.

Impact on the cultivation of food grains

Post-Green Revolution, the area under cultivation increased from 97.32 million hectares in 1950 to 126.04 million hectares in 2014 [ 1 ]. The area under cultivation of coarse cereals decreased drastically from 37.67 million hectares to 25.67 million hectares since the 1950s. Likewise, the area under cultivation of sorghum decreased from 15.57 million hectares to 5.82 million hectares and that of pearl millet decreased from 9.02 million hectares to 7.89 million hectares [ 1 ]. But the area under the cultivation of rice, wheat, maize, and pulses increased from 30.81 million hectares to 43.95 million hectares, 9.75 million hectares to 31.19 million hectares, 3.18 million hectares to 9.43 million hectares, and 19.09 million hectares to 25.23 million hectares respectively [ 1 ]. The trends in the production of food grains influenced the availability and consumption of food grains in rural and urban households (Fig.  2 ).

figure 2

The trend in the production of food crops in India from 1950 to 2017 (in million tonnes) [ 1 , 35 ]. The period after initiation of the Green Revolution by introducing mono-hybrid crops in India saw increased production of crops such as rice and wheat. But the production of millets decreased as the Green Revolution did not focus on the minor cereals to increase the food production of the country. The production of minor cereals and pulses were almost stationary while the production of rice and wheat in 2010–2017 surpassed its own production during 1950–1959 crop year by 4 and 11 times respectively

Impact on the availability and consumption of food grains

The per capita net availability of food grains increased over the years. The per capita net availability of rice increased from 58.0 kg/year in 1951 to 69.3 kg/year in 2017. The per capita net availability of rice was an all-time high in 1961. Similarly, the per capita net availability of wheat increased from 24.0 kg/year in 1951 to 70.1 kg/year in 2017. However, the per capita net availability of other cereal grains such as millets and pulses decreased over the years. This led to the change in the consumption pattern over the years and the shift in focus from the minor cereals and pulses to the major cereals, rice and wheat (Fig.  3 ).

figure 3

The per capita net availability of food grains in India since 1951 [ 1 , 74 ]. The per capita net availability of food stands for the availability of amount (kg) of food per person per year in the nation. Figure  3 indicates an increase in the availability of rice and wheat per person and a decrease in the availability of pulses and millets per person after the Green Revolution. The decrease in the availability of millets and pulses per person is mainly due to the focus given to the production of rice and wheat alone during the Green Revolution. Although pulses did not lose the importance among the consumers like millets, per capita availability decreased from 22.1 kg/year in 1951 to 19.9 kg/year in 2017

The trends in percentage composition of consumer expenditure since 1987 (Table  1 ) reveal that cereals played a major role in both rural and urban households in 1987. But the composition of cereals on consumer expenditure decreased from 26.3 to 12.0% in rural households whereas the percentage in urban households dipped to 7.3 from 15.0%. The consumption of cereal substitutes such as coarse cereals and millets was stationary at 0.1% in rural households since 1987 but dipped to zero in urban areas after 1993–1994, only to be revived back to 0.1% in 2011–2012. Similarly, the consumption of pulses declined in both urban and rural households. Furthermore, it also indicates the shift in expenditure spend on cereals to non-food items in both rural and urban households with years; this may be attributed to the change in lifestyle.

Impact on nutrition

Millets are rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals. Singh et al. [ 36 ] report proteins in millets as a good source of essential amino acids, including histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and valine, lacking lysine and threonine. They are also rich in methionine and cysteine that contains sulfur. Furthermore, millets are also a very good source of dietary minerals such as phosphorus, calcium, iron, and zinc, especially finger millet which contains nine- to tenfold higher calcium than others.

Rough rice contains more amount of riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc than the milled (polished) rice (Table  2 ). The milled rice loses its nutrients during polishing, and the nutrient content present in it varies with the degree of polishing. Brown rice undergoes minimal processing, so it retains nutrients such as thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Barnyard millet has the highest amount of crude fiber among the cereals. Furthermore, the colored rice varieties such as red rice and black rice are also a good source of protein and fat.

The consumption of major cereals such as rice and wheat along with pulses and decrease in the addition of coarse cereals, foods of animal origin, and fruits and vegetables in the diet lead to deficiency of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin A, folate, and riboflavin among the population causing anemia, keratomalacia, blindness, and infertility in severe cases. Surveys conducted by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau and others also conclude the same that the Indian diets based on cereal pulse are qualitatively deficient in micronutrients [ 47 ].

Anemia due to iron deficiency is the most serious health issue among all other deficiency disorders. A report by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) states anemia due to iron deficiency may cause an impaired immune system (resistance to fight against infections), reduced reproductive health and related problems such as premature birth, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality, and affect cognitive and motor development and physical performance. According to the Indian National Science Academy (INSA), malnutrition and deficiency of micronutrients in India, particularly among women, children, and adolescents, need immediate attention [ 48 ].

Indigenous crops

The indigenous crops are popular and culturally known native varieties. Every region of the world has unique traditional foods that are widely consumed by a group of people, or by a particular community, for instance, consumption of black walnut, wild rice, pecan, palmetto berries, squash, succotash , sofkee , and fajitas by the native American tribes; Kyo - no - dento - yasai , ishiru , yamato persimmon, and katsura - uri by the Japanese; and kolo , kita , dabo , beso , genfo , chuko , tihlo , shorba , kinche , and injera by the Ethiopians [ 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. The traditional foods and cereal-based products that once occupied a part of the regular Indian diet are lost in time due to the emphasis on mono-cropping post-Green Revolution. The indigenous crops of India include several varieties of rice such as colored rice, aromatic rice, and medicinal rice varieties: millets, wheat, barley, and maize. The indigenous varieties of rice and millets are resistant to drought, salinity, and floods. For example, Dharical , Dular , and Tilak Kacheri of Eastern India are adaptable to different topology, climate, and soils [ 54 ]. The coarse cereals include sorghum, pearl millet, maize, barley, finger millet, and small millets like barnyard millet, foxtail millet, kodo millet, proso millet, and little millets [ 1 ].

The traditional rice cultivars have high nutrition than hybrid rice varieties [ 55 ]. They are a good source of minerals and vitamins such as niacin, thiamine, iron, riboflavin, vitamin D, calcium, and possess higher fiber. Furthermore, these cultivars possess several health benefits such as reducing the risk of developing type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases by lowering the glycemic and insulin responses [ 56 ].

Kumbhar et al. [ 57 ] report Tulshi tall , a landrace from Western Ghat zone of Maharastra, India, and Vikram , a landrace from Konkan region of Maharastra, showed moderate similarity in distinct differences in allelic combinations from other modern varieties. This report also suggests that landraces and local genotypes and Basmati rice of India have a long and independent history of evolution, which makes these indigenous species more distinct from the modern varieties. Landraces are unique and well adapted to agro-climatic conditions of its original area of cultivation. For example, Tulaipanji , an aromatic rice variety cultivated originally in cooler northern districts of West Bengal, India, lost its aroma when cultivated in the relatively warmer southern districts [ 58 ].

Jatu rice of Kullu valley, Himachal Pradesh, is prized for its aroma and taste. Matali and Lal Dhan of Himachal Pradesh are used for curing fever and reducing the elevated blood pressure. Kafalya is a popular red rice variety from the hills of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, used in treating leucorrhoea and complications from abortion [ 59 ]. In Karnataka, Kari Kagga and Atikaya are used to regulate body heat and also in preparation of a tonic whereas Neelam Samba of Tamil Nadu is given to lactating mothers [ 60 ]. Maappillai Samba of Tamil Nadu is given to newly wedded groom to increase fertility [ 61 ]. Assam/North East parts of India use Assam black rice due to anti-cancer properties while its bran is used to soothe inflammation due to allergies, asthma, and other diseases. The varieties of Kerala such as Karinjan and Karimalakaran are rich in fiber and are known to reduce the risk of diabetes; Mundakan is consumed to increase the stamina; Vella chennellu and Chuvanna chennellu are consumed by pubescent, pregnant, and menopausal women, as it reduces problems associated with hormonal imbalances; Chuvanna kunjinelu is boiled with water and given to people who are suffering from epileptic fits; and Vellanavara and Rakthashali are consumed across India for its health benefits [ 62 ].

Sourirajan [ 63 ] reports on certain varieties of Tamil Nadu such as Kar arici and Vaikarai samba imparts strength, Karunguruvai acts as an antidiuretic, Puzhugu samba quenches intense thirst, Senchamba increases appetite, and Kodai samba reduces rheumatic pain. Jonga and Maharaji varieties of Bihar and Chhattisgarh are given to lactating mothers to increase lactation. Bora of Assam is used in the treatment of jaundice. Karhani of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand is used as a tonic in the treatment of epilepsy. Layacha is consumed by pregnant women to prevent unborn children from contracting Laicha disease. Gudna rice is used to treat gastric ailments [ 64 ]. These are some of the benefits of the few reported varieties, while many remain undocumented and unexplored. Foods such as roti, idli , dosai , puttu , aval , dhokla , khaman , selroti , adai , sez , kulcha , naan , and kurdi ; sweets such as adirasam , anarshe , and jalebi ; snacks such as murukku , and vadai ; and infant formulations are made from major cereals.

Millets are resistant to drought, pests, and diseases [ 65 ]. The growing season of millets is short, and the consumption of water for its cultivation is very less when compared to other cereals. Foods such as roti, dosai , and kuzh (porridge), snacks such as murukku , baby foods, ambali , wine, and health mix are made from millets. The polyphenols present in millets acts as antioxidant and boost immunity [ 66 ]. Lei et al. [ 67 ] report fermented millet products as a natural probiotic used for treating diarrhea in young children as the whole grain possesses prebiotic activity, increasing the population of good bacteria in the gut to promote digestion. Millets provide protection against obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Though millets possess various health benefits, the anti-nutrients present in millets weaken the absorption of nutrients. However, the anti-nutrients present in millets can be inactivated or reduced by soaking, cooking, germination, malting, removal of the seed coat, and fermentation, among others.

The revival of indigenous crops

From this research, it is evident that necessary measures should be carried out to conserve the indigenous species of the nation and also to carry knowledge to the future generations by reviving the crops back into cultivation. The government of India may initiate the acquisition and management of germplasm of all indigenous varieties by the Indian National Genebank at the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi. Furthermore, the primary factors that contribute to the revival of indigenous crops include the passion of farmers, administrative measures initiated by the stakeholders, and the marketing strategies of vendors. Additionally, the knowledge about the health benefits of indigenous crops may also prevent its extinction and ensure the availability of these foods in local markets and the methods of cooking for future generations [ 52 ].

Nevertheless, the revival of indigenous crops is possible only when all the stakeholders define and bring these crops under a special category similar to the one initiated in Kyoto, Japan. In Kyoto Prefecture, the “native varieties” are categorized into “ Kyo - no - dento - yasai ,” and outside the prefecture, it is called “ Brand - Kyo - yasai ” [ 52 ]. Additionally, traditional food products of India may be collectively registered with the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) Food Heritages as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity similar to the registrations obtained for the washoku , a traditional dietary culture of Japan; the kimjang and kimchi of Republic of Korea; the Le repas gastronomique des Français (the gastronomic meal) of France; the Mediterranean diet; traditional Mexican foods; and the ceremonial keşkek of Turkey [ 68 ]. India may also adopt a geological indication (GI) for the traditional products like the one followed in the European Union and Japan [ 69 , 70 ] to provide the farmers with better access to the willingness of their consumers to try the traditional food products [ 71 ].

Advantages and challenges

The benefits of indigenous crops over the introduced HYVs include (1) cultivation of indigenous crops can make agriculture more genetically diverse and sustainable, (2) consumption of domestically cultivated indigenous crops can reduce the carbon footprints [ 72 ] and imports, (3) the indigenous crops are highly adapted to the climatic conditions of the land, and (4) consumption of indigenous foods contribute to food diversity and enrichment of diet with micronutrients provides health benefits due to the interactions between the inherited genes and food nutrients [ 73 ].

However, there may be few challenges in reviving indigenous species, which may include (1) farmers’ willingness in the propagation of indigenous varieties, (2) identifying the farmers with traditional knowledge of crop cultivation, (3) encouraging the farmers with large landholdings to cultivate indigenous crops, (4) awareness among the consumers and stakeholders about the ecological and health benefits of indigenous varieties, (5) support of the government to the farmers for the propagation of these crops in small and large scale, and (6) development of mechanization suitable for processing indigenous crops, as the existing machines are designed for the HYVs, and employing the same techniques for the processing of indigenous crops may lead to the loss of micronutrients and phytochemicals.

The measures discussed above may be initiated by the stakeholders to revive the indigenous crops, and it is imperative that food security must also ensure nutrition security of the nation. Thus, proper planning and intensive collaborative research work should be initiated by the stakeholders for the conservation of the traditional varieties and the inclusion of these varieties and practices into the food and nutrition security plans for the nation owing to their nutritional benefits.

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Eliazer Nelson, A.R.L., Ravichandran, K. & Antony, U. The impact of the Green Revolution on indigenous crops of India. J. Ethn. Food 6 , 8 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42779-019-0011-9

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Green Revolution: A quick recap of what we achieved

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M.S. Swaminathan has passed away, but his influence endures among every student and scientist in the field of agriculture. He is best known for collaborating with Norman Borlaug to initiate the Green Revolution in India during the mid-1960s, a critical period marked by consecutive droughts.

The Green Revolution played a pivotal role in averting mass starvation, a scenario that seemed imminent at the time. India was already labeled a “ship to mouth” economy, relying on the import of 10 million tonnes from the US through the P.L.480 scheme. Unfortunately, the country lacked the foreign exchange to meet these demands. The gravity of the situation led Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri to appeal to the nation to “skip a meal in a week,” and even wheat-based products, including chapattis, were excluded from wedding festivities.

Need for Green revolution

  • In the 1960s, India confronted a dire food crisis marked by swift population growth, inadequate agricultural productivity, recurrent droughts, and reliance on imported food.
  • India found itself susceptible to external pressures and political interventions from food-exporting nations, particularly the United States, which utilized food assistance as a diplomatic and leverage tool.
  • The primary goals for India were to attain self-sufficiency and ensure food security for its population, aiming to alleviate poverty and malnutrition. India aspired to modernize its agricultural sector , making it more streamlined, profitable, and globally competitive.

Benefits of Green revolution

  • Enhanced Food Production: The Green Revolution brought about a substantial surge in agricultural productivity by introducing new high-yielding crop varieties, such as dwarf wheat and rice. These varieties yielded more produce per hectare of land, effectively addressing the escalating global demand for food. For instance, during 1978–1979, a remarkable spike in crop production resulted in a grain output of 131 million tonnes, positioning India among the world’s foremost agricultural producers.
  • Decreased Dependence on Food Imports : India transitioned into a net exporter of wheat, rice, and other food grains like rye, maize, sorghum, buckwheat, bajra, and ragi, with negligible imports. In the fiscal year 2020-21, India achieved record-high rice exports of 18.5 million tonnes and wheat exports of 2.1 million tonnes, the highest in six years.
  • Alleviation of Poverty: Elevated agricultural productivity often equates to increased incomes for farmers, contributing to poverty alleviation. The Green Revolution played a pivotal role in lifting numerous small-scale farmers out of poverty by boosting their crop yields and income levels.For instance, the rural poverty ratio in India declined from 50.1% in 1993-94 to 25.7% in 2011-12, partially attributed to the impact of the Green Revolution.
  • Technological Progress: The Green Revolution introduced farmers to cutting-edge agricultural technologies, encompassing improved seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. These technological advancements persist in benefiting agriculture today, fostering sustainable practices and heightened efficiency. The adoption of improved seeds has augmented the genetic diversity of crops, enhancing resilience against pests, diseases, and climate variations. Mechanized farm tools, such as tractors, harvesters, and irrigation systems, have curtailed labor costs and augmented farm productivity.
  • Rural Advancement: Elevated agricultural productivity can spur rural development, empowering farmers to invest in their communities. This, in turn, leads to enhanced infrastructure, education, and healthcare in rural areas.
  • In India, for example, the Green Revolution prompted the expansion of rural roads, electrification, irrigation, and communication networks, enhancing the accessibility and connectivity of rural regions.
  • Mitigation of Land Conversion: By amplifying crop yields, the Green Revolution mitigated the necessity to convert forests and other natural habitats into agricultural land. This has yielded positive environmental effects by conserving biodiversity and reducing deforestation.
  • Economic Expansion: The escalated agricultural productivity stemming from the Green Revolution has been correlated with overall economic growth in various countries. Agriculture emerges as a pivotal driver of economic development in numerous regions, and augmented yields can catalyze growth across the entire economy.

Challenges brought by the Green Revolution

  • Environmental Impact: The Green Revolution induced environmental degradation through the utilization of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, contributing to soil erosion and water pollution. The dependence on modern agricultural technologies has rendered certain countries and communities reliant on external inputs, which can be costly and susceptible to market fluctuations.
  • Consequence on Biodiversity : The Green Revolution resulted in the decline of biodiversity and genetic diversity among crops, along with the displacement of indigenous crops and traditional farming practices. Notably, the production of wheat and rice doubled post the Green Revolution, while other food crops, including indigenous rice varieties and millets, experienced a decrease.
  • Social and Economic Ramifications: The Green Revolution instigated social and economic disparities and conflicts among farmers, regions, and countries. For instance, it has been associated with farmer suicides, rural indebtedness, and droughts in India.
  • Heightened Crop Vulnerability : The Green Revolution amplified the susceptibility of crops to pests, diseases, and climate change . The monoculture of rice and wheat, for instance, heightened their vulnerability to outbreaks of pests and diseases, such as the brown plant hopper and wheat rust.

Can Green Revolution 2.0 become  a Solution to the Green Revolution

Green Revolution 2.0 is envisioned as a strategy to enhance the adaptability and resilience of agriculture to evolving climate and socio-economic conditions, ensuring food and nutrition security for present and future generations.

Key Features of Green Revolution 2.0 include:

  • Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering : Emphasizing biotechnology and genetic engineering to cultivate crops with heightened resilience to climate change, pests, and diseases. Responsibly adopting genetically modified (GM) crops can contribute to increased productivity and reduced environmental impact.
  • Precision Agriculture: Utilizing advanced technologies like GPS-guided tractors and drones to optimize resource use, including water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Precision agriculture enhances efficiency while reducing the environmental footprint of farming.
  • Sustainability: Prioritizing sustainability by endorsing practices that conserve soil health, diminish chemical inputs, and minimize the environmental repercussions of agriculture. This encompasses organic farming, agro ecology, and integrated pest management.
  • Diversification: Unlike the initial Green Revolution, which concentrated on a few staple crops like wheat and rice, Green Revolution 2.0 advocates for crop diversification. Encouraging the cultivation of a broader array of crops enriches nutrition, mitigates risks linked to mono-cropping, and safeguards biodiversity.
  • Holistic Approach: Taking a holistic stance towards agriculture, recognizing that it extends beyond crop production to encompass aspects like soil health, food processing, marketing, and value addition. Integrated approaches address the entirety of the food supply chain.
  • Environmental Considerations: Undertaking efforts to alleviate the adverse environmental impacts linked to modern agriculture, such as soil erosion, water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable practices strive to curtail these effects.
  • Adaptation to Climate Change: In response to the challenges posed by climate change, Green Revolution 2.0 endeavors to develop crop varieties and practices resilient to changing weather patterns and extremes.

Reference: The Indian Express

Related blogs…, frequently asked questions:.

1. Question: What were the primary objectives of the Green Revolution in India, and how did it impact the country’s food production?

Answer: The Green Revolution aimed to achieve food self-reliance, enhance farmers’ income, and modernize agriculture. It significantly increased food production and made India self-sufficient in grains.

2. Question: Discuss the environmental challenges brought about by the Green Revolution and how Green Revolution 2.0 aims to address them.

Answer: The Green Revolution led to environmental issues like soil erosion and pesticide use. Green Revolution 2.0 focuses on sustainability and environmentally friendly practices.

3. Question: How can Green Revolution 2.0 contribute to enhancing agricultural resilience in the face of climate change and evolving socio-economic conditions?

Answer: Green Revolution 2.0 emphasizes biotechnology, precision agriculture, sustainability, and crop diversification to make agriculture more adaptable to changing circumstances.

4. Question: What are the key features of Green Revolution 2.0, and how do they differ from the initial Green Revolution?

Answer: Green Revolution 2.0 includes biotechnology, precision agriculture, sustainability, diversification, and a holistic approach, focusing on environmental considerations and climate change adaptation.

5. Question: Explain the concept of precision agriculture and its significance in modern farming.

Answer: Precision agriculture utilizes technology like GPS and data-driven decision-making to optimize resource use, reduce wastage, and enhance farming efficiency. It’s crucial for sustainable agriculture and improved productivity.

GS Related Practices Questions… 

To master these intricacies and fare well in the Sociology Optional Syllabus , aspiring sociologists might benefit from guidance by the Best Sociology Optional Teacher and participation in the Best Sociology Optional Coaching . These avenues provide comprehensive assistance, ensuring a solid understanding of sociology’s diverse methodologies and techniques.

Green Revolution, Green Revolution UPSC, Green Revolution in India, Green Revolution 2.0, Agriculture, India, Achievements, Challenges, Benefits, Environmental Impact, Sustainability, Biotechnology, Precision Agriculture, UPSC Paper Sample Questions

essay on green revolution in india

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Essay on green revolution in india.

essay on green revolution in india

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Essay on Green Revolution in India!

Essay # What is Green Revolution ?

The introduction of high-yielding varieties of Indian seeds after 1965 and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the Indian Green Revolution.

It provided the Increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains.

The programme was started with the help of the United States based Rockefeller Foundation and was based on high-yielding varieties of wheat, rice and other grains that had been developed In Mexico and in the Philippines. Of the high yielding seeds, wheat produced the best results.

Essay # Why Green Revolution ?

The world’s worst recorded food disaster happened in 1943 in British ruled India known as the Bengal Famine. An estimated four million people died of hunger that year alone in Eastern India (that included today’s Bangladesh). The initial theory put forward to explain that catastrophe was that there was an acute shortfall in food production in the area.

However, Indian economist Amartya Sen (recipient of the Nobel Prize for Economics, 1998) has established that while food shortage was a contributor to the problem, a more potent factor was the result of hysteria related to World War II which made food supply a low priority for the British rulers. The hysteria was further exploited by Indian traders who hoarded food in order to sell at higher prices.

Nevertheless when the British left India four years later in 1947, India continued to be haunted by memories of the Bengal Famine. It was therefore natural that food security was a paramount item on free India’s agenda. This awareness led, on one hand to the Green Revolution in India and on the other, legislative measures to ensure that businessmen would never again be able to hoard food for reasons of profit.

However, the term “Green Revolution” is applied to the period from 1967 to 1978. Between 1947 and 1967, efforts at achieving food self sufficiency’s were not entirely successful. Efforts until 1967 largely concentrated on expanding the farming areas. But starvation deaths were still being reported in the newspapers.

In a perfect case of Malthusian economics, population was growing at much faster rate than food production. This called for drastic action to increase yield. The action came in the form of Green Revolution. The term “Green Revolution” is a general one that is applied to successful agricultural experiments in many Third world countries. It is not specific to India. But It was most successful in India.

Essay # The Basic Strategy of the Green Revolution:

The new policy towards agriculture which began in the mid- 1960s, was a departure from the earlier approach in a number of ways.

The main features are:

(a) The government policy was now oriented towards changing the technical conditions of production in agriculture rather than introducing land reforms and other changes in the property relations in the country side.

In so far as institutional changes were part of the policy, they were chiefly in the form of spread of State agricultural extension services in order to spread information and provide access to the new technology, establishment of Agricultural Price Commission (now known as Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices (ACP) in 1965, establishment of Food Corporation of India (FCI) in the same year and efforts towards ensuring the availability of credit from institutional sources.

(b) The new technology consisted essentially of a package of inputs and practices i eluding seeds of high-yielding varieties, which responded very favorably to fertilizers, irrigation and pesticides.

(c) The emphasis was primarily on increasing the output of food grains (especially wheat and rice). Other crops such as sugarcane, oilseeds, pulses, coarse cereals, jute and cotton were not a part of this policy.

(d) Given the required assured water supply, the new technology was Introduced and employed successfully in areas having irrigation facilities. The strategy was therefore selective in approach. The focus was on selective new areas with assured irrigation water or rainfall for the effective application of this package.

This combined with the higher yield of new wheat seeds in India, led to a regional concentration of the new HYV technology in the irrigated wheat growing region of Northwest India. This region, comprising the states of Punjab, Haryana and West Uttar Pradesh became major success stories of the Green Revolution by early 1970s.

(e) The new strategy also focused on increasing marketed surplus of food grains through price support and procurement operations. It meant a focus on those group of farmers who could produce surplus for sale, over and above their own consumption. Essentially, these were the larger and richer farmers, who had both resources and access to market which encouraged them to adopt the high yield variety (HYV) package.

Essay # Results of the Green Revolution in India:

(a) Statistical results

(b) Economic results

(c) Sociological results

(d) Political results

(a) Statistical Results of the Green Revolution :

1. The Green Revolution resulted in a record grain output of 131 million tons in 1978-79.

This established India as one of the world’s biggest agricultural producer. No other country in the world which attempted the Green Revolution recorded such level of success.

India also became an exporter of food grains around that time.

2. Yield per unit of farmland improved by more than 30 per cent between 1947 and 1979 when the Green Revolution was considered to have delivered its goods.

3. The crop area under HYV varieties grew from 7 per cent to 22 per cent of the total cultivated area during the 10 years of the Green Revolution. More than 70 per cent of the wheat crop area, 35 per cent of the rice crop area, 20 percent of the millet and corn crop area used the HYV seeds.

(b) Economic Results of the Green Revolution :

1. Crop areas under high-yield varieties needed more water, more fertilizers, more pesticides and certain other chemicals. This spurred the growth of the local manufacturing sector. Such industrial growth created new jobs and contributed to the country’s GDP.

2. The increase in irrigation created need for new dams to harness monsoon water. The water stored was used to create hydro-electric power. This in turn boosted industrial growth, created Jobs and improved the quality of life of the people in villages.

3. India paid back all the loans it had taken from the World Bank and its affiliates for the purpose of the Green Revolution. This improved India’s credit worthiness in the eyes of the lending agencies.

(c) Sociological Results of the Green Revolution :

The Green Revolution created plenty of Jobs not only for the agricultural workers but also industrial workers by the creation of lateral facilities such as factories, hydro-electric power stations etc.

(d) Political Results of the Green Revolution :

1. India transformed itself from a starving nation to an exporter of food. This earned admiration for India in the cavity of nations, especially in the Third world.

2. The Green Revolution was one factor that made Mrs. Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) and her party the Indian National Congress, a very powerful political force in India.

Pre and Post Green Revolution Period

Essay # Green Revolution: An Assessment:

Overall, the Green Revolution Is a major achievement for India, as it has provided an unprecedented level of food security. It represents the successful adaptation and transfer of the same scientific revolution in agriculture that the industrial countries had already appropriated for themselves.

It has lifted a large number of poor people out of poverty and helped many non-poor people avoid the poverty and hunger they would have experienced had it not taken place. The largest benefits to the poor are mostly indirect in the form of lower food prices, increased migration opportunities and greater employment in the rural non-farm economy.

The direct benefits to the poor through their own on farm adoption, greater agricultural employment and empowerment have been more mixed and depend heavily on local socio-economic conditions. In many cases inequalities between regions and classes that adopted Green Revolution technologies worsened, but in a number of other cases they did not. Also, it has given rise to many negative environmental issues that have yet to be addressed adequately.

Indian agriculture is facing new challenges. The potential of the Green Revolution varieties appears to have exhausted. The yield barriers have to be broken through research and development. A large number of farmers have yet to adopt the existing yield increasing technologies. Extension access to such farmers should be ensured for wider acceptance of the existing technologies.

The indirect benefits to the poor due to another technological breakthrough in agriculture are likely to be weaker in the future as globalization and trade in agricultural commodities makes food prices less responsive to local production.

Diversification in crop production, value addition and agri-business development in the rural sector hold the key to livelihood security in rural areas. By building on the strengths of Green Revolution, while seeking to avoid its weaknesses, scientists and policy makers can take significant steps towards achieving sustainable food security in the country.

The Green Revolution has been an important contributor to the growth of food grain output in the last forty years. Current strategies of agricultural development must take into account the need for sustainability enhancing technologies and the changes in international trade scenario.

Issues such as suitable technologies for rainfed areas, resource management, better livelihood strategies and trade should be Incorporated In the policy and its implementation assured at all costs.

Essay # Social Consequences of Green Revolution :

The effect of the application of the new technology was that there was increase in production of food grains from 1965-66 to 1970-71. Of the food-grains produced the greatest impact of Green Revolution Is to be seen on the production of wheat.

But the harmful social effect of the Green Revolution was also soon visible. It has been established that disparities in income have been widened by these innovations in agriculture.

Agricultural input and improved chemical fertilizers were largely cornered by rich landlords. Besides, the poor farmers also found themselves handicapped by small farms of land and inadequate water supply. Given the need for complete agricultural techniques and inputs, the Green revaluation tended to have its most concentrated application on large farms.

As a concentration of the new technology to large farms, the Inequalities have further Increased.

The small farmers have been adversely affected by a growing tendency among the large farmers to reclaim land previously leased out under tenancy agreement, which has been made profitable by higher returns from new technology. The small farmer has been increasingly pushed into the rank of the landless labourer. There has been increase in higher level of rent with land value soaring.

Essay # A New Green Revolution in India :

Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh addressed the gathering at the Red Fort on the Independence Day. He was optimistic on the 7 per cent GDP growth that year and his government would unleash a new Green revolution to obtain fast agricultural growth.

India and the US have recently entered an agreement to conduct Joint agricultural research in biotechnology. The research will focus on the development of drought and heat resistance crops suitable for the Indian climate. There is little new land available for agricultural development in the Asian nations, but increased food production is needed to feed the growing population.

Analysts note that India’s agricultural production lags behind countries that grow bio-tech crops. Leaders hope that biotechnology can increase farm productivity to help the country meet its economic and development goals.

Critics are concerned that farmers will become dependent on large bio-tech firms and doubt the claims of increased productivity promised by the industry. Farmers have definitely shown Interest In modified crops however, rapidly expanding their planting of genetically modified Bollgard cotton seeds since Monsanto was first allowed to sell them In India in 2002.

Related Articles:

  • 8 Major Economical Impact of Green Revolution in India
  • Short Notes on the Main Features of Green Revolution in India

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Essay on Green Revolution

The term Green Revolution is used to express the introduction of new farming techniques like high yielding seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, use of farm equipments like tractors, farm tools and other machineries. Green Revolution has increased the production of crops and has also improved its quality. Introduced to the world in 1950s by Norman Borlaug and the Ford Foundation, it has proved extremely helpful for developing nations like India, Africa and Brazil etc.

Short and Long Essay on Green Revolution in English

We have provided below short and long essay on Green Revolution for your information and knowledge. The essays have been written in simple yet effective English language so that you can easily memorize all the vital information and also present the same when required. After going through these essays, you will know what green revolution means, who is the father of green revolution in world, who is considered the father of green revolution in India, effects of Green Revolution, and advantages and disadvantages of green revolution etc. The essays will be helpful in your school/college assignments and competitions like speech giving, essay writing or debate.

Green Revolution Essay 1 (200 Words)

Green Revolution began in the world sometime into 1950s and reached India in early 1960s; though, its prominent effects were only visible by the late 1960s.

The Government of India under the Prime Minister Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri invited a bunch of experts sponsored by the Ford foundation to study India’s agriculture scenario and suggest methods for its improvement. In 1959 the team submitted the report titled “India’s Food Crisis and the Steps to meet it”.

The report suggested modernization of agriculture sector with introduction of new farm techniques, farming equipments, fertilizers, credit system and pesticides etc.

Based on the suggestion provided in the report, the Government of India introduced Intensive Area Development Program (IADP) in 1960, only in seven selected districts of India. They were West Godavari in Andhra Pradesh; Raipur in Chhattisgarh; Shahabad in Bihar; Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh; Pali in Rajasthan and Thanjavaur in Tamil Nadu.

In these places high yielding varieties of rice and wheat were introduced with fertilizers and pesticides. The results were extremely overwhelming causing an increase in not only the crop yield but also its quality as well.

This new strategy was put into widespread use in India during the Kharif season of 1966. It was named as the High Yielding Varieties Program (HYVP).

Green Revolution Essay 2 (300 Words)

Introduction

Green Revolution is a term used to express the transfer of technology, in the agriculture field that took place in late 1960s. It opened new horizons of scientific methods into agriculture, resulting in better and more reliable crop yield. Green Revolution mainly helped the developing nations meet their food requirements and strengthen the condition of farmers.

Green Revolution in India

Green Revolution in India refers to the adoption of new farm techniques such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation facilities, tractors, fertilizers, pesticides etc.

An Indian Geneticist and administrator M.S. Swaminathan a.k.a Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is considered as the father of Green Revolution in India.

It was under his guidance and supervision that High Yielding Varieties of rice and wheat started being cultivated in India. The vision of M.S. Swaminathan was to get the world rid of hunger and poverty.

Swaminathan actually termed it as “Evergreen Revolution” and advocated sustainable development, sustainable agriculture, food security and elimination of hunger and poverty.

The Green Revolution in India commenced sometime in 1958 and tremendously benefited the farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, by introducing high yielding varieties of wheat and rice.

Other practices of Green Revolution in India includes infrastructure of irrigation, use of pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides etc. It also opened way for Indian land reforms and improvement of rural infrastructure.

Green Revolution in India was extremely helpful to the farming community apart from improving the condition of farmers and boosting the economy of the nation. Industrial development, better village infrastructure, employment generation, food security, improved financial condition of farmers, more and better crop yield are only few of the many advantages of Green Revolution.

Green Revolution Essay 3 (400 Words)

Green Revolution refers to a phenomenal change in the method of agriculture production that happened in the late 1960s. It was basically a technology sharing initiative which involved use of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of Cereals, chemical fertilizers, water supply methods and mechanical equipments. Green Revolution was highly beneficial for the developing countries and resulted in better yield, better quality of produces among other advantages.

Effects of Green Revolution

1) Increase in Production

The methods adopted in the Green Revolution resulted in extremely favorable conditions for the crop to grow. Use of chemic fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals ensure that the crop faces less threat from pests and grows continuously without any hindrance.

2) Food Security

More crop yield and more resilience of crops towards changes in climate, pests and other threats have resulted in food security in the countries where Green Revolution is being practiced. Greater crop yield means less people sleep hungry and the nutritional demand of everyone is met.

3) Scientific Practices

The most important effect of Green Revolution is the practice of scientific methods rather than traditional methods in agriculture. Farmers are now using High Yield Variety (HYV) of seeds instead of traditional farm seeds. Also, traditional fertilizers are replaced by chemical fertilizers, boosting the yield.

4) Industrial Development

Green Revolution has led to industrial development, generating more employment and boosting economy. Industries producing fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery, insecticides are set up in the country where green revolution is being practiced.

5) Confident Farmers

Today the farmers have become more confident than before as their yield has become more and more independent of external factors; thanks to the global warming. Farmer of today knows that he will be able to produce good quality of crops by adopting new techniques and also that the produces are safe from pests and insects. This has caused a phenomenal change in the confidence of farmers and has also let them think out of the box.

Green Revolution is a big name in the agriculture industry and has helped the developing countries a lot to meet their food requirements and also boost their economical statistics. Apart from resulting in more and better crop yield, the green revolution has also resulted in improving the social and economical condition of the farmers. Farmer, who is a part of Green Revolution, is more confident of his yield and its quality as well as of his own financial condition.

Green Revolution Essay 4 (500 Words)

The term “Green Revolution” is used to describe a global technology transfer initiative also termed as Transfer of Technology (TOT) that took place in 1960s in the field of agriculture. It immensely benefitted the developing countries during that time like Mexico, Brazil, Africa and India. Green Revolution paved way for the adoption of new technology in agriculture, leading to its industrialization.

Advantages of Green Revolution

Sharing of technology in the field of agriculture had many advantages including high yield per area, better quality of crops, and controlled water supply for irrigation among others. Some of the advantages of Green Revolution are stated below.

1) More Crop Yield per Area

Adaptation of new farming technologies and chemical fertilizers, tractors, pesticides etc have resulted in more crop yield over a particular area. Today, the world over, 20% more crops are being produced than what is required by the world’s population. This has been made possible only due to the changes brought by the Green Revolution.

2) Consistent Yield

Green Revolution has caused the yield to be consistent making it more resilient towards seasonal changes. Before the green revolution crops would depend highly on seasonal conditions and even a minor shift in rain or other conditions would considerably reduce the yield. But, thanks to the green revolution, due to the adoption of new farming techniques and support system, yield today is less dependent on climatic conditions.

3) Poverty Reduction

Green Revolution reduces the poverty levels in the country where it is practiced. Adoption of new farming techniques continuously generates new employment opportunities in agriculture and related sectors. Also the increase in the crop yield helps in tackling the hunger situation domestically.

Disadvantages of Green Revolution

Despite having numerous advantages, Green Revolution also has its own disadvantages as discussed below.

1) Harmful to Biodiversity

Green Revolution has opened up way for the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Though, they are beneficial for the crops, they are not good for the biodiversity of the region. The chemicals got washed into the natural water resources such as ground water, streams, lakes etc and pose a threat to the existence of flora and fauna. Some of the highly susceptible species of fish and animals have known to be declined because of the use of chemical fertilizers.

2) Health Hazards

Green Revolution poses a health hazard to humans due to exposure to harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A direct exposure to chemicals used in farming, added by a lack of safe farming practices could lead to some of the most deadly diseases like cancer. Reportedly, over 20,000 people are killed globally because of over exposure to chemicals and also for not wearing masks.

Green Revolution brought a significant change in the world agriculture industry. It helped the developing countries a lot by improving their yield and the quality of it. Still, there is a need to regularly improve Green Revolution if we have to cope with the changing times

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Green Revolution in India​ ​ : A Case Study

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Essay on Green Revolution in English for Children and Students – 2023

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Essay on Green Revolution: The term Green Revolution is used to express the introduction of new farming techniques like high yielding seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, use of farm equipments like tractors, farm tools and other machineries. Green Revolution has increased the production of crops and has also improved its quality. Introduced to the world in 1950s by Norman Borlaug and the Ford Foundation, it has proved extremely helpful for developing nations like India, Africa and Brazil etc.

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Short and Long Essay on Green Revolution in English

We have provided below short and long essay on Green Revolution for your information and knowledge. The essays have been written in simple yet effective English language so that you can easily memorize all the vital information and also present the same when required. After going through these essays, you will know what green revolution means, who is the father of green revolution in world, who is considered the father of green revolution in India, effects of Green Revolution, and advantages and disadvantages of green revolution etc. The essays will be helpful in your school/college assignments and competitions like speech giving, essay writing or debate.

Green Revolution Essay 1 (200 Words)

Green Revolution began in the world sometime into 1950s and reached India in early 1960s; though, its prominent effects were only visible by the late 1960s.

The Government of India under the Prime Minister Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri invited a bunch of experts sponsored by the Ford foundation to study India’s agriculture scenario and suggest methods for its improvement. In 1959 the team submitted the report titled “India’s Food Crisis and the Steps to meet it”.

The report suggested modernization of agriculture sector with introduction of new farm techniques, farming equipments, fertilizers, credit system and pesticides etc.

Based on the suggestion provided in the report, the Government of India introduced Intensive Area Development Program (IADP) in 1960, only in seven selected districts of India. They were West Godavari in Andhra Pradesh; Raipur in Chhattisgarh; Shahabad in Bihar; Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh; Pali in Rajasthan and Thanjavaur in Tamil Nadu.

In these places high yielding varieties of rice and wheat were introduced with fertilizers and pesticides. The results were extremely overwhelming causing an increase in not only the crop yield but also its quality as well.

This new strategy was put into widespread use in India during the Kharif season of 1966. It was named as the High Yielding Varieties Program (HYVP).

Green Revolution Essay 2 (300 Words)

Introduction

Green Revolution is a term used to express the transfer of technology, in the agriculture field that took place in late 1960s. It opened new horizons of scientific methods into agriculture, resulting in better and more reliable crop yield. Green Revolution mainly helped the developing nations meet their food requirements and strengthen the condition of farmers.

Green Revolution in India

Green Revolution in India refers to the adoption of new farm techniques such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation facilities, tractors, fertilizers, pesticides etc.

An Indian Geneticist and administrator M.S. Swaminathan a.k.a Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is considered as the father of Green Revolution in India.

It was under his guidance and supervision that High Yielding Varieties of rice and wheat started being cultivated in India. The vision of M.S. Swaminathan was to get the world rid of hunger and poverty.

Swaminathan actually termed it as “Evergreen Revolution” and advocated sustainable development, sustainable agriculture, food security and elimination of hunger and poverty.

The Green Revolution in India commenced sometime in 1958 and tremendously benefited the farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, by introducing high yielding varieties of wheat and rice.

Other practices of Green Revolution in India includes infrastructure of irrigation, use of pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides etc. It also opened way for Indian land reforms and improvement of rural infrastructure.

Green Revolution in India was extremely helpful to the farming community apart from improving the condition of farmers and boosting the economy of the nation. Industrial development, better village infrastructure, employment generation, food security, improved financial condition of farmers, more and better crop yield are only few of the many advantages of Green Revolution.

Green Revolution Essay 3 (400 Words)

Green Revolution refers to a phenomenal change in the method of agriculture production that happened in the late 1960s. It was basically a technology sharing initiative which involved use of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of Cereals, chemical fertilizers, water supply methods and mechanical equipments. Green Revolution was highly beneficial for the developing countries and resulted in better yield, better quality of produces among other advantages.

Effects of Green Revolution

1) Increase in Production

The methods adopted in the Green Revolution resulted in extremely favorable conditions for the crop to grow. Use of chemic fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals ensure that the crop faces less threat from pests and grows continuously without any hindrance.

2) Food Security

More crop yield and more resilience of crops towards changes in climate, pests and other threats have resulted in food security in the countries where Green Revolution is being practiced. Greater crop yield means less people sleep hungry and the nutritional demand of everyone is met.

3) Scientific Practices

The most important effect of Green Revolution is the practice of scientific methods rather than traditional methods in agriculture. Farmers are now using High Yield Variety (HYV) of seeds instead of traditional farm seeds. Also, traditional fertilizers are replaced by chemical fertilizers, boosting the yield.

4) Industrial Development

Green Revolution has led to industrial development, generating more employment and boosting economy. Industries producing fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery, insecticides are set up in the country where green revolution is being practiced.

5) Confident Farmers

Today the farmers have become more confident than before as their yield has become more and more independent of external factors; thanks to the Global Warming . Farmer of today knows that he will be able to produce good quality of crops by adopting new techniques and also that the produces are safe from pests and insects. This has caused a phenomenal change in the confidence of farmers and has also let them think out of the box.

Green Revolution is a big name in the agriculture industry and has helped the developing countries a lot to meet their food requirements and also boost their economical statistics. Apart from resulting in more and better crop yield, the green revolution has also resulted in improving the social and economical condition of the farmers. Farmer, who is a part of Green Revolution, is more confident of his yield and its quality as well as of his own financial condition.

Green Revolution Essay 4 (500 Words)

The term “Green Revolution” is used to describe a global technology transfer initiative also termed as Transfer of Technology (TOT) that took place in 1960s in the field of agriculture. It immensely benefitted the developing countries during that time like Mexico, Brazil, Africa and India. Green Revolution paved way for the adoption of new technology in agriculture, leading to its industrialization.

Advantages of Green Revolution

Sharing of technology in the field of agriculture had many advantages including high yield per area, better quality of crops, and controlled water supply for irrigation among others. Some of the advantages of Green Revolution are stated below.

1) More Crop Yield per Area

Adaptation of new farming technologies and chemical fertilizers, tractors, pesticides etc have resulted in more crop yield over a particular area. Today, the world over, 20% more crops are being produced than what is required by the world’s population. This has been made possible only due to the changes brought by the Green Revolution.

2) Consistent Yield

Green Revolution has caused the yield to be consistent making it more resilient towards seasonal changes. Before the green revolution crops would depend highly on seasonal conditions and even a minor shift in rain or other conditions would considerably reduce the yield. But, thanks to the green revolution, due to the adoption of new farming techniques and support system, yield today is less dependent on climatic conditions.

3) Poverty Reduction

Green Revolution reduces the poverty levels in the country where it is practiced. Adoption of new farming techniques continuously generates new employment opportunities in agriculture and related sectors. Also the increase in the crop yield helps in tackling the hunger situation domestically.

Disadvantages of Green Revolution

Despite having numerous advantages, Green Revolution also has its own disadvantages as discussed below.

1) Harmful to Biodiversity

Green Revolution has opened up way for the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Though, they are beneficial for the crops, they are not good for the biodiversity of the region. The chemicals got washed into the natural water resources such as ground water, streams, lakes etc and pose a threat to the existence of flora and fauna. Some of the highly susceptible species of fish and animals have known to be declined because of the use of chemical fertilizers.

2) Health Hazards

Green Revolution poses a health hazard to humans due to exposure to harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A direct exposure to chemicals used in farming, added by a lack of safe farming practices could lead to some of the most deadly diseases like cancer. Reportedly, over 20,000 people are killed globally because of over exposure to chemicals and also for not wearing masks.

Green Revolution brought a significant change in the world agriculture industry. It helped the developing countries a lot by improving their yield and the quality of it. Still, there is a need to regularly improve Green Revolution if we have to cope with the changing times

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  1. Green Revolution Essay in 100, 200, and 500 Words

    Green Revolution Essay in 100, 200, and 500 Words. Norman Borlaug, an American Agronomist, is regarded as the father of the Green Revolution. His scientific methods of introducing modern agricultural techniques allowed the world to sustain agricultural production. In India, M.S. Swaminathan is known as the father of the green revolution.

  2. Green Revolution Essay for Students and Children

    Green Revolution Essay. Green Revolution is actually the process of increasing agricultural production by using modern machines and techniques. It was a scientific research-based technology initiative performed between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.

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    The term green revolution was first used by William Gaud. Norman Borlaug is considered the Father of the Green Revolution. In the year 1965, the government of India launched the Green Revolution with the help of a geneticist, now known as the father of the Green Revolution (India) M.S. Swaminathan. The movement of the Green Revolution was a ...

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  5. Green Revolution in India Advantages, Impacts, Achievements

    Father of Green Revolution in India. In the year of 1965, the Indian Indian initiated the Green Revolution under the supervision of a geneticist, who is also known as the father of the Green Revolution in India M.S. Swaminathan.Revolution within India led to an increase in food grain production, mostly in the regions of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.

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    places in which is was introduced (Shiva, 1991, 1993, 2000). This paper argues that in the case of India, the Green Revolution's lack of regional. specificities, both on a global and a national scale, is to blame for the program's disruptive. outcomes; however, responsible agrarian reform is possible, so long as the appropriate.

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    The Green Revolution played a pivotal role in lifting numerous small-scale farmers out of poverty by boosting their crop yields and income levels.For instance, the rural poverty ratio in India declined from 50.1% in 1993-94 to 25.7% in 2011-12, partially attributed to the impact of the Green Revolution.

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