REVIEW article

Effects of water pollution on human health and disease heterogeneity: a review.

Li Lin

  • 1 Research Center for Economy of Upper Reaches of the Yangtse River/School of Economics, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China
  • 2 School of Economics and Management, Huzhou University, Huzhou, China

Background: More than 80% of sewage generated by human activities is discharged into rivers and oceans without any treatment, which results in environmental pollution and more than 50 diseases. 80% of diseases and 50% of child deaths worldwide are related to poor water quality.

Methods: This paper selected 85 relevant papers finally based on the keywords of water pollution, water quality, health, cancer, and so on.

Results: The impact of water pollution on human health is significant, although there may be regional, age, gender, and other differences in degree. The most common disease caused by water pollution is diarrhea, which is mainly transmitted by enteroviruses in the aquatic environment.

Discussion: Governments should strengthen water intervention management and carry out intervention measures to improve water quality and reduce water pollution’s impact on human health.

Introduction

Water is an essential resource for human survival. According to the 2021 World Water Development Report released by UNESCO, the global use of freshwater has increased six-fold in the past 100 years and has been growing by about 1% per year since the 1980s. With the increase of water consumption, water quality is facing severe challenges. Industrialization, agricultural production, and urban life have resulted in the degradation and pollution of the environment, adversely affecting the water bodies (rivers and oceans) necessary for life, ultimately affecting human health and sustainable social development ( Xu et al., 2022a ). Globally, an estimated 80% of industrial and municipal wastewater is discharged into the environment without any prior treatment, with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. This proportion is higher in the least developed countries, where sanitation and wastewater treatment facilities are severely lacking.

Sources of Water Pollution

Water pollution are mainly concentrated in industrialization, agricultural activities, natural factors, and insufficient water supply and sewage treatment facilities. First, industry is the main cause of water pollution, these industries include distillery industry, tannery industry, pulp and paper industry, textile industry, food industry, iron and steel industry, nuclear industry and so on. Various toxic chemicals, organic and inorganic substances, toxic solvents and volatile organic chemicals may be released in industrial production. If these wastes are released into aquatic ecosystems without adequate treatment, they will cause water pollution ( Chowdhary et al., 2020 ). Arsenic, cadmium, and chromium are vital pollutants discharged in wastewater, and the industrial sector is a significant contributor to harmful pollutants ( Chen et al., 2019 ). With the acceleration of urbanization, wastewater from industrial production has gradually increased. ( Wu et al., 2020 ). In addition, water pollution caused by industrialization is also greatly affected by foreign direct investment. Industrial water pollution in less developed countries is positively correlated with foreign direct investment ( Jorgenson, 2009 ). Second, water pollution is closely related to agriculture. Pesticides, nitrogen fertilizers and organic farm wastes from agriculture are significant causes of water pollution (RCEP, 1979). Agricultural activities will contaminate the water with nitrates, phosphorus, pesticides, soil sediments, salts and pathogens ( Parris, 2011 ). Furthermore, agriculture has severely damaged all freshwater systems in their pristine state ( Moss, 2008 ). Untreated or partially treated wastewater is widely used for irrigation in water-scarce regions of developing countries, including China and India, and the presence of pollutants in sewage poses risks to the environment and health. Taking China as an example, the imbalance in the quantity and quality of surface water resources has led to the long-term use of wastewater irrigation in some areas in developing countries to meet the water demand of agricultural production, resulting in serious agricultural land and food pollution, pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution threatening food safety and Human Health ( Lu et al., 2015 ). Pesticides have an adverse impact on health through drinking water. Comparing pesticide use with health life Expectancy Longitudinal Survey data, it was found that a 10% increase in pesticide use resulted in a 1% increase in the medical disability index over 65 years of age ( Lai, 2017 ). The case of the Musi River in India shows a higher incidence of morbidity in wastewater-irrigated villages than normal-water households. Third, water pollution is related to natural factors. Taking Child Loess Plateau as an example, the concentration of trace elements in water quality is higher than the average world level, and trace elements come from natural weathering and manufacture causes. Poor river water quality is associated with high sodium and salinity hazards ( Xiao et al., 2019 ). The most typical water pollution in the middle part of the loess Plateau is hexavalent chromium pollution, which is caused by the natural environment and human activities. Loess and mudstone are the main sources, and groundwater with high concentrations of hexavalent chromium is also an important factor in surface water pollution (He et al., 2020). Finally, water supply and sewage treatment facilities are also important factors affecting drinking water quality, especially in developing countries. In parallel with China rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization, underinvestment in basic water supply and treatment facilities has led to water pollution, increased incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases, and increased exposure to industrial chemicals, heavy metals and algal toxins ( Wu et al., 1999 ). An econometric model predicts the impact of water purification equipment on water quality and therefore human health. When the proportion of household water treated with water purification equipment is reduced from 100% to 90%, the expected health benefits are reduced by up to 96%.. When the risk of pretreatment water quality is high, the decline is even more significant ( Brown and Clasen, 2012 ).

To sum up, water pollution results from both human and natural factors. Various human activities will directly affect water quality, including urbanization, population growth, industrial production, climate change, and other factors ( Halder and Islam, 2015 ) and religious activities ( Dwivedi et al., 2018 ). Improper disposal of solid waste, sand, and gravel is also one reason for decreasing water quality ( Ustaoğlua et al., 2020 ).

Impact of Water Pollution on Human Health

Unsafe water has severe implications for human health. According to UNESCO 2021 World Water Development Report , about 829,000 people die each year from diarrhea caused by unsafe drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene, including nearly 300,000 children under the age of five, representing 5.3 percent of all deaths in this age group. Data from Palestine suggest that people who drink municipal water directly are more likely to suffer from diseases such as diarrhea than those who use desalinated and household-filtered drinking water ( Yassin et al., 2006 ). In a comparative study of tap water, purified water, and bottled water, tap water was an essential source of gastrointestinal disease ( Payment et al., 1997 ). Lack of water and sanitation services also increases the incidence of diseases such as cholera, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and helminthiasis. Data from studies in developing countries show a clear relationship between cholera and contaminated water, and household water treatment and storage can reduce cholera ( Gundry et al., 2004 ). In addition to disease, unsafe drinking water, and poor environmental hygiene can lead to gastrointestinal illness, inhibiting nutrient absorption and malnutrition. These effects are especially pronounced for children.

Purpose of This Paper

More than two million people worldwide die each year from diarrhoeal diseases, with poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water being the leading cause of nearly 90% of deaths and affecting children the most (United Nations, 2016). More than 50 kinds of diseases are caused by poor drinking water quality, and 80% of diseases and 50% of child deaths are related to poor drinking water quality in the world. However, water pollution causes diarrhea, skin diseases, malnutrition, and even cancer and other diseases related to water pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of water pollution on human health, especially disease heterogeneity, and clarify the importance of clean drinking water, which has important theoretical and practical significance for realizing sustainable development goals. Unfortunately, although many kinds of literature focus on water pollution and a particular disease, there is still a lack of research results that systematically analyze the impact of water pollution on human health and the heterogeneity of diseases. Based on the above background and discussion, this paper focuses on the effect of water pollution on human health and its disease heterogeneity.

Materials and Methods

Search process.

This article uses keywords such as “water,” “water pollution,” “water quality,” “health,” “diarrhea,” “skin disease,” “cancer” and “children” to search Web of Science and Google Scholar include SCI and SSCI indexed papers, research reports, and works from 1990 to 2021.

Inclusion-Exclusion Criteria and Data Extraction Process

The existing literature shows that water pollution and human health are important research topics in health economics, and scholars have conducted in-depth research. As of 30 December 2021, 104 related literatures were searched, including research papers, reviews and conference papers. Then, according to the content relevancy, 19 papers were eliminated, and 85 papers remained. The purpose of this review is to summarize the impact of water pollution on human health and its disease heterogeneity and to explore how to improve human health by improving water pollution control measures.

Information extracted from all included papers included: author, publication date, sample country, study methodology, study purpose, and key findings. All analysis results will be analyzed according to the process in Figure 1 .

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FIGURE 1 . Data extraction process (PRISMA).

The relevant information of the paper is exported to the Excel database through Endnote, and the duplicates are deleted. The results were initially extracted by one researcher and then cross-checked by another researcher to ensure that all data had been filtered and reviewed. If two researchers have different opinions, the two researchers will review together until a final agreement is reached.

Quality Assessment of the Literature

The JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist was used to evaluate the quality of each paper. The JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) key assessment tool was developed by the JBI Scientific Committee after extensive peer review and is designed for system review. All features of the study that meet the following eight criteria are included in the final summary:1) clear purpose; 2) Complete information of sample variables; 3) Data basis; 4) the validity of data sorting; 5) ethical norms; (6); 7) Effective results; 8) Apply appropriate quantitative methods and state the results clearly. Method quality is evaluated by the Yes/No questions listed in the JBI Key Assessment List. Each analysis paper received 6 out of 8.

The quality of drinking water is an essential factor affecting human health. Poor drinking water quality has led to the occurrence of water-borne diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) survey, 80% of the world’s diseases and 50% of the world’s child deaths are related to poor drinking water quality, and there are more than 50 diseases caused by poor drinking water quality. The quality of drinking water in developing countries is worrying. The negative health effects of water pollution remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Different from the existing literature review, this paper mainly studies the impact of water pollution on human health according to the heterogeneity of diseases. We focuses on diarrhea, skin diseases, cancer, child health, etc., and sorts out the main effects of water pollution on human health ( Table 1 ).

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TABLE 1 . Major studies on the relationship between water pollution and health.

Water Pollution and Diarrhea

Diarrhea is a common symptom of gastrointestinal diseases and the most common disease caused by water pollution. Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness and death in young children in low-income countries. Diarrhoeal diseases account for 21% of annual deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries ( Waddington et al., 2009 ). Many infectious agents associated with diarrhea are directly related to contaminated water ( Ahmed and Ismail, 2018 ). Parasitic worms present in non-purifying drinking water when is consumed by human beings causes diseases ( Ansari and Akhmatov., 2020 ) . It was found that treated water from water treatment facilities was associated with a lower risk of diarrhea than untreated water for all ages ( Clasen et al., 2015 ). For example, in the southern region of Brazil, a study found that factors significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality from diarrhoea included lack of plumbed water, lack of flush toilets, poor housing conditions, and overcrowded households. Households without access to piped water had a 4.8 times higher risk of infant death from diarrhea than households with access to piped water ( Victora et al., 1988 )

Enteroviruses exist in the aquatic environment. More than 100 pathogenic viruses are excreted in human and animal excreta and spread in the environment through groundwater, estuarine water, seawater, rivers, sewage treatment plants, insufficiently treated water, drinking water, and private wells ( Fong and Lipp., 2005 ). A study in Pakistan showed that coliform contamination was found in some water sources. Improper disposal of sewage and solid waste, excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, and deteriorating pipeline networks are the main causes of drinking water pollution. The main source of water-borne diseases such as gastroenteritis, dysentery, diarrhea, and viral hepatitis in this area is the water pollution of coliform bacteria ( Khan et al., 2013 ). Therefore, the most important role of water and sanitation health interventions is to hinder the transmission of diarrheal pathogens from the environment to humans ( Waddington et al., 2009 ).

Meta-analyses are the most commonly used method for water quality and diarrhea studies. It was found that improving water supply and sanitation reduced the overall incidence of diarrhea by 26%. Among Malaysian infants, having clean water and sanitation was associated with an 82% reduction in infant mortality, especially among infants who were not breastfed ( Esrey et al., 1991 ). All water quality and sanitation interventions significantly reduced the risk of diarrhoeal disease, and water quality interventions were found to be more effective than previously thought. Multiple interventions (including water, sanitation, and sanitation measures) were not more effective than single-focus interventions ( Fewtrell and Colford., 2005 ). Water quality interventions reduced the risk of diarrhoea in children and reduced the risk of E. coli contamination of stored water ( Arnold and Colford., 2007 ). Interventions to improve water quality are generally effective in preventing diarrhoea in children of all ages and under 5. However, some trials showed significant heterogeneity, which may be due to the research methods and their conditions ( Clasen et al., 2007 ).

Water Pollution and Skin Diseases

Contrary to common sense that swimming is good for health, studies as early as the 1950s found that the overall disease incidence in the swimming group was significantly higher than that in the non-swimming group. The survey shows that the incidence of the disease in people under the age of 10 is about 100% higher than that of people over 10 years old. Skin diseases account for a certain proportion ( Stevenson, 1953 ). A prospective epidemiological study of beach water pollution was conducted in Hong Kong in the summer of 1986–1987. The study found that swimmers on Hong Kong’s coastal beaches were more likely than non-swimmers to complain of systemic ailments such as skin and eyes. And swimming in more polluted beach waters has a much higher risk of contracting skin diseases and other diseases. Swimming-related disease symptom rates correlated with beach cleanliness ( Cheung et al., 1990 ).

A study of arsenic-affected villages in the southern Sindh province of Pakistan emphasized that skin diseases were caused by excessive water quality. By studying the relationship between excessive arsenic in drinking water caused by water pollution and skin diseases (mainly melanosis and keratosis), it was found that compared with people who consumed urban low-arsenic drinking water, the hair of people who consumed high-arsenic drinking water arsenic concentration increased significantly. The level of arsenic in drinking water directly affects the health of local residents, and skin disease is the most common clinical complication of arsenic poisoning. There is a correlation between arsenic concentrations in biological samples (hair and blood) from patients with skin diseases and intake of arsenic-contaminated drinking water ( Kazi et al., 2009 ). Another Bangladesh study showed that many people suffer from scabies due to river pollution ( Hanif et al., 2020 ). Not only that, but water pollution from industry can also cause skin cancer ( Arif et al., 2020 ).

Studies using meta-analysis have shown that exposure to polluted Marine recreational waters can have adverse consequences, including frequent skin discomfort (such as rash or itching). Skin diseases in swimmers may be caused by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms ( Yau et al., 2009 ). People (swimmers and non-swimmers) exposed to waters above threshold levels of bacteria had a higher relative risk of developing skin disease, and levels of bacteria in seawater were highly correlated with skin symptoms.

Studies have also suggested that swimmers are 3.5 times more likely to report skin diseases than non-swimmers. This difference may be a “risk perception bias” at work on swimmers, who are generally aware that such exposure may lead to health effects and are more likely to detect and report skin disorders. It is also possible that swimmers exaggerated their symptoms, reporting conditions that others would not classify as true skin disorders ( Fleisher and Kay. 2006 ).

Water Pollution and Cancer

According to WHO statistics, the number of cancer patients diagnosed in 2020 reached 19.3 million, while the number of deaths from cancer increased to 10 million. Currently, one-fifth of all global fevers will develop cancer during their lifetime. The types and amounts of carcinogens present in drinking water will vary depending on where they enter: contamination of the water source, water treatment processes, or when the water is delivered to users ( Morris, 1995 ).

From the perspective of water sources, arsenic, nitrate, chromium, etc. are highly associated with cancer. Ingestion of arsenic from drinking water can cause skin cancer and kidney and bladder cancer ( Marmot et al., 2007 ). The risk of cancer in the population from arsenic in the United States water supply may be comparable to the risk from tobacco smoke and radon in the home environment. However, individual susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of arsenic varies ( Smith et al., 1992 ). A high association of arsenic in drinking water with lung cancer was demonstrated in a northern Chilean controlled study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer and a frequency-matched hospital between 1994 and 1996. Studies have also shown a synergistic effect of smoking and arsenic intake in drinking water in causing lung cancer ( Ferreccio et al., 2000 ). Exposure to high arsenic levels in drinking water was also associated with the development of liver cancer, but this effect was not significant at exposure levels below 0.64 mg/L ( Lin et al., 2013 ).

Nitrates are a broader contaminant that is more closely associated with human cancers, especially colorectal cancer. A study in East Azerbaijan confirmed a significant association between colorectal cancer and nitrate in men, but not in women (Maleki et al., 2021). The carcinogenic risk of nitrates is concentration-dependent. The risk increases significantly when drinking water levels exceed 3.87 mg/L, well below the current drinking water standard of 50 mg/L. Drinking water with nitrate concentrations lower than current drinking water standards also increases the risk of colorectal cancer ( Schullehner et al., 2018 ).

Drinking water with high chromium content will bring high carcinogenicity caused by hexavalent chromium to residents. Drinking water intake of hexavalent chromium experiments showed that hexavalent chromium has the potential to cause human respiratory cancer. ( Zhitkovich, 2011 ). A case from Changhua County, Taiwan also showed that high levels of chromium pollution were associated with gastric cancer incidence ( Tseng et al., 2018 ).

There is a correlation between trihalomethane (THM) levels in drinking water and cancer mortality. Bladder and brain cancers in both men and women and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and kidney cancer in men were positively correlated with THM levels, and bladder cancer mortality had the strongest and most consistent association with THM exposure index ( Cantor et al., 1978 ).

From the perspective of water treatment process, carcinogens may be introduced during chlorine treatment, and drinking water is associated with all cancers, urinary cancers and gastrointestinal cancers ( Page et al., 1976 ). Chlorinated byproducts from the use of chlorine in water treatment are associated with an increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, with perhaps 5,000 cases of bladder and 8,000 cases of rectal cancer occurring each year in the United States (Morris, 1995).

The impact of drinking water pollutants on cancer is complex. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking water contaminants, such as chlorinated by-products, nitrates, arsenic, and radionuclides, are associated with cancer in humans ( Cantor, 1997 ). Pb, U, F- and no3- are the main groundwater pollutants and one of the potential causes of cancer ( Kaur et al., 2021 ). In addition, many other water pollutants are also considered carcinogenic, including herbicides and pesticides, and fertilizers that contain and release nitrates ( Marmot et al., 2007 ). A case from Hebei, China showed that the contamination of nitrogen compounds in well water was closely related to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture, and the levels of three nitrogen compounds in well water were significantly positively correlated with esophageal cancer mortality ( Zhang et al., 2003 ).

In addition, due to the time-lag effect, the impact of watershed water pollution on cancer is spatially heterogeneous. The mortality rate of esophageal cancer caused by water pollution is significantly higher downstream than in other regions due to the impact of historical water pollution ( Xu et al., 2019 ). A study based on changes in water quality in the watershed showed that a grade 6 deterioration in water quality resulted in a 9.3% increase in deaths from digestive cancer. ( Ebenstein, 2012 ).

Water Pollution and Child Health

Diarrhea is a common disease in children. Diarrhoeal diseases (including cholera) kill 1.8 million people each year, 90 per cent of them children under the age of five, mostly in developing countries. 88% of diarrhoeal diseases are caused by inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene (Team, 2004). A large proportion of these are caused by exposure to microbially infected water and food, and diarrhea in infants and young children can lead to malnutrition and reduced immune resistance, thereby increasing the likelihood of prolonged and recurrent diarrhea ( Marino, 2007 ). Pollution exposure experienced by children during critical periods of development is associated with height loss in adulthood ( Zaveri et al., 2020 ). Diseases directly related to water and sanitation, combined with malnutrition, also lead to other causes of death, such as measles and pneumonia. Child malnutrition and stunting due to inadequate water and sanitation will continue to affect more than one-third of children in the world ( Bartlett, 2003 ). A study from rural India showed that children living in households with tap water had significantly lower disease prevalence and duration ( Jalan and Ravallion, 2003 ).

In conclusion, water pollution is a significant cause of childhood diseases. Air, water, and soil pollution together killed 940,000 children worldwide in 2016, two-thirds of whom were under the age of 5, and the vast majority occurred in low- and middle-income countries ( Landrigan et al., 2018 ). The intensity of industrial organic water pollution is positively correlated with infant mortality and child mortality in less developed countries, and industrial water pollution is an important cause of infant and child mortality in less developed countries ( Jorgenson, 2009 ). In addition, arsenic in drinking water is a potential carcinogenic risk in children (García-Rico et al., 2018). Nitrate contamination in drinking water may cause goiter in children ( Vladeva et al.., 2000 ).

Discussions

This paper reviews the environmental science, health, and medical literature, with a particular focus on epidemiological studies linking water quality, water pollution, and human disease, as well as studies on water-related disease morbidity and mortality. At the same time, special attention is paid to publications from the United Nations and the World Health Organization on water and sanitation health research. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between water pollution and human health, including: The relationship between water pollution and diarrhea, the mechanism of action, and the research situation of meta-analysis; The relationship between water pollution and skin diseases, pathogenic factors, and meta-analysis research; The relationship between water pollution and cancer, carcinogenic factors, and types of cancer; The relationship between water pollution and Child health, and the major childhood diseases caused.

A study of more than 100 literatures found that although factors such as country, region, age, and gender may have different influences, in general, water pollution has a huge impact on human health. Water pollution is the cause of many human diseases, mainly diarrhoea, skin diseases, cancer and various childhood diseases. The impact of water pollution on different diseases is mainly reflected in the following aspects. Firstly, diarrhea is the most easily caused disease by water pollution, mainly transmitted by enterovirus existing in the aquatic environment. The transmission environment of enterovirus depends on includes groundwater, river, seawater, sewage, drinking water, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent the transmission of enterovirus from the environment to people through drinking water intervention. Secondly, exposure to or use of heavily polluted water is associated with a risk of skin diseases. Excessive bacteria in seawater and heavy metals in drinking water are the main pathogenic factors of skin diseases. Thirdly, water pollution can pose health risks to humans through any of the three links: the source of water, the treatment of water, and the delivery of water. Arsenic, nitrate, chromium, and trihalomethane are major carcinogens in water sources. Carcinogens may be introduced during chlorine treatment from water treatment. The effects of drinking water pollution on cancer are complex, including chlorinated by-products, heavy metals, radionuclides, herbicides and pesticides left in water, etc., Finally, water pollution is an important cause of children’s diseases. Contact with microbiologically infected water can cause diarrhoeal disease in children. Malnutrition and weakened immunity from diarrhoeal diseases can lead to other diseases.

This study systematically analyzed the impact of water pollution on human health and the heterogeneity of diseases from the perspective of different diseases, focusing on a detailed review of the relationship, mechanism and influencing factors of water pollution and diseases. From the point of view of limitations, this paper mainly focuses on the research of environmental science and environmental management, and the research on pathology is less involved. Based on this, future research can strengthen research at medical and pathological levels.

In response to the above research conclusions, countries, especially developing countries, need to adopt corresponding water management policies to reduce the harm caused by water pollution to human health. Firstly, there is a focus on water quality at the point of use, with interventions to improve water quality, including chlorination and safe storage ( Gundry et al., 2004 ), and provision of treated and clean water ( Khan et al., 2013 ). Secondly, in order to reduce the impact of water pollution on skin diseases, countries should conduct epidemiological studies on their own in order to formulate health-friendly bathing water quality standards suitable for their specific conditions ( Cheung et al., 1990 ). Thirdly, in order to reduce the cancer caused by water pollution, the whole-process supervision of water quality should be strengthened, that is, the purity of water sources, the scientific nature of water treatment and the effectiveness of drinking water monitoring. Fourthly, each society should prevent and control source pollution from production, consumption, and transportation ( Landrigan et al., 2018 ). Fifthly, health education is widely carried out. Introduce environmental education, educate residents on sanitary water through newspapers, magazines, television, Internet and other media, and enhance public health awareness. Train farmers to avoid overuse of agricultural chemicals that contaminate drinking water.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, XX|; methodology, LL; data curation, HY; writing and editing, LL; project administration, XX|.

This article is a phased achievement of The National Social Science Fund of China: Research on the blocking mechanism of the critical poor households returning to poverty due to illness, No: 20BJY057.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: water pollution, human health, disease heterogeneity, water intervention, health cost

Citation: Lin L, Yang H and Xu X (2022) Effects of Water Pollution on Human Health and Disease Heterogeneity: A Review. Front. Environ. Sci. 10:880246. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2022.880246

Received: 21 February 2022; Accepted: 09 June 2022; Published: 30 June 2022.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2022 Lin, Yang and Xu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Xiaocang Xu, [email protected]

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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  • Water Pollution Essay

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Water Pollution and How it Harms the Environment

Global pollution is a problem. Pollution can spread to remote areas where no one lives, despite the fact that urban areas are typically more polluted than the countryside. Air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution are the three main categories of pollution. Some contaminated water has a terrible smell, a muddy appearance, and floating trash. Some contaminated water appears clean, but it contains dangerous substances that you can't see or smell.

Together, developed and developing nations must fight to conserve the environment for present and future generations. Today, we dig deep into the subject of Water Pollution. This article can be an introduction to water pollution for kids as we will read many things such as the causes of water pollution further in the article.

What is Water Pollution?

Water contamination occurs when pollutants pollute water sources and make the water unfit for use in drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, garbage, bacteria, and parasites are examples of pollutants. Water is eventually damaged by all types of pollution. Lakes and oceans become contaminated by air pollution. Land contamination may contaminate an underground stream, a river, and ultimately the ocean. As a result, trash thrown on an empty lot can eventually contaminate a water source.

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Water Pollution

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The water cycle, called  the hydrological cycle, involves the following steps:

Evaporation- Because of the sun's heat, the water bodies such as oceans, lakes, seas etc., get heated up, and water evaporates in the air, forming water vapours.

Transpiration- Like evaporation, the plants and trees also lose water from them which goes to the atmosphere. This process is called transpiration.

Condensation- As the water evaporates, it starts to become cool because of the cold atmosphere in the air and because of this cooling down of water leads to the formation of clouds.

Precipitation- Because of the high movements of the wings, the clouds start to collide and then fall back to the earth’s surface in the form of rain. Sometimes they also fall back in the form of snow, hail, sleet etc., depending upon the temperature.

Runoff or Infiltration- After precipitation, the water either flows to the water bodies called runoff or is absorbed into the soil, called infiltration.

Causes of Water Pollution

There are many reasons for water pollution. Some of the reasons are directly affected by water pollution and some indirectly. Many factories and industries are dumping contaminated water, chemicals, and heavy metals into major waterways as a result of direct water pollution. 

One more reason for water pollution is the use of modern techniques in farms. Farmers apply nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium in the form of chemical fertilizers, manure, and sludge. It causes farms to discharge large quantities of agrochemicals, organic matter, and saline drainage into water bodies. It indirectly affects water pollution.

Pollutants can be of various types such as organic, inorganic, radioactive etc. Water pollutants are discharged either from one point from pipes, channels etc., which are called point sources or from various other sources. They can be agricultural areas, industries etc., called dispersed sources. 

Some of the major forms of water pollutants are as follows:

Sewage- Domestic sewage from homes contains various forms of pathogens that threaten the human body. Sewage treatment reduces the risk of pathogens, but this risk is not eliminated. 

Domestic sewage majorly contains nitrates and phosphates, and excess of these substances allows the algae to grow on the surface of water bodies. Due to this, the clean water bodies become nutrient-rich water body and then slowly, the oxygen level of water bodies reduces. This is called eutrophication or cultural eutrophication (if this step rapidly takes place by the activities of humans). This leads to the early death of water bodies.

Toxins- The industrial or factory wastes that are not disposed of properly and contain chemicals such as mercury and lead are disposed of in the water bodies making the bodies toxic, radioactive, explosive and cancerous.

Sediments- Sediments are the result of soil erosion that is formed in the water bodies. These sediments imbalances the water bodies ecologically. They also interfere in the reproductive cycle of various aquatic animals living in the water.

Thermal pollution- Water bodies get polluted because of heat, and excess heat reduces the oxygen level of the water bodies. Some of the species of fish cannot live in such water bodies with very low oxygen levels. The disposal of cold waters from the power plants leads to increased thermal pollution in the water bodies.

Petroleum oil pollution- The runoff of oil into the water bodies, either accidentally as happened in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, or intentionally, leads to an increase in water pollution.

As water is an important element of human health, polluted water directly affects the human body. Water pollution causes various diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, cancer, etc. Water pollution damages the plants and aquatic animals present in the river by reducing the oxygen content from the water. Polluted water washes the essential nutrients which plants need out of the soil and also leaves large amounts of aluminium in the soil, which can be harmful to plants. 

Wastewater and sewage are a by-product of daily life and thus produced by each household through various activities like using soap, toilets, and detergents. Such sewage contains chemicals and bacteria which are harmful to human life and environmental health. Water pollution also leads to an imbalance in our ecosystem. Lastly, it also affects the food chain as the toxins in the water bodies are consumed by aquatic animals like fish, crabs etc., and then humans consume those animals forming turmoil. 

Sometimes our tradition also becomes a cause for water pollution. Some people throw the statues of deities, flowers, pots, and ashes in rivers.

There are various standards to define water quality standards. Water meant for swimming may not be clean enough for drinking, or water meant for bathing may not be good for cooking. Therefore, there are different water standards for defined:

Stream standards- Standards that define streams, lakes, oceans or seas based on their maximum use.

Effluent standards- Define the specific standards for the level of contaminants or effluents allowed during the final discharge of those into the water bodies.

Drinking water standards- Define the level of contamination allowed in water that will be supplied for drinking or cooking in the domestic areas.

Different countries regulate their water quality standards through different acts and amendments.

While many of the solutions for water pollution need to be applied on a broader macro-level for that individual, companies, and communities can have a significant and responsible impact on the water quality. Companies, factories have to dispose of leftover chemicals and containers properly as per the product instructions. Farmers also have to reduce the use of nitrates and phosphates from fertilizers, pesticides, and contamination of groundwater. 

The Swachh Bharat Mission of the government had led to reduced groundwater contamination. Under the Namami Ganga program, the government has initiated several major projects to clean Ganga. Along with all these steps, conservation of water is the very basic and important step towards water conservation and should be followed globally, treatment of sewage before their disposal in the water bodies and using environment-friendly products that do not form toxins when dissolved in water. These are some small steps that have to be taken into consideration by every human being.

As we all know, “Water is life’s matter and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.” We have to save water. We must keep the water clean. If everyone will follow their responsibility against water to protect it from getting polluted then it will be easy to get clean and healthy drinking water. Clean water is a must for us and our kids' present, future, and healthy environment. 

We cannot just live with contaminated waters filled with toxins and no oxygen. We cannot see our wildlife being destroyed and therefore, immediate steps have to be taken by groups of people to first clean the already contaminated water bodies and then keep a check on all the surrounding water bodies. Small steps by every individual can make a huge difference in controlling water pollution.

Water Pollution Prevention

Conserve Water 

Our first priority should be to conserve water. Water wasting could be a big problem for the entire world, but we are just now becoming aware of it.

Sewage Treatment 

Cleaning up waste materials before disposing of them in waterways reduces pollution on a large scale. By lowering its dangerous elements, this wastewater will be used in other sectors or in agriculture.

Usage of Eco-Friendly Materials

We will reduce the amount of pollution produced by choosing soluble products that do not alter to become pollutants.

Water contamination is the discharge of pollutants into the water body, where they dissolve, are suspended, are deposited on the bottom, and collect to the point where they hinder the aquatic ecosystem's ability to function. Water contamination is brought on by toxic compounds that easily dissolve and combine with it and come from factories, municipalities, and farms.

Healthy ecosystems depend on a complex network of organisms, including animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi, all of which interact with one another either directly or indirectly. In this article, we read about water pollution, its causes and prevention. With this, we have come to the end of our article, in case of any other doubts, feel free to ask in the comments.

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FAQs on Water Pollution Essay

1. What are the effects of water pollution?

Water pollution has a great impact on human health. Water pollution kills. It's been recorded that in 2015 nearly 1.8 million people died because of water pollution. People with low income are exposed to contaminated water coming out from the industries. Presence of disease causing pathogens in drinking water are the major cause of illness which includes cholera, giardia, and typhoid. Water pollution not only affects human health but also our environment by causing algal bloom in a lake or marine environment. Water pollution also causes eutrophication which suffocates plants and animals and thus causes dead zones. Chemicals and heavy metals from industrial and municipal wastewater contaminate waterways and harm aquatic life.

2. What are the causes of Water pollution?

Water being a universal solvent is vulnerable to pollution as it dissolves more substances than any other liquid on earth. Therefore, water is easily polluted. Toxic substances from farms, towns, and factories readily dissolve into water and mix with it, resulting in water pollution. Agricultural pollution is one of the major causes of contamination in rivers and streams. The use of excessive fertilizers, pesticides, and animal waste from farms and livestock operations lets the rain wash the nutrients and pathogens—such as bacteria and viruses—into our waterways. The other major cause of water pollution is used water,  termed as wastewater which comes from our sinks, showers, toilets and from commercial, industrial, and agricultural activities. It's been reported that the world's 80% wastewater flows back into the environment without being treated or reused. Oil spills and radioactive waste also cause water pollution to a great extent.

3. How to prevent water pollution?

It is important to keep our water bodies clean so we can take the following preventive measures to prevent from water pollution:

Chemicals like bleach, paint, paint thinner, ammonia, and many chemicals are becoming a serious problem. Dumping toxic chemicals down the drain or flushing them down the toilet can cause water pollution. Thus, proper disposal is important. Also, household chemicals need to be recycled.

Avoid buying products that contain persistent and dangerous chemicals. Buying non-toxic cleaners and biodegradable cleaners and pesticides cut down on water pollution.

Prevent from pouring fats or greasy substances down the drain as it might clog the drain resulting in the dumping of waste into yards or basement which can contaminate the local water bodies.

4. What is the role of medical institutions in polluting the water?

Pharmaceutical pollution affects aquatic life and thus there is a need to take preventive measures. Consumers are responsible for winding up pharmaceutical and personal care products in lakes, rivers, and streams. There's a lot of unused and expired medication that can potentially get into the water if not disposed of properly.

5. What are the major kinds of pollution?

The three main types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution or soil pollution. Some artificial pollution is also there, such as noise pollution. Factors leading to such pollution include:

Air Pollution: Industrial emissions, fires, traffic and transportation, burning of chemical waste, etc.

Water Pollution: No proper sewage disposal, pesticides in farms leaking into water bodies, industrial waste dumped into water bodies, etc.

Soil Pollution:  Oil spills, acid rains, irresponsible disposal of trash, chemical waste, etc.

Noise Pollution: Honking of horns, construction activities, loud parties, etc.

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Crafting an essay on the subject of environmental pollution can be both intellectually stimulating and challenging. It requires a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted issues related to pollution, ranging from air and water pollution to the degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity. The complexity of the topic demands a deep dive into scientific data, environmental policies, and global perspectives.

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Md. Hasib Uddin

Md. H A S I B Uddin

Introduction:-Now a days, environmental pollution is a major cause for concern, not only for us, but also for the whole mankind. In the last century, the rise of this menace assumed so gigantic that it has cast its melancholic shadow on nature itself. The diminishing ozone ionosphere leading to global warming and the unpredictable seasonal variations are some of the adverse effects of worldwide environmental pollution that are threatening to the existence of human beings on this planet.

tassnim khaled

Samuel Peralta

The Ahupuaʻa is a complex system and worldview that evolved over thousands of years. It is a sustainable land management way of living that relates all things as divine, sacred, and at times prohibited or kapu. This worldview is manifested by the life from mountain to ocean. It is what would be considered these days as sustainability. In the ahupuʻa worldview, social systems and ecosystem are integrated as one. When social systems are separated from ecosystem, great ecological damage can be done. One example is the deforestation of North Korea by Japanese colonial forces. This deforestation of North Korean lands lead to millions of deaths. When social systems lead by anthropocentric values leave out sustainable development practices, ecological destruction can and will continue to lead to a chain effect of events unforeseen and sometimes unnoticed till it is too late. One example of seeming unrelated environmental problem that occurs during deforestation is water pollution. Forest hold soil, nutrients, and water that sustain the ecological systems. Without forests, soil is washed away with all its richness into the oceans and streams. This influx of runoff water causes a type of pollution called nutrient pollution. Nutrient pollution causes algae blooms which suffocate marine life and blocks light that is needed for some marine plants. Deforestation also is a key contributor to soil runoff water that directly effects one of the most valuable resources in the ecosystem, the coral reefs. The ahupuaʻa worldview can teach us how to heal and restore the damage done to our ecosystems by giving us a model on bridging social systems and ecosystems as one lifestyle. In

Niysoriya KANG

Water pollution is one of the most ecological threats we face today. It is formed when chemical compounds or waste enters water bodies such as lakes, rivers and oceans, dissolving in them, lying suspended in the water and degrading the quality of the water. Water pollution can be caused by many ways such as city sewage and industrial waste, chemical waste, oil spill, and plastic. For this reason, in this essay I am going to explain the effects of water pollution on human health, animals and clean water.

saurav ghosh

International Journal of Natural Disasters & Health Security (IJNHS) SciDoc Publishers

Pollution induces harmful effects on environment and health security. Main deep causes will be analyzed including natural disasters like volcanoes eruption, climate change as well as and men-caused disasters which are nuclear explosions and dioxin sprays.

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Essay on Water Pollution for Students and Children

500+ words essay on water pollution.

Water is the most important resource for survival on a planet. It is the essence of life on our planet – Earth. Yet if you ever see a river or lake around your city, it would be evident to you that we are facing a very serious problem of Water pollution. Let us educate ourselves about water and water pollution . Two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered by water , seventy-six perfect of your body is made up of water.

essay on water pollution

Water and Water Cycle

As you already know water is everywhere and all around.  However, we have a fixed amount of water on earth. It just changes its states and goes through a cyclic order, known as the Water Cycle. The water cycle is a natural process that is continuous in nature. It is the pattern in which the water from oceans, seas, lakes, etc gets evaporated and turns to vapor. After which it goes through the process of condensation, and finally precipitation when it falls back to earth as rain or snow.

What is Water Pollution?

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, aquifers, and groundwater) usually caused due to human activities. Water pollution is any change, minor or major in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water that eventually leads to a detrimental consequence of any living organism . Drinking water, called Potable Water, is considered safe enough for human and animal consumption.

Sources of Water Pollution

  • Domestic Waste
  • Industrial effluents
  • Insecticides and pesticides
  • Detergents and Fertilizers

Some of the water pollutions are caused by direct Sources, such as factories, waste management facilities, refineries, etc, that directly releases waste and dangerous by-products into the nearest water source without treating them. Indirect sources include pollutants that infuse in the water bodies via groundwater or soil or via the atmosphere through acidic rain.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Effects of Pollution of Water

The effects of Water Pollution are:

Diseases: In humans, drinking or consuming polluted water in any way has many disastrous effects on our health. It causes typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and various other diseases.

Eradication of Ecosystem: Ecosystem is extremely dynamic and responds to even small changes in the environment. Increasing water pollution can cause an entire ecosystem to collapse if left unchecked.

Eutrophication: Chemicals accumulation and infusion in a water body, encourages the growth of algae. The algae form a layer on top of the pond or lake. Bacteria feed on this algae and this event decreases the amount of oxygen in the water body, severely affecting the aquatic life there

Effects of the food chain: Turmoil in food chain happens when the aquatic animals (fish, prawns, seahorse, etc) consume the toxins and pollutants in the water,  and then the humans consume them.

Prevention of Water Pollution

The best way to prevent large-scale water pollution is to try and reduce its harmful effects. There are numerous small changes we can make to protect ourselves from a future where water is scarce.

Conserve Water: Conserving water should be our first aim. Water wastage is a major problem globally and we are only now waking up to the issue. Simple small changes made domestically will make a huge difference.

Treatment of sewage: Treating waste products before disposing of it in water bodies helps reduce water pollution on a large scale. Agriculture or other industries can reuse this wastewater by reducing its toxic contents.

Use of environment-friendly products: By using soluble products that do not go on to become pollutants, we can reduce the amount of water pollution caused by a household.

Life is ultimately about choices and so is water pollution. We cannot live with sewage-strewn beaches, contaminated rivers , and fish that are poisonous to drink and eat. To avoid these scenarios,  we can work together to keep the environment clean so the water bodies, plants, animals, and people who depend on it remain healthy. We can take individual or teamed action to help reduce water pollution. As an example, by using environmentally friendly detergents, not pouring oil down the drains, reducing the usage of pesticides, and so on. We can take community action too to keep our rivers and seas cleaner. And we can take action as countries and continents to pass laws against water pollution. Working together, we can make water pollution less of a problem—and the world a better place.

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Water Pollution Essay for Students and Children | PDF Download

Water Pollution Essay for Students and Children | PDF Download

Water Pollution Essay for Students & Children- Causes, Effects, Remedies: What is Water Pollution?. Water Pollution is the combination of water which is a natural resource and pollution refers to the adding up of impurities or contaminants into it. Water can be taken or useful unless it does not contain any impurities and also contain the balance ratio of elements in it. It is the most required element in the life of human beings or living beings on Earth. The Planet Earth cannot be sustained without water and life on it is also impossible. Similarly, the below Water Pollution Essays contains about Causes, Effects, Prevention Steps of Water Pollution. In the further below Quotes on Stop Polluting water and Save Water are listed.

Short Essay on Water Pollution

Water Pollution is one of the leading Environmental issues that need to resolve for further generations to exist on earth. As we know 3/4th of the earth is filled with water, but why water pollution had become an issue?. Water was filled with 3/4th of the planet by the useful water is only 3-4% in it i.e Fresh and Useful Water for living beings. In the small amount of useful water, human activities make the limited amount useless and rise to need or demand freshwater. Human activities are the main source of water pollution around the world. Water pollution is a Global issue where the scarcity of Freshwater has arisen. The sources of water pollution are Domestic Waste, Insecticides, and Pesticides, Organic Waste, Solid Waste, Fertilizers, Industrial Chemicals, Waste, etc. As these chemicals, farming fertilizers, and some others will be mixed up with water and imbalance the ratio of contents in water. As this polluted water was taken by the living beings it can lead to diseases, the effect on organs, sometimes lead to Death.

Mostly the water sources are around Human life like rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. As the industries are built up for the welfare of human needs but these industries consume water parallelly extracting the chemical and organic waste into it. This tends to pollution of water and where the humans cannot able to use to drink and use for needs. So the prevention steps must be taken by humans and stop extracting the harmful waste into water bodies. The conservation of water is also one of the prevention steps for water pollution as well as water demand.

Long Essay on Water Pollution

Water Pollution means adding up contamination in the water sources like lakes, rivers by activities of humans. On the other hand, Water is an essential natural resource in the life of human beings and living beings. 60-75% of the human body is filled with water, by this, we can come to know the importance and need of water for living beings. Even 70% of fill water is not useful for the needs of human beings where only Fresh and smooth water is useful. By knowing all these things still, the humans are polluting water similarly facing the issues like need or demand for water.

Causes of Water Pollution

As only 3-4% of water is useful and fresh for human beings and these are from sources like rivers, lakes, rains, etc. As the needs of humans are increasing and these needs majorly depend on water for their production. For the needs of Humans, the industries were built upon the riversides. The industries take the water and process it according to the need of the product. This processed water contains chemicals, harmful gases, an imbalanced ratio of minerals, etc and it was released in the water bodies. In the same way, these are the water bodies where humans are dependent for drinking water and basic needs.

There different sources of Water Pollution are Domestic Waste, Industrial Sewage, Insecticides, Pesticides in Farming, Fertilizers, and Detergents. In these sources, some are highly harmful and are released by industries or factories without treating them. These are released into the nearby water sources or stored in an area which can lead to soil pollution. As the untreated chemicals or sewage was mixed with water in water bodies and the water from that are used and lead to effects for human beings.

Effects of Water Pollution

As the farming industries completely depend on the water for the cultivation of various crops. For this process, only freshwater is useful where the freshwater is in demand or scarcity. Industries waste and organic waste will mix up water on the way to reach the farms. This results in improper cultivation or growth of the crop. As the farmer use fertilizers and pesticides for proper cultivation, it contains harmful chemical that will harm humans. As well these chemicals are harmful to aquatic animals and the growth of aquatic life will decrease. This can affect the food chain of humans.

Steps to Control Water Pollution

The polluted water will expose a huge effect on living creatures and their health. The effects of water pollution are Diseases, Chemical Froth, Destruction of the Ecosystem, Formation of Unwanted Water bodies, Foodchain Effects, Imbalances of the water contents, etc. These effects will expose directly or indirectly to humans and aquatic animals. A huge number of aquatic animals or creatures are endangered due to water pollution by human activities. For this alternative are the prevention steps like conservation of water, Proper treatment of sewage, using of Urea in farming, etc. Whatever saving natural resources will save human lives in return and improve the living creatures on Planet Earth.

The Pollution of water is a man-made thing so it can be recorrected by humans itself. For this, every person should know the value of water and how human life needs to exist. All the prevention steps should be applied in the daily lives of humans. Governments should not allow to establish the industries at the riverside and check the industries about the treatment of waste, etc. Awareness activities like Water pollution Drawings, Posters, Paints for young children, and Advertisements are helpful to know for all category people. Stop Polluting Water and Conserve Water for the Present and Future Generations of living beings.

Quotes on Water Pollution

  • Water is Life, Take Care of it.
  • Destroy Water, you destroy life.
  • If you pollute water, you pollute life.
  • If there is magic on this planet it is contained in Water.
  • Water is Life and clean water means health
  • Stop Pollution Quickly, Don’t Make the Water Sick.

Conclusion: We believe that the above Water Pollution Essay has provided some unique information and some unknown things. By this article, we hope you will also part in Saving water and stop polluting it. This essay will helpful for students and aspirants of UPSC & SSC.

Dear Students and Children, you can download the Water Pollution Essay in the Hand Written Format by Clicking the Below Click Here Link.

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A systematic literature review for addressing microplastic fibre pollution: urgency and opportunities.

water pollution essay pdf download

1. Introduction

2. materials and methods, 2.1. data source, 2.2. methodology, 3.1. publication profile, 3.2. citation network, 3.3. connection between keywords, 3.4. summary of each research domain, 3.4.1. domestic laundry and drying.

ParametersArticlesEffect on MPF/MF Release
Textile Parameters
Structure[ ]Increase with loose construction
[ ]Reduce with compact to loose structure
[ ]Reduce as interlacing coefficient and weft density increase
Composition[ ]Recycled polyester > virgin polyester
[ ]Acrylic > polyester > nylon
Spinning method[ ]Ring > rotor or air-jet
Yarn twist[ ]Reduce with higher twist
[ ]Spun > non-twist filament > hard-twist filament
[ ]Reduce with a higher twist
Fibre length[ ]Reduce with continuous filament over short staples
[ ]Increased release with shorter irregular fibres
[ ]Reduce from staple to textured filament.
Finishing[ ]Reduce with a pectin-based finish
[ ]The processed surface can produce five times more
Cutting[ ] Scissor-cut 3–31 times higher than laser-cut
Washing and Drying Parameters
Machine type[ ]The top load releases seven times more than the front load
Subsequent washes[ ]Successive washes decrease emissions
[ ]Reduce and typically stabilise from the 4th and 5th cycle
[ ]Reduce after 4 cycles
[ ]Reduce after the peak at 3rd cycle
[ ]Reduce and stabilise from 5th cycle
[ ]Reduce
[ ]Reduce significantly from 5th cycle
[ ]Reduce and stabilise at the 7th cycle
Water volume-to-fabric ratio/washing load decrease[ ]Increase as the most influential factor
[ ]Increase by five times
[ ]Increase as the most influential factor
Washing temperature[ ]Increase with temperature
[ ]No significant effect between 15 and 30 °C and increase at 60 °C
[ ]Increase with temperature
[ ]1.8 times more if the temperature is increased from 20 to 40 °C
Washing and drying time[ ]No impact if the increase is from 15 to 60 min
[ ]Increase with duration and spin speed
[ ]Increase if duration increases from 30 to 60 min
Using detergent and softener[ ]Reduce (both detergent and softener)
[ ]Reduce (softener only)
[ ]Increase (detergent only)
[ ]No effect (detergent only)
[ ]Reduce (detergent only)
[ ]No significant impact (both detergent and softener)
[ ]Increase (detergent and conditioner)
[ ]Reduce (softener only)
[ ]Increase (detergent only)

3.4.2. Test Methodology

3.4.3. aquatic ecosystem, 3.4.4. atmospheric environment, 3.4.5. wastewater source, 3.4.6. abundance and distribution, 3.4.7. terrestrial ecosystem, 3.4.8. hazardous risk, 4. opportunities, 4.1. interdisciplinary collaboration, 4.2. textile parameters, 4.3. laundry parameters, 4.4. sustainable chemicals, 4.5. renewable materials and circularity, 4.6. wastewater treatment, 4.7. mitigation devices, 4.8. standardised test method, 4.9. government interventions, 5. conclusions, 5.1. limitations, 5.2. outlook, author contributions, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

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Click here to enlarge figure

KeywordsNo of Articles
TS = (microplastic*)8217
TS = (microplastic*) AND TS = (microfibre* or microfiber* or fibre* or fiber*) 1939
TS = (microfibre* or microfiber*) AND TS = (textile* or clothing* or apparel* or fashion*)395
TS = (microplastic*) AND TS= (microfibre* or microfiber* or fibre* or fiber*) AND TS = (textile* or clothing* or apparel* or fashion*)219
Name of JournalNo of Publications%
Science of the Total Environment3416%
Environmental Pollution 2712%
Marine Pollution Bulletin2210%
Environmental Science Technology157%
Environmental Science and Pollution Research146%
Chemosphere94%
Journal of Hazardous Materials84%
PLoS ONE63%
Frontiers in Marine Science42%
Polymers42%
Publication CountriesNo of Publications%
People’s Republic of China3616%
USA3416%
England 2712%
Italy2612%
Canada157%
Germany125%
Spain125%
Switzerland115%
Australia94%
Finland94%
Group NoColourNo of PublicationsResearch Domains
0NA                 6Scattered Samples
1Blue           85Domestic laundry and drying
2Green           28Test methodology
3Purple           22Aquatic ecosystem
4Orange           21Atmosphere environment
5Yellow           19Wastewater source
6Brown           17Abundance and distribution
7Pink           11Terrestrial ecosystem
8Light Blue           10Hazardous nature
Estimates (Weight)Source of References
190,000 tonnes/year[ ]
525,000 tonnes/year[ ]
260,000 tonnes/year[ ]
280,000 tonnes/year[ ]
The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

Chan, C.K.-M.; Lo, C.K.-Y.; Kan, C.-W. A Systematic Literature Review for Addressing Microplastic Fibre Pollution: Urgency and Opportunities. Water 2024 , 16 , 1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/w16141988

Chan CK-M, Lo CK-Y, Kan C-W. A Systematic Literature Review for Addressing Microplastic Fibre Pollution: Urgency and Opportunities. Water . 2024; 16(14):1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/w16141988

Chan, Carmen Ka-Man, Chris Kwan-Yu Lo, and Chi-Wai Kan. 2024. "A Systematic Literature Review for Addressing Microplastic Fibre Pollution: Urgency and Opportunities" Water 16, no. 14: 1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/w16141988

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Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement

Persuasive speech generator.

water pollution essay pdf download

Crafting a persuasive speech hinges on a compelling thesis statement – the linchpin that anchors your argument and guides your audience. The potency of your speech is encapsulated in this singular sentence, making it essential to perfect. Below, we delve into the anatomy of persuasive speech thesis statements, offering examples to inspire, guidelines to streamline the writing process, and pro tips to ensure your message resonates powerfully. Ready to persuade and captivate? Dive in.

What is a Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement? – Definition

A persuasive speech thesis statement is a concise declaration that clearly expresses the main argument or stance of your speech. Unlike an informative speech thesis statement which simply informs, a persuasive speech thesis aims to convince the audience to adopt a particular viewpoint or take a certain action. It serves as the foundation of your argument, providing a roadmap for your listeners and guiding the content of your speech.

What is a good thesis statement Example for a persuasive speech?

A good thesis statement for a persuasive speech should be clear, concise, arguable, and specific. Here’s an example:

Topic: Reducing meat consumption for environmental purposes.

Thesis Statement: “Reducing our meat consumption by half can significantly decrease our carbon footprint, lessen water usage, and help in preserving essential ecosystems, making it not just a dietary choice but a responsibility for the environment.”

This thesis statement makes a clear argument, states why the audience should care, and is backed by several points that can be elaborated upon during the speech.

100 Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement Examples

  • Mandatory vaccinations are crucial for public health.
  • Vegetarianism can significantly reduce global environmental damage.
  • Schools should abolish standardized tests.
  • Solar energy is the future of global power.
  • Animal testing for cosmetics should be banned worldwide.
  • Online education can be more effective than traditional classroom settings.
  • Ban on single-use plastics is essential for marine conservation.
  • Euthanasia should be legalized under specific circumstances.
  • Governments should regulate social media to combat fake news.
  • Higher education should be free for all citizens.
  • Workplace dress codes are outdated and unnecessary.
  • Young adults should be mandated to take a gap year before college.
  • Juvenile offenders should never be treated as adults in the legal system.
  • Artificial intelligence poses more risks than benefits.
  • GMOs are safe and beneficial for global food security.
  • Children under 16 shouldn’t have access to smartphones.
  • Censorship in media does more harm than good.
  • Parents should be held accountable for their children’s cyberbullying actions.
  • Organic farming is essential for future food sustainability.
  • Space exploration is a waste of money that could be better spent on Earth’s problems.
  • Pro athletes deserve their high salaries due to their unique skills and market demand.
  • The death penalty is an outdated form of punishment.
  • Video games don’t lead to violent behavior in youths.
  • Mandatory voting would strengthen democracies.
  • Physical education in schools is essential for youth health.
  • Corporal punishment is detrimental to children’s well-being.
  • Taxing sugary drinks can decrease obesity rates.
  • All countries should adopt a universal basic income.
  • Modern zoos are ethical and beneficial for wildlife conservation.
  • Children’s exposure to screen time should be limited for cognitive development.
  • Countries should prioritize refugees over other immigrants.
  • Binge-watching TV shows can lead to psychological issues.
  • Public transport should be free to reduce traffic congestion.
  • Companies should be taxed more for carbon emissions.
  • Homeschooling can provide a more personalized education than traditional schools.
  • Medical marijuana should be legalized worldwide.
  • Advertising to children should be strictly regulated.
  • Fast fashion is detrimental to both the environment and society.
  • Child actors are often exploited and laws should protect them more rigorously.
  • Cybersecurity education should be a mandatory part of school curriculums.
  • Celebrity endorsements in politics do more harm than good.
  • Gender-neutral bathrooms promote inclusivity and should be standardized.
  • Self-driving cars are the solution to urban traffic woes.
  • The gig economy undermines workers’ rights.
  • Print books are superior to e-books for cognitive absorption.
  • Intermittent fasting has more benefits than traditional dieting.
  • Capitalism needs significant reforms to address modern challenges.
  • Professional networks are more beneficial than academic degrees in today’s job market.
  • Pets should be adopted from shelters instead of being purchased from breeders.
  • Drone deliveries are the future of e-commerce.
  • Modern architecture should prioritize sustainability over aesthetics.
  • Mental health days should be a standard employment benefit.
  • Religious institutions should pay taxes.
  • Athletes caught doping should face lifetime bans.
  • All public places should offer free Wi-Fi.
  • Parenting classes should be mandatory for expectant parents.
  • Soft skills are more important than hard skills in today’s workforce.
  • College athletes should be paid for their efforts.
  • Digital currency will replace traditional money.
  • Forest conservation is more important than urban expansion.
  • Remote work improves employee productivity and well-being.
  • Traditional college is becoming obsolete.
  • Public figures have a right to personal privacy.
  • Extreme adventure sports should have stricter regulations.
  • Recycling should be legally mandatory for households.
  • Local tourism is more sustainable than international travel.
  • Artificial sweeteners do more harm than natural sugars.
  • Digital detoxes are essential for mental health.
  • Nuclear energy is a necessary alternative in the climate change battle.
  • Fossil fuels need to be phased out within the next decade.
  • The pay gap is a pervasive issue that needs addressing.
  • Mandatory military service strengthens nations.
  • Multilingual education from a young age has cognitive and cultural benefits.
  • Cultural appropriation in fashion and art should be discouraged.
  • Childhood vaccination should not be optional.
  • Public speaking skills should be a mandatory part of the school curriculum.
  • Reality TV promotes negative stereotypes and should be reformed.
  • The 4-day workweek improves overall quality of life.
  • Bottled water is an environmental and economic disaster.
  • Governments should fund scientific research over military endeavors.
  • Telemedicine is as effective as in-person consultations.
  • The arts are just as important as sciences in education.
  • Elitism in Ivy League schools undermines the education system.
  • Human cloning has more ethical concerns than benefits.
  • Paternity leave should be equal to maternity leave.
  • Junk food advertising should be banned during children’s television programming.
  • Sustainable living should be a core part of school education.
  • Immigration policies should be more compassionate.
  • Philanthropy by billionaires isn’t a solution to systemic societal issues.
  • Traditional media is losing its credibility.
  • Fast food chains should be accountable for the obesity epidemic.
  • Urban gardens are essential for community well-being.
  • Virtual reality can revolutionize education.
  • Tabloid journalism threatens democratic processes.
  • Every city should have green rooftops.
  • Adventure travel is more than a trend; it’s a learning experience.
  • Plastics in cosmetics harm both the environment and consumers.
  • Youth activism is reshaping global politics.
  • The universal right to internet access should be a fundamental human right.
  • The rise of influencer culture negatively impacts societal values.

Remember, these are broad topics and may need to be adjusted to fit specific audiences or contexts. They aim to serve as inspiration and a starting point for your persuasive speeches.

Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement Examples for College

Crafting the right thesis for a college-based persuasive speech can mold opinions, drive actions, and shape futures. Here’s a set of examples aiming at various issues relevant to the college experience.

  • Implementing mental health services in colleges is crucial to support student well-being.
  • Every college should offer free online course alternatives to reduce student costs.
  • Limiting textbook prices will make higher education more accessible.
  • Extracurricular activities are just as vital as academics in shaping a student’s character.
  • Campus security measures should be increased to ensure student safety.
  • Colleges should foster an environment that promotes free speech and open dialogue.
  • The fraternity and sorority system requires an overhaul to combat systemic issues.
  • Online courses can be more tailored and efficient than traditional classroom lectures.
  • Mandatory internships should be integrated into every college curriculum.
  • College tuition fees should be proportional to post-graduate income levels.

Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement Examples on Pollution

Pollution, in its many forms, threatens our health, environment, and future. These thesis statements shed light on the pressing need for action and awareness in tackling this universal concern.

  • Air pollution’s long-term health impacts make it a silent global crisis.
  • Ocean plastic pollution threatens not only marine life but human survival.
  • Urbanization without proper waste management systems exacerbates land pollution.
  • Implementing stricter emission standards can significantly reduce vehicular pollution.
  • Industrial water pollution is the leading cause of freshwater habitat loss.
  • Noise pollution in urban areas has unrecognized psychological implications.
  • Electronic waste is the new environmental crisis of the digital age.
  • Encouraging sustainable agriculture can mitigate soil pollution.
  • Light pollution affects human circadian rhythms and needs to be addressed.
  • The cosmetic industry must be held accountable for microplastic pollution.

Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement Examples for Introduction

Setting the right tone at the start of your speech is crucial. An impactful thesis statement in your introduction can capture attention and shape the direction of your persuasive message.

  • Today’s consumerist society threatens the planet’s finite resources.
  • Advancements in technology are eroding genuine human connections.
  • Our dietary choices have profound implications for our health and environment.
  • Childhood education shapes a nation’s future more than any policy.
  • The rise of digital currencies can revolutionize the global financial system.
  • The media landscape shapes public perception more than factual events.
  • Combating climate change is not a choice but a necessity.
  • The fashion industry’s practices are at odds with ethical consumerism.
  • Urban planning and green spaces directly impact societal well-being.
  • The future of transportation lies in sustainable energy sources.

Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement Examples for Conclusion

A powerful ending requires a conclusive thesis statement, reinforcing your argument and ensuring your message resonates after the speech ends.

  • Confronting gender biases isn’t a niche issue but central to societal progress.
  • Without collective action, endangered species face an irreversible fate.
  • Privacy in the digital age is not a luxury, but a fundamental right.
  • Without conscious effort, traditional cultures risk fading into oblivion.
  • Sustainable living isn’t a trend but the only way forward.
  • Local businesses are the backbone of a thriving community.
  • Without reforms, the healthcare system will collapse under its weight.
  • The arts, often underfunded, are essential for holistic human development.
  • Youth engagement in politics can reshape outdated policies.
  • Technology, without ethical boundaries, poses a threat to human autonomy.

How do you start a thesis statement for a persuasive speech?

Starting a thesis statement for a persuasive speech is pivotal in setting the tone and direction for the rest of the speech. Here’s how to begin crafting one:

  • Identify Your Topic : Understand the topic you’ll be addressing. This might seem obvious, but having a clear topic in mind ensures your thesis remains focused.
  • Understand Your Audience : Tailor your thesis statement to appeal to the audience’s values, beliefs, and interests.
  • State Your Position Clearly : A persuasive speech thesis statement must make a claim or express an opinion that you will support and develop throughout the speech.
  • Make It Arguable : Ensure your thesis presents a viewpoint someone might challenge. It should not be a plain statement of fact.
  • Keep It Concise : An effective thesis is concise and direct, avoiding vague words or overly complex sentence structures.
  • Start with a Strong Word : Words like “must,” “should,” “ought to,” can make your thesis more forceful.

Example : Instead of saying “Exercise is good for health,” you might say, “Regular exercise is essential for maintaining a healthy body and mind.

How do you write a thesis statement for a persuasive essay? – Step by Step Guide

Writing a compelling thesis statement for a persuasive essay is crucial, as it sets the tone and direction for the rest of your essay. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you craft an effective thesis statement:

1. Understand the Essay Prompt: Before crafting your thesis, ensure you thoroughly understand the essay prompt or question. This provides clarity on what you’re being asked to argue or address.

2. Choose a Specific Topic: Narrow down a broad subject to a specific topic that is suitable for the essay’s length. The more specific you are, the more concise and to the point your argument will be.

3. Take a Clear Stance: A persuasive essay requires a clear stance on the topic. Decide what your position is after analyzing all angles of the topic.

4. Conduct Preliminary Research: Before finalizing your thesis, do some preliminary research to ensure ample evidence and examples are available to support your stance. This will also help you gauge the strength of your argument.

5. Draft a Preliminary Thesis Statement: Begin by drafting a broad statement, which you’ll refine in subsequent steps.

6. Be Specific: General statements lack punch. Instead of saying, “Air pollution is bad,” you could say, “Air pollution from vehicular emissions has detrimental health effects and contributes significantly to global warming.”

7. Ensure Your Thesis is Arguable: A good persuasive essay thesis should be debatable. It’s essential that your thesis presents an opinion or claim that others could dispute.

8. Revise and Refine: After drafting, take a step back and review your thesis. Can it be more specific? Stronger? More concise? Does it truly encapsulate the main point of your essay? Adjust as necessary.

9. Seek Feedback: It’s beneficial to get feedback from peers or instructors about your thesis statement. They might offer a perspective or critique that you hadn’t considered.

10. Position Your Thesis: Traditionally, a thesis statement is placed near the end of the introduction. This helps your reader understand the argument you’ll be making in your essay.

Example: If writing about the influence of media on young minds, a potential thesis might be: “The omnipresence of media, especially social media, has a profound impact on adolescents, influencing their mental health, body image, and perceptions of reality, necessitating strict regulatory measures.

Tips for Writing a Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement

  • Be Clear and Direct : Avoid ambiguity. Your audience should immediately understand your stance.
  • Stay Focused : Your thesis should address one main idea or argument. Avoid trying to tackle too many issues at once.
  • Back It Up : While the thesis itself is a statement, always ensure you have evidence to support your claim in the body of your speech.
  • Avoid Neutral Language : Use strong, definitive language to convey your position.
  • Test Your Thesis : Before finalizing, ask yourself if someone could oppose your thesis. If the answer is no, it might not be argumentative enough.
  • Position It Properly : Typically, the thesis statement should be among the first things your audience hears, so they understand the context and direction of your speech.
  • Stay Authentic : While it’s essential to be persuasive, ensure your thesis aligns with your beliefs and knowledge. Authenticity can make your argument more convincing.

In summary, crafting a strong thesis statement for a persuasive speech or essay provides a clear direction for your argument, engages your audience, and makes your message memorable. Ensure it’s concise, specific, and backed by evidence.

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  11. Water Pollution Essay for Students in English

    Water contamination occurs when pollutants pollute water sources and make the water unfit for use in drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, garbage, bacteria, and parasites are examples of pollutants. Water is eventually damaged by all types of pollution. Lakes and oceans become contaminated by air pollution.

  12. (PDF) Essay Environmental Pollution

    Download Free PDF. View PDF. Essay Environmental Pollution Crafting an essay on the subject of environmental pollution can be both intellectually stimulating and challenging. It requires a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted issues related to pollution, ranging from air and water pollution to the degradation of ecosystems and ...

  13. (PDF) Water Pollution: Causes and Prevention

    Water. pollution is the contamination of natural water bodies (like. lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater) by chemical, physical, radioactive or pathogenic m icrobial substances. that change in ...

  14. Water Pollution Essay

    Water pollution essay - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Water pollution is defined as the release of pollutants into bodies of water that interfere with their beneficial uses or natural functioning. It can be caused by factory discharges, oil spills, debris, and plastic waste and causes health issues for humans and wildlife as well as harm to ecosystems.

  15. Essay On Water Pollution

    Essay On Water Pollution - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Water pollution is one of the main types of environmental pollution and affects public health, since consumption of contaminated water can cause diseases such as diarrhea and cholera. Although natural factors such as volcanoes also contaminate water, the main causes ...

  16. PDF What Is Water Pollution?

    Water Pollution occurs when the water becomes over-loaded with too much of one thing and the aquatic or-ganisms cannot keep up with their cleaning responsibili-ties. Some organisms may die and others may grow too fast. There are many types and sources of water pollution. Mine. Factory Wastewater Plant Logging.

  17. Essay on Water Pollution for Students and Children

    The effects of Water Pollution are: Diseases: In humans, drinking or consuming polluted water in any way has many disastrous effects on our health. It causes typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and various other diseases. Eradication of Ecosystem: Ecosystem is extremely dynamic and responds to even small changes in the environment.

  18. PDF Pollution in the Ocean

    POLLUTION is the RELEASE OF. into the environment. Many human activities—industrial production, ing of fossil fuels, agriculture, and product use, among others—generate lutants that can find their way into the ocean. At one time, people that the vastness of the ocean could dilute pollutants enough to eliminate impacts.

  19. PDF Pollution of A and Water P

    By volume, about 78% of this mixture is nitrogen and about 21% is oxygen. Carbon dioxide, argon, methane, ozone and water vapour are also present in very small quantities. Activity 18.1. You may have covered your nose while passing a brick kiln emitting smoke or started coughing while walking on a busy road (Fig. 18.1).

  20. (Pdf) Researches in Water Pollution: a Review

    This makes the river water unsa fe for drinking and bathing. About 1500 substances have. been listed as pollutants in freshwater ecosystems and a generalised list of pollutants includes. acids and ...

  21. Water Pollution Essay for Students and Children

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  22. Water

    Microplastic fibre (MPF) pollution is a pressing concern that demands urgent attention. These tiny synthetic textile fibres can be found in various ecosystems, including water and air, and pose significant environmental risks. Despite their size (less than 5 mm), they can harm aquatic and terrestrial organisms and human health. Studies have demonstrated that these imperceptible pollutants can ...

  23. (PDF) Environmental Pollution: Types, Causes and Consequences

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  24. Essay

    essay - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Water pollution poses serious threats to both ecosystems and human health. The main causes of water pollution are industrial discharges, agricultural runoff from excessive fertilizer and pesticide use, urbanization which prevents water absorption, and improper waste disposal.

  25. Persuasive Speech Thesis Statement

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