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Chandrayaan 3 Essay in English for School Students

Essay on chandrayaan 3 for school students: check here 100, 200 words essay on india's latest moon mission chandrayaan 3. students can also use this as a short speech for school assemblies or speech competitions. they, can also check the latest chandrayaan 3 updates to easily edit elements and elongate their essay as per their requirement..

Pragya Sagar

Chandrayaan 3 Essay and Short Speech in English for School Students: Chandrayaan 3 was a gigantic success for India and now its Pragyaan rover has gone to sleep. To commemorate Chandrayaan 3 triumph and the soft landing of Vikram lander on the moon, National Space Day will be celebrated on August 23 every year as announced by PM Modi. Every Indian is proud of the soft landing of Chandrayaan 3 on the moon! In the latest update by ISRO, the propulsion module of Chandrayaan 3 has been brought back into the Earth's orbit.

As per ISRO's other update, t he Rover had completed its assignments and was parked and set into Sleep mode. The Chandrayaan 3 Rover Pragyaan had ramped down from the Lander a while after its landing on August 23rd. Pragyan rover was continuously walking on the moon and sending various details to the ISRO centre.

Related:  Chandrayaan 3: Will Pragyan Rover Wake Up Again? ALL You Need To Know 

In the vast space of our universe, where mythology and science come together so often, Chandrayaan-3 shines brightly as a symbol of India’s astral hope and exploration. It shows India's strong determination to uncover the moon's mysteries. With careful planning and robust designs, Chandrayaan-3 has gotten us closer to landing on the moon and discovering its hidden secrets. In this article, we have provided an essay on Chandrayaan in about 100 and 200 words. Students can easily refer to this essay and come up with their own modifications and tweaks in the essay body. 

Chandrayaan 3 Essay in English

Chandrayaan-3: india's latest lunar mission, chandrayaan 3 details, latest updates and information about chandrayaan 3.

  • January 22, 2024

NASA Spacecraft Pings India’s Chandrayaan-3 on the Moon:

  • September 22, 2023
Chandrayaan-3 Mission: Efforts have been made to establish communication with the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover to ascertain their wake-up condition. As of now, no signals have been received from them. Efforts to establish contact will continue. — ISRO (@isro) September 22, 2023
  • September 5, 2023
. @NASA 's LRO spacecraft recently imaged the Chandrayaan-3 lander on the Moon’s surface. The ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) Chandrayaan-3 touched down on Aug. 23, 2023, about 600 kilometers from the Moon’s South Pole. MORE >> https://t.co/phmOblRlGO pic.twitter.com/CyhFrnvTjT — NASA Marshall (@NASA_Marshall) September 5, 2023
  • September 2, 2023
Chandrayaan-3 Mission: The Rover completed its assignments. It is now safely parked and set into Sleep mode. APXS and LIBS payloads are turned off. Data from these payloads is transmitted to the Earth via the Lander. Currently, the battery is fully charged. The solar panel is… — ISRO (@isro) September 2, 2023
Chandrayaan-3 Mission: In-situ scientific experiments continue ..... Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) instrument onboard the Rover unambiguously confirms the presence of Sulphur (S) in the lunar surface near the south pole, through first-ever in-situ measurements.… pic.twitter.com/vDQmByWcSL — ISRO (@isro) August 29, 2023
  • August 26, 2023: National Space Day on August 23rd, Announced by PM Modi to mark the success of Chandrayaan 3 on the moon.
  • Chandrayaan 3 touchdown point on the moon will now be known as Shivshakti.
  • Chandrayaan 2 touchdown point on the moon's surface will now be known as Tiranga Point.
Chandrayaan-3 Mission: Here are the first observations from the ChaSTE payload onboard Vikram Lander. ChaSTE (Chandra's Surface Thermophysical Experiment) measures the temperature profile of the lunar topsoil around the pole, to understand the thermal behaviour of the moon's… pic.twitter.com/VZ1cjWHTnd — ISRO (@isro) August 27, 2023
Chandrayaan-3 Mission: All planned Rover movements have been verified. The Rover has successfully traversed a distance of about 8 meters. Rover payloads LIBS and APXS are turned ON. All payloads on the propulsion module, lander module, and rover are performing nominally.… — ISRO (@isro) August 25, 2023
Chandrayaan-3 Mission: Chandrayaan-3 ROVER: Made in India 🇮🇳 Made for the MOON🌖! The Ch-3 Rover ramped down from the Lander and India took a walk on the moon ! More updates soon. #Chandrayaan_3 #Ch3 — ISRO (@isro) August 24, 2023
  • August 23, 2023: India's lunar mission Chandrayaan 3 has successfully landed on the south pole of the moon.
  • August 20, 2023: The Lander Module is in 25 km x 134 km orbit. Powered descent is expected to commence on August 23, 2023, around 1745 Hrs. IST
  • August 19, 2023: The Lander Module is in 113 km x 157 km orbit around the moon. Second de-boosting is planned for August 20, 2023
  • August 17, 2023: Lander Module is successfully separated from the Propulsion Module. Deboosting planned for August 18, 2023
  • August 16, 2023: The spacecraft is in an orbit of 153 km x 163 km after the firing on August 16, 2023
  • August 14, 2023: The mission is in the orbit circularisation phase. The spacecraft is in 151 km x 179 km orbit
  • August 09, 2023: Chandrayaan-3's orbit is reduced to 174 km x 1437 km following a manoeuvre performed on August 9, 2023
  • July 06, 2023: The launch is scheduled for July 14, 2023, at 14:35 Hrs. IST from the Second Launch Pad, SDSC-SHAR, Sriharikota

Chandrayaan History - Chandrayaan 1, 2 and 3

Is chandrayaan-3 successfully landed on moon.

Yes, Chandrayaan 3 has successfully made a successful landing on the Southern pole of the Moon.

Chandrayaan-3 Mission: 'India🇮🇳, I reached my destination and you too!' : Chandrayaan-3 Chandrayaan-3 has successfully soft-landed on the moon 🌖!. Congratulations, India🇮🇳! #Chandrayaan_3 #Ch3 — ISRO (@isro) August 23, 2023

Chandrayaan 3 Photos and Videos

Chandrayaan-3 Mission: 🔍What's new here? Pragyan rover roams around Shiv Shakti Point in pursuit of lunar secrets at the South Pole 🌗! pic.twitter.com/1g5gQsgrjM — ISRO (@isro) August 26, 2023

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Chandrayaan-3: A complete guide to India's third mission to the moon

A rover and lander will together explore the moon's surface.

chandrayaan-3 launching into blue sky with the indian flag to the right of the image.

Chandrayaan-3 mission goals

Chandrayaan-3 science payloads, past chandrayaan missions, lessons learned from failed chandrayaan-2, additional resources.

Chandrayaan-3 is India's next moon mission.

The spacecraft launched to the moon on July 14, 2023, at 5:05 a.m. EDT (0905 GMT or 2:35 p.m. local time July 14) from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India atop the medium-lift Launch Vehicle Mark-III (LVM3) rocket.

Chandrayaan-3 successfully landed near the moon's south pole on Aug. 23, 2023, at 8:33 a.m. ET (1233 GMT or 6:03 p.m. India Standard Time). 

The mission is managed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). ISRO's roots go back to the beginning of space exploration, as a predecessor agency was set up in 1962 and its first rocket launch was in 1963. ISRO itself was established in 1969.

In June 2023, shortly before the scheduled Chandrayaan-3 launch, India also signed on to the NASA-led Artemis Accords aiming for peaceful human and robotic exploration of the moon. While the immediate benefits of the accords accrue to human spaceflight, according to the White House , the data from Chandrayaan-3 may be useful for future Artemis human landings too.

Related: Every mission to the moon

Chandrayaan-3 costs roughly $77 million USD, according to the Times of India .

The three main objectives of Chandrayaan-3 are to land safely on the surface, to demonstrate rover operations and to perform scientific experiments on site, according to the official website . 

The mission called for a propulsion module to ferry the Chandrayaan-3' Vikram ("valor") lander and the solar-powered rover named Pragyan (Sanskrit for "wisdom") rover together to the south pole of the moon, according to NASA . 

The module then entered lunar orbit and maneuvered into a roughly circular path about 60 miles (100 km) above the surface. Then the lander separated from the module and aimed for a soft landing on the surface, achieving this on Aug. 23, 2023.

The lander and rover will collect science on the surface for 14 Earth days (a single day on the moon), while the propulsion module will gaze at our planet for its own science experiment.

The spacecraft package (rover, lander and propulsion module) includes "advanced technologies" to meet the mission objectives, ISRO says. Examples include hazard detection and avoidance on the rover, a landing leg mechanism to aim for a soft touchdown, and altimeters and velocity instruments to estimate altitude and speed above the moon.

ISRO has performed several technology tests to simulate lunar conditions, the agency emphasized, focusing on matters such as soaking instruments in cold temperatures similar to the moon or doing a lander leg test on a simulated surface under different landing conditions.

Related: ISRO: The Indian Space Research Organization

a spacecraft in a big testing chamber with white walls

Science on the Chandrayaan-3 mission is split between the lander, the rover and the propulsion module payload.

"The lander is ... generally box-shaped, with four landing legs and four landing thrusters," NASA writes of the design . Its approximate 3,900-pound (1,752-kilogram) mass will include 57 pounds (26 kgs) for the rover. 

The lander includes:

  • Chandra's Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) to measure thermal conductivity and temperature on the surface;
  • Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) to detect moonquakes;
  • Langmuir Probe to estimate the density and variation of plasma, or superheated gas, in the moon's environment; 
  • A Laser Retroreflector Array (from NASA) to measure distances using laser ranging..

The rover "is a rectangular chassis mounted on a six-wheel rocker-bogie wheel drive assembly," NASA added. The rover sends its communications to Earth through the lander. Rover instruments include:

  • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) to look for elements in the lunar soil and rocks;
  • Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) to examine the chemical and elemental composition of the lunar surface.

The propulsion module "is a box-like structure with one large solar panel mounted on one side and a large cylinder on top ... that acts as a mounting structure for the lander," NASA says. The propulsion module is more than 2.2 tons (2 tonnes in mass.)

The module's single experiment is the Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) investigation that will assist with exoplanet searches. The experiment will "gather data on the polarization of light reflected by Earth so that researchers can look for other planets with similar signatures," according to Nature .

illustration of a spacecraft above the surface of the moon beaming lasers

Chandrayaan-1 was India's first mission to the moon. It launched Oct. 22, 2008 from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India, aboard a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle rocket. It achieved lunar orbit on Nov. 8. It released a Moon Impact Probe on Nov. 14 that deliberately crashed into the moon later that day. 

Chandrayaan-1 is best known for finding evidence of water ice on the moon. NASA made the announcement on September 2009, based on data collected by the agency's Moon Mineralogy Mapper. The instrument found evidence of hydroxyl (a form of water, hydrogen and oxygen) in the moon's regolith or dust. 

The Moon Impact Probe also found water's signature before impacting the surface, providing a separate set of data. More confirmations came from the Cassini  spacecraft and the Deep Impact  spacecraft's extended EPOXI mission.

Chandrayaan-2 was India's second mission to the moon. It launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India, aboard a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket on July 22, 2019. It made it to lunar orbit on Aug. 19, 2019.

On Sept. 6, Chandrayaan-2 released the Vikram moon lander , but mission officials lost contact with it as it was just 1.3 miles (2.1 km) above the surface. Although the lander was lost, the orbiter continues to work well. It carries eight different instruments and continues to send back high-definition imagery of the lunar surface.

a close up image of the moon from orbit with a circle around a landing site

Chandrayaan-3 will build upon the "lessons learned" from the unsuccessful landing that took place during Chandrayaan-2, ISRO told the Business Standard .

"With optimized payload configurations, improved lander capabilities, and utilizing existing (spacecraft) resources, the mission is expected to address past challenges," the Business Standard wrote of ISRO's approach to Chandrayaan-3.

For example, Chandrayaan-3 will simplify its mission design to not include an orbiter. The predecessor mission, Chandrayaan-2, will therefore handle all communications to Earth from the propulsion module, the rover and the lander.

The propulsion module ferrying Chandraayan-3 to the moon will also only include a single science instrument, as opposed to Chandrayaan-2's orbiter which carried nine. This will simplify the amount of work the propulsion module performs, allowing engineers to focus on its crucial role in bringing the rover and lander to the moon.

The lander of Chandraayan-3 also includes key upgrades. ISRO stated it will have two "lander hazard detection and avoidance cameras" meant to help the lander avoid obstacles on the surface during the descent. Chandrayaan-2 only carried one such camera, and Chandrayaan-3's cameras aim to be more robust than the predecessor mission.

Read more about Chandraayan-3 on the official ISRO website . NASA has technical details about the mission as well.

Bibliography

The Business Standard. (2023, July 7). "Chandrayaan-3: What is it, and how does it improve on its predecessor?" https://www.business-standard.com/india-news/chandrayaan-3-what-is-it-and-how-does-it-improve-on-its-predecessor-123070700477_1.html

Padma, T.V. (2023, July 7). "India shoots for the moon with Chandrayaan-3 lunar lander." Nature . https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-023-02217-0

The White House. (2023, June 22.) "Republic of India official state visit to the United States." https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2023/06/22/fact-sheet-republic-of-india-official-state-visit-to-the-united-states/

Times of India. (2023, July 6). "Chandrayaan-3 launch on July 14; August 23-24 preferred landing dates." http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/101547465.cms

Times of India. (2020, Jan. 2.) "Chandrayaan-3 to cost Rs 615 crore, launch could stretch to 2021." https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/chandrayaan-3-to-cost-rs-615-crore-launch-could-stretch-to-2021/articleshow/73055941.cms

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Elizabeth Howell

Elizabeth Howell (she/her), Ph.D., is a staff writer in the spaceflight channel since 2022 covering diversity, education and gaming as well. She was contributing writer for Space.com for 10 years before joining full-time. Elizabeth's reporting includes multiple exclusives with the White House and Office of the Vice-President of the United States, an exclusive conversation with aspiring space tourist (and NSYNC bassist) Lance Bass, speaking several times with the International Space Station, witnessing five human spaceflight launches on two continents, flying parabolic, working inside a spacesuit, and participating in a simulated Mars mission. Her latest book, " Why Am I Taller ?", is co-written with astronaut Dave Williams. Elizabeth holds a Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Space Studies from the University of North Dakota, a Bachelor of Journalism from Canada's Carleton University and a Bachelor of History from Canada's Athabasca University. Elizabeth is also a post-secondary instructor in communications and science at several institutions since 2015; her experience includes developing and teaching an astronomy course at Canada's Algonquin College (with Indigenous content as well) to more than 1,000 students since 2020. Elizabeth first got interested in space after watching the movie Apollo 13 in 1996, and still wants to be an astronaut someday. Mastodon: https://qoto.org/@howellspace

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an essay on chandrayaan 3

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Chandrayaan-3’s moon landing: a remarkable achievement that showcases india’s spirit, capabilities and resilience.

In a historic moment that drew cheers from the millions of watchers of its live telecast around the country, India on 23 August became the first nation to successfully land a spacecraft near the south pole of the Moon. Tom Acres, technology reporter of Sky News , described the event as a landmark achievement for not just India’s space programme, but also humanity’s efforts to explore the cosmos. Even though the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States (US) did successfully put humans on the Moon during the Apollo Programme more than 50 years ago, the touchdown of India’s robotic spacecraft nevertheless marks a massive achievement and pays tribute to the economic, scientific and technological progress that India has made in the just 75 years since it was left a broken, drained, impoverished and struggling nation by its colonial British rulers. The landing also demonstrated India’s continued perseverance and tenacity in achieving difficult missions. Such was the scale of the feat in the eyes of most South Asians that even the Pakistani daily Dawn commented on how Chandrayaan-3 had captivated public attention since its launch nearly six weeks ago, and noted that “India is steadily matching the achievements of established spacefaring nations” .

Chandrayaan-3 (Moon craft-3) launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota Range in southern India on 14 July on a mission to demonstrate new technologies and achieve India’s first soft landing on another celestial body. The spacecraft arrived in lunar orbit on 5 August, and on 17 August the lander module separated from the propulsion module and soon began its descent to the surface of the Moon. On 23 August, after a nail-biting wait, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) confirmed that Chandrayaan-3’s lander had successfully touched down on the Moon’s southern polar region, as planned. Chandrayaan-3 took much longer to reach the Moon than the Apollo missions of the 1960s and 70s as India used rockets that were much less powerful than the US did back then. Instead, Chandrayaan-3 orbited the Earth several times to gain speed before embarking on its month-long lunar trajectory. Mission control erupted in celebration as it was announced that the lander module had landed “safely and softly” .

More celebrations followed when Pragyan — Wisdom in Sanskrit — rolled out of the lander on 24 August. During its mission on the surface of the Moon, which will last for one lunar day (14 days on Earth), the rover will carry out a number of scientific experiments. It will gather rock samples, images, and data, and will run a series of experiments to determine the mineral composition of the lunar surface. The six-wheeled lander and rover module of Chandrayaan-3 is configured with payloads that will provide data to the scientific community on the properties of lunar soil and rocks, including chemical and elemental compositions.

Only three nations – the US, China, and the erstwhile Soviet Union (USSR) – have ever touched down on the Moon, but no country had thus far successfully made it to the south pole. As Tom Acres pointed out, the south pole is a long way from the region of the Moon targeted by most previous missions, including the crewed Apollo landings. The south pole has very rough terrain, with deep trenches and plenty of craters, making landing on it a challenging task. T.V. Padma, writing in the Nature journal, explained the testing conditions Chandrayaan-3 overcame by recalling that India’s 2019 Chandrayaan-2 mission had succeeded in launching an orbiter with eight functioning instruments, but the lander carrying the Moon rover crashed into the lunar surface in the final moments of landing. She wrote, “ISRO learnt from that failure and made several design changes to the lander-rover portion of the mission. These include a new laser sensor to measure the real-time velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Moon, algorithms to handle unanticipated deviations in propulsion or trajectory and better judge the landing terrain, bigger and more solar panels, more fuel, a heavier lander equipped with four sturdier legs to handle a faster landing velocity. The craft also targeted a larger landing area that was 4 kilometres by 2.4 kilometres, compared with a 0.5 km by 0.5 km region for the previous mission” .

Marc Norman, planetary geochemist at the Australian National University in Canberra, underlined that landing at the Moon’s south pole is difficult because it involves positioning the spacecraft at a different angle from previous landings. In particular, it requires putting the spacecraft into a polar orbit that is at right angles to the Moon’s orbit. Norman said, “This requires additional energy to move the spacecraft into an ‘unnatural’ orbit, which introduces uncertainties on critical aspects such as velocity and location of the spacecraft” . He added that lack of detailed data on the region’s gravity and surface characteristics compounded the problem. He elaborated by saying that “For example, if the spacecraft lands in a crater, on a slope, or the leg of the lander catches on a boulder, the mission could be compromised” .

Geologist Saumitra Mukherjee of the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, whose team analysed images sent by India’s first lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 in 2008, pointed out that Moon quakes in the landing area added to the complexity. Torin Clark, an aerospace engineer at University of Colorado Boulder, believes that poor lighting from the Sun was another challenge. He said, “Some areas are completely in the dark, others are in the light, but with extreme sun angles, essentially blocking out any terrain features. This is in contrast to the Apollo landings, where the landing sites and timing were specifically chosen to ensure quality lighting of the lunar terrain” .

The importance of landing at the Moon’s south pole lies in the fact that it is believed that the pole’s shadowed craters contain water ice that could support a future base on the Moon, allowing astronauts and scientists to work there for extended periods. Space agencies, including NASA, have detected frozen water in the south pole craters before, but no country had ever actually ventured into the region. If water ice is really there, it could be used for fuel, oxygen, and drinking water, and provide insight into past lunar volcanoes and the origins of our own oceans. Dr. Ian Whittaker, a space physics expert at Nottingham Trent University, said: “The successful landing means the rover and station should provide us with a more accurate determination of lunar crust composition. Particularly around the lunar south pole which is a suggested location for a lunar base due to the ability to have constant sunlight for power. The instruments onboard the rover will be useful for if we want to build structures out of local material” . ISRO said that “the lunar south pole is of special interest because parts of it remain permanently in shadow, raising the possibility of sampling Moon ice for the first time. Moreover, the large craters near the lunar south pole might contain clues to the composition of the early Solar System” .

The successful landing of Chandrayaan-3 sparked huge celebrations across India. Reactions to achievement were buoyant. Sreedhara Panicker Somanath, chairman of ISRO, announced it by exclaiming, “We have achieved soft landing on the Moon. India is on the Moon” . Somnath later told a press briefing that India would next attempt a manned lunar mission, and that the landing “gives confidence to configure missions to go to the Moon, Mars, Venus, maybe even asteroids” . Chandrayaan-3’s success comes about a week before ISRO’s next major mission — its first to study the Sun — which is scheduled to launch in the first week of September.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, speaking by video link from South Africa where he is attending a BRICS summit, said that India was entering a historically auspicious moment. Modi said, “My dear family, when we see history being made in front of us, it makes our life blessed. This moment is the announcement of an advanced India. These moments are of invention and phenomenal growth. … We had taken a pledge on Earth and realized it on the Moon. This success belongs to all of humanity and it will help more missions by other countries in the future” .

India’s opposition parties joined the celebrations and extended congratulations. The President of India’s Congress Party and leader of the opposition Mallikarjun Kharge said that the success of Chandrayaan-3 was the “collective success of every Indian” . Kharge added, “We are deeply indebted to the remarkable hard work, unparalleled ingenuity and unflinching dedication of our scientists, space engineers, researchers and everyone involved in making this mission a triumph for India. Today, through the Chandrayaan-3, we have displayed our scientific prowess to the world” .

Congress leader Rahul Gandhi sought to bring in a historical perspective when he wrote on social media that “Chandrayaan-3’s soft landing on the uncharted lunar South Pole is the result of decades of tremendous ingenuity and hard work by our scientific community. Since 1962, India’s space programme has continued to scale new heights and inspire generations of young dreamers” .

As Canada-based writer and journalist Anusuya Datta noted in spacenews.com , “ISRO’s history is characterized by resilience, innovation, and collaboration. Established in 1969, ISRO has maintained a robust remote sensing program since 1988, offering valuable Earth Observation data in various spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions through a range of instruments. Many do not know that its PAN cameras (aboard IRS-1C) were the highest-resolution civilian cameras in the world until the launch of U.S.-based DigitalGlobe’s Ikonos satellite in 1999. ISRO’s technological prowess garnered global attention in 2013 with the success of the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also known as Mangalyaan. ISRO has launched 124 of its own spacecraft, including three to the Moon and one to Mars; and has facilitated the launch of 424 satellites from other countries. Its old workhorse PSLV is a prime choice for rideshare services, notable for deploying 104 satellites in a single launch in 2017, a world record until SpaceX’s Transporter-1 mission surpassed it in 2021. In 2018, ISRO completed its own navigation system, NavIC, positioning itself among the elite club of nations (U.S., Russia, China, the European Union, and partly Japan) with this capability. The Chandrayaan missions only signify the continuation of this legacy” .

International reactions were equally upbeat and encouraging. NASA Administrator Bill Nelson congratulated ISRO on the landing and said, “And congratulations to India on being the 4th country to successfully soft-land a spacecraft on the Moon. We’re glad to be your partner on this mission!” The US Department of State’s Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs said that Chandrayaan-3 success would “power” the future. It said on social media, “Your success will power the imagination and light the future of people around the world” . India has aligned itself with the US by signing an agreement on space exploration known as the Artemis Accords, a legal framework that governs activity in space. So far, nearly 30 countries have signed, allowing them to partner with the US on space missions and mandating that they adhere to a set of rules, such as publicly sharing scientific discoveries and creating “safety zones” where nations could work undisturbed on the lunar surface.

The director general of the European Space Agency (ESA), Josef Aschbacher, called the landing of Chandrayaan-3 an “incredible” event. “What a way to demonstrate new technologies and achieve India’s first soft landing on another celestial body” , he said, adding “Well done. I am thoroughly impressed” . Rolf Densing, Director of Operations at ESA’s operations centre in Darmstadt, Germany said, “Congratulations ISRO on this historic landing. ESA is proud to support the Chandrayaan-3 mission. Our ground stations are a core element of ESA’s support to its international partners, and I am pleased that with this activity, we are further strengthening ESA’s relationship with ISRO and with India. I look forward to supporting further pioneering ISRO missions, such as Aditya-L1, in the future” . ESA is providing deep space communication support to the Chandrayaan-3 mission.

Russia’s space agency Roskosmos joined in to hail India for the Moon landing. It said in a post on its Telegram channel: “Roskosmos congratulates Indian colleagues on the successful landing of the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft. Exploration of the Moon is important for all mankind. In the future it may become a platform for deep space exploration” .

South Africa’s President Cyril Ramaphosa was among several international leaders who congratulated India on the historic Moon landing. “This for us, as the BRICS family, is a momentous occasion and we rejoice with you. We join you in the joy of this great achievement” , he said. Russian President Vladimir Putin sent his “heartfelt congratulations” to India for an “impressive” achievement. He said that “This is a big step forward in space exploration and, of course, a testament to the impressive progress made by India in the field of science and technology” . Dubai’s ruler Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum said, “India continues to make history” .

The implications of India’s impressive achievement with Chandrayaan-3 are wide. Dr. Ian Whittaker described it thus: “It is amazing to see that India have managed a soft lunar landing on only their second attempt. It indicates great things for future missions in the Chandrayaan series, and means they become a bigger player on cooperative missions in the future. Indian schoolchildren will have all watched the landing in schools. It is really seeing science in action and will inspire a new generation of space scientists and researchers” .

Former NASA official Mike Gold, who is currently the Chief Growth Officer of Redwire Space, believes that Chandrayaan-3’s success is a victory of Indian innovation, human capital and the capabilities that will take India further. He noted that what made the success of Chandrayaan-3 amazing was the “relatively little amount of resources that India has used” . Gold went on to say that “This mission will gather invaluable data to help drive our understanding of the Moon, our ability to utilise resources and ultimately where we’re going to establish settlements on the Moon” .  

Anusuya Datta feels that Chandrayaan-3’s success holds potential significance for India’s aspirations of establishing a sustained human presence on the Moon. Under the Artemis Accords, ISRO can lay claim to the landing area for mining rights. Further, a successful Chandrayaan-3 mission will catalyze innovative scientific research, facilitating groundbreaking experiments that contribute to lunar understanding, including its composition, geology, and resource potential. She opined that at the heart of India’s space journey lay a pivotal lesson in self-reliance. ISRO serves as a living testament to the remarkable potential of Indian scientists in conquering challenges. Despite bureaucratic entanglements, political intricacies, and limited resources, ISRO has shattered stereotypes, emerging as a worthy rival to the elite space club.

Kavya Karampuri, a mission systems engineer at Bengaluru-based KaleidEO that specializes in Earth-observation-based space data analytics, is of the view that India’s success will instill confidence in the technological competence of India’s space industry. It would attract global investments in the Indian private space sector, foster international collaboration, and innovation across universities, laboratories, start-ups, and research communities in India.

India’s achievement on the Moon comes at a time when its stock on earth is also rising rapidly. Nuclear-armed India became the world’s fifth-largest economy last year, and as The Guardian noted, Modi’s nationalist government is eager to showcase the country’s rising standing as a technology and space powerhouse. It added, “A successful Moon mission dovetails with Modi’s image of an ascendant India asserting its place among the global elite and would help bolster his popularity ahead of a crucial general election next year” .

The real significance of India’s lunar achievement lies in the fact that when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July 1969, poverty-stricken India was struggling with the consequences of a cruel and exploitative colonial past and ISRO had not even been established; yet, just 50-odd years later, the indomitable spirit, the resilience, and the quest for scientific knowledge and technological prowess of the Indian people has got them where very few have dared venture – as far away as the Moon.  

an essay on chandrayaan 3

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India Launches Lunar Mission With a Shot at Winning This Year’s Moon Race

Chandrayaan-3, a partial redo of a 2019 mission that ended in a crash, is the first of as many as six missions that could land on the moon in the coming months.

India Launches Moon Mission

A rocket lifted off from sriharikota, india, on july 14, carrying the chandrayaan-3 robotic lander and rover toward the moon..

“Three, two, one, zero. Plus 5 seconds.“ “Lift off normal.” “Here we have a majestic lift off of LVM3-M4 rocket carrying India’s prestigious Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft. Every Indian witnessing the launch live is content with the feeling of watching history in the making.” [applause]

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By Kenneth Chang and Hari Kumar

India is on its way back to the moon after a rocket lifted off from Sriharikota, a launch site off the country’s East Coast, on Friday afternoon local time.

The mission, Chandrayaan-3, is largely a do-over after the country’s first attempt at putting a robotic spacecraft on the surface of the moon nearly four years ago ended in a crash and a crater .

Chandrayaan-3 is taking place amid renewed interest in exploring the moon. The United States and China are both aiming to send astronauts there in the coming years, and a half dozen robotic missions from Russia, Japan and the United States could head there this year and next.

A spacecraft leaves a flume of smoke and fire as it enters a mass of clouds.

If the robotic lander and rover aboard Chandrayaan-3 succeed in landing intact, that will be an accomplishment that no country other than China has pulled off this century, adding to the national pride India takes in its homegrown space program. A cadre of commercial space start-ups is also popping up in India.

Last month, India reached an agreement with the United States to send a joint mission to the International Space Station next year. The Indian Space Research Organization — India’s equivalent of NASA — is also developing its own spacecraft to take astronauts to orbit.

On Friday, at 2:35 p.m. local time (5:05 a.m. Eastern time), a rocket called Launch Vehicle Mark III lifted off from the Indian space base on an island north of the metropolis of Chennai.

As crowds waving Indian flags and colorful umbrellas cheered, the rocket rose into the sky. Sixteen minutes later, the spacecraft separated from the rocket’s upper stage, and a round of cheering and clapping erupted in the mission control center.

“It is indeed a moment of glory for India,” Jitendra Singh, the minister of state for India’s Ministry of Science of Technology, said in remarks after the launch, “and a moment of destiny for all of us over here at Sriharikota who are part of the history in the making.”

Over the coming weeks, the spacecraft will perform a series of engine firings to elongate its orbit before heading toward the moon. A landing attempt is scheduled to occur on Aug. 23 or 24, timed to coincide with sunrise at the landing site in the moon’s south polar region.

Landing on the moon in one piece is difficult, and many space programs have failed.

Chandrayaan means “moon craft” in Hindi. Chandrayaan-1, an orbiter, launched in 2008, and the mission lasted less than year. The Chandrayaan-2 mission lifted off successfully on July 22, 2019, and the spacecraft successfully entered orbit around the moon.

The landing attempt on Sept. 6, 2019, appeared to be going well until the lander was about 1.3 miles above the surface, when its trajectory diverged from the planned path .

The problems arose because one of the lander’s five engines had thrust that was slightly higher than expected, S. Somanath, the chairman of the Indian space agency, said during a news conference a few days ago.

The spacecraft tried to correct, but the software specified limits on how quickly it could turn. And because of the higher thrust, the craft was still some distance from its destination even as it was approaching the ground.

“The craft is trying to reach there by increasing velocity to reach there, whereas it was not having enough time to,” Mr. Somanath said.

Months later, an amateur internet sleuth used imagery from a NASA spacecraft to locate the crash site , where the debris of the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover sit to this day.

The Chandrayaan-2 orbiter continues to travel around the moon, where its instruments are being used for scientific study. For that reason, the Chandrayaan-3 mission has a simpler propulsion module that will push a lander and a rover out of Earth’s orbit and then allow it to enter orbit around the moon.

Although the design of the lander is largely the same, changes include stronger landing legs, more propellant, additional solar cells to gather energy from the sun and improved sensors to measure the altitude.

The software was also changed so that the spacecraft could turn faster if needed, and the allowed landing area has been expanded.

If they get to the moon, the lander and the rover will use a range of instruments to make thermal, seismic and mineralogical measurements of the area.

The mission is to conclude two weeks after the landing when the sun sets on the solar-powered lander and rover. If something comes up while Chandrayaan-3 is in orbit around the moon, the landing could be delayed a month until the next sunrise, in September, so that the spacecraft can spend a full two weeks operating on the surface.

While scientists will benefit from the lunar data collected by Chandrayaan-3, India, like other countries, is also exploring the solar system for reasons of national pride.

When the country’s Mangalyaan spacecraft entered orbit around Mars in 2014, children across India were asked to arrive at school by 6:45 a.m., well before the usual starting time, to watch the event on state television.

Narendra Modi, India’s prime minister, was at the mission control center in Bengaluru and hailed the Mars mission “as a shining symbol of what we are capable of as a nation.”

For the failed Chandrayaan-2 landing attempt, Mr. Modi was again at the space center, but his address afterward was more subdued. “We came very close, but we will need to cover more ground in the times to come,” he said to the scientists, engineers and staff.

Later in his address, Mr. Modi added: “As important as the final result is the journey and the effort. I can proudly say that the effort was worth it and so was the journey.” He was later seen embracing and consoling K. Sivan , then the chief of ISRO.

On Friday, the mood in the mission control room was jubilant after the spacecraft’s successful trip to orbit was confirmed. Optimism about Chandrayaan-3 also pervaded some Indian space enthusiasts who traveled to view the launch in person.

Neeraj Ladia, 35, the chief executive of Space Arcade, an astronomy equipment maker, was parked among around 100 cars viewing the launch five miles from the ISRO campus at Sriharikota.

“This time it will be a soft landing, definitely,” he said, referring to setting down on the moon in one piece. He added, “That is why the mood is very positive this time.”

Beyond Chandrayaan-3, the Indian space agency has other plans in motion. It is developing a spacecraft, Gaganyaan, for taking astronauts to orbit, but it has fallen behind its original goal of a crewed flight by 2022, and the mission is now expected no earlier than 2025.

India is increasing its collaboration with the United States for space missions. Earlier this year, the White House announced that NASA would provide training for Indian astronauts at the Johnson Space Center in Houston “with a goal of mounting a joint effort to the International Space Station in 2024.”

India has also signed the Artemis Accords, an American framework that sets out general guidelines for civil space exploration. The accords reinforce the United States’ view that the 1967 Outer Space Treaty allows countries to use resources like minerals and ice mined on asteroids, the moon, Mars and elsewhere in the solar system.

Another collaboration is the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar mission, or NISAR, which will use advanced radar to precisely track changes in the Earth’s land and ice surfaces. The satellite is scheduled to launch from India in 2024. India also has ambitions for missions to study the sun and Venus.

Several moon missions could be right at India’s heels. Russia is planning to launch Luna 25 in August, the latest in a long line of robotic missions to the moon. But it has been a long time since the last one: Luna 24 took place in August 1976, before the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Also scheduled to head to the moon in August is the Smart Lander for Investigating Moon, or SLIM, from the Japanese space agency JAXA.

Three NASA-financed missions are also on the way as part of NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services program — missions put together by private companies to take NASA instruments to the moon. Intuitive Machines of Houston has scheduled its first C.L.P.S. mission for no earlier than the third quarter of this year, heading for the south polar region.

Astrobotic Technology of Pittsburgh has its lander ready but is waiting on its ride — a new rocket developed by United Launch Alliance called Vulcan, which is not yet ready to fly .

A second Intuitive Machines mission is also penciled in for the fourth quarter of this year, but that seems likely to slide into next year.

There has been one landing attempt on the moon this year, in April, by the Japanese company Ispace . But that spacecraft crashed when its navigation system became confused.

Kenneth Chang has been at The Times since 2000, writing about physics, geology, chemistry, and the planets. Before becoming a science writer, he was a graduate student whose research involved the control of chaos. More about Kenneth Chang

Hari Kumar is a reporter in the New Delhi bureau. He joined The Times in 1997. More about Hari Kumar

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  • NEWS EXPLAINER
  • 08 September 2023
  • Clarification 16 October 2023

India’s Moon mission: four things Chandrayaan-3 has taught scientists

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The Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Moon lander Vikram and robotic rover Pragyan have now been told to go to sleep. ISRO hopes to awaken them at lunar dawn on 22 September.

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Nature 621 , 456 (2023)

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-023-02852-7

Updates & Corrections

Clarification 16 October 2023 : An earlier version of this story compared density of electrons in the atmospheres of the Earth and Moon per cubic metre and per cubic centimetre, respectively. We have adjusted the units for easier comparison.

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July 13, 2023

India Aims for the Moon with Launch of Chandrayaan-3

After a failure in 2019, India’s second attempt to land on the moon comes as the nation signs on to a U.S.-led plan to shape future global lunar activities

By Jatan Mehta

Chandrayaan-3 in test environment

Chandrayaan-3.

On July 14, shortly after 5 A.M. EDT, India is set launch its latest attempt at a historic moon landing.

Dubbed Chandrayaan-3, the spacecraft includes the lander Vikram (named after the father of the Indian space program Vikram Sarabhai) and the rover Pragyan (“wisdom” in Sanskrit). Chandrayaan-2, India’s first lunar landing mission, ended in heartbreak in 2019, when that mission’s lander crashed during its final descent phase. Chandrayaan-2 wasn’t a complete failure, however, because it did deploy India's second lunar orbiter , which continues to provide valuable data for lunar science, as well as future exploration planning.

If successful, the new mission will make India the fourth country in history to achieve a lunar landing, following the U.S., the former Soviet Union and China.

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Succeeding through Failure

Chandrayaan-3’s Vikram lander weighs in at 1,752 kilograms—about as much as a small car and about 280 kilograms heavier than its predecessor. Most of that additional weight is linked to extra precautions the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) built in after the disappointing crash landing in 2019. Not only does Vikram carry more fuel to better stay on its intended trajectory to the lunar surface, it also has far more redundancies and safeguards to gracefully touch down this time around. These include strengthened legs to absorb the mechanical shock of touchdown and a new velocity sensor for enhanced navigation measurements, as well as various software improvements to accommodate potential sensor failures. All this, combined with numerous ground tests, has ISRO officials confident that this time they will stick the landing.

“Instead of a success-based design, ISRO has this time opted for a failure-based design,” said ISRO’s chairman S. Somanath during a July 6 press briefing . That is, for Chandrayaan-3, ISRO has focused on what can fail and how those failures can be prevented. “We looked at sensor failure, engine failure, algorithm failure, calculation failure,” Somanath said.

With a combined mass of 3,900 kilograms, Chandrayaan-3’s orbiter, lander and rover are just within the lift limit of the mission’s ride to space: the GSLV Mk III, India’s most powerful rocket. After being deployed to a highly elliptical Earth orbit, the Chandrayaan-3 orbiter will propel Vikram to and around the moon and then gradually maneuver it into a circular polar orbit 100 kilometers above the lunar surface.

If all goes well with the launch and the initial journey to Earth’s natural satellite, on August 23 Vikram will begin an autonomous descent to a targeted landing site on the moon’s Earth-facing side, near the lunar south pole.

A High-Latitude Frontier for Lunar Exploration

Located at 69.37 degrees south latitude and 32.35 degrees east longitude , Chandrayaan-3’s lunar landing site is a geologically rich region embedded in a larger rocky highland. ISRO scientists and engineers chose it based on high-resolution photographs and data from their Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

“This is the first-ever surface exploration of a high-latitude near-polar region, something that’s never [been] measured in situ,” says Anil Bhardwaj , director of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmadabad, India, and a scientist involved in several of the nation’s planetary missions.

After a successful touchdown, Chandrayaan-3’s exploration of the lunar surface will begin in earnest with the deployment of the 26-kilogram Pragyan rover via a ramp. The six-wheeled, solar-powered rover will rely on the Vikram lander to maintain communications with Earth as it trundles around the landing region for 14 Earth days—or about one period of lunar daylight.

Pragyan carries two spectrometers to help scientists determine the elements and minerals that make up the soil and rocks around the landing region. One of these is the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) , a miniaturized, 0.7-kilogram instrument. APXS proved particularly challenging to realize, says its principal investigator Santosh Vadawale , an astrophysicist at PRL. “For APXS to work, it has to be within five centimeters of its target,” he explains. “It took multiple design iterations to make such a mass-constrained instrument deployable without a traditional robotic arm.” The x-ray spectrometer protrudes over the rover’s front and rotates by 90 degrees to study the material below it. Added to this was the challenge of procuring radioactive curium-244, an alpha particle source that is central to APXS—and that Vadawale notes is “available only from Russia.” The instrument’s lead engineer, PRL’s M. Shanmugam , adds, “The procurement started in 2010 and took about seven years.”

The Vikram lander itself hosts four science experiments: A seismometer will detect moonquakes to provide clues about the moon’s internal structure, building on work that began with the deployment of similar instruments by NASA’s Apollo missions . Another experiment will, for the first time, probe plasma created at the lunar surface by incessantly streaming charged particles from the sun. There is also a NASA-contributed retroreflector, an upgraded version of the ones left on the moon by Apollo astronauts. Earthbound scientists can bounce laser pulses off these devices to better understand the gravitational interactions of the Earth-Moon system, as well as the lunar interior.

The fourth experiment is a thermal probe that Vikram will attempt to insert to about 10 centimeters beneath the lunar surface to provide pristine soil temperature measurements throughout the lunar day. “This is the first-ever in situ thermal profiling of the moon’s near subsurface. It will tell us exactly how the sun’s heat propagates downward from the surface,” says PRL planetary scientist K. Durga Prasad , one of the experiment leads. A heater just above the probe’s tip will warm up the soil to help determine its thermal conductivity, as well as its density and other physical properties—something critical for future advanced lunar exploration. “Temperatures dictate the presence, stability and mobility of water on the moon,” Durga says. “The experiment will tell us about stability zones of such resources. Future studies and even extraction operations of lunar soil will benefit from this data.”

A New “Moon Rush”

Chandrayaan-3 feeds into the global frenzy of sending hardware to the moon, particularly to its south pole. The upcoming U.S. Artemis crewed missions, China’s Chang’e robotic craft and the majority of other governmental, as well as private, endeavors plan to explore the moon’s south pole, which contains valuable water ice and other resources that could prove crucial for any sustained human lunar presence . Getting to the lunar surface remains risky, however. Three out of the last four landing attempts—including Chandrayaan-2—have failed. India’s hopefully successful second try with Chandrayaan-3 will help keep the momentum for the moon going.

“India giving the hard problem of moon landing a second try soon after its first attempt is an appreciated investment the whole world will benefit from,” says Jessy Kate Schingler , a researcher in outer space policy and a senior adviser at the Open Lunar Foundation.

In fact, India’s investment in the moon continues to grow. For the Chandrayaan program, ISRO developed its own simulated lunar soil facility to perform hardware testing in preparation for even more lunar activity. For its next moon mission—intended to launch before the end of decade—India is partnering with Japan to have the Lunar Polar Exploration (LUPEX) rover directly study deposits of water ice at the lunar south pole. “LUPEX will help us understand the distribution, nature, as well as quantity, of water ice accessible in the first few centimeters of the polar surface it explores,” Bhardwaj says.

Although most of India’s space program is proudly homegrown, its ambitious aspirations—which include plans for a crewed orbital mission as soon as next year—make international collaboration eminently worthwhile. This helps explain the rationale behind the nation’s agreement on June 21 to join the Artemis Accords , a U.S.-led lunar governance framework that aims to peacefully manage lunar activity from the increasing number of global missions. Because Japan is also a signatory of the Artemis Accords, it’s likely the joint LUPEX mission will provide some of the crucial enabling data for future crewed Artemis missions.

“The accords are a nonbinding political understanding of a signee for mutually beneficial space exploration activities based on the desire to implement provisions of the Outer Space Treaty with focus on the Artemis program. As a signatory, India could accelerate its lunar exploration program by better collaborating with the U.S. and other signee nations,” says Ranjana Kaul of the law firm Dua Associates, who specializes in international space law and policy and is on the board of the International Institute of Space Law.

But there’s a catch. ISRO’s aspiring upcoming space science missions have been facing nothing but delays because of budget shortages and overshadowing priorities . While India’s new space policy , released in April, does encourage ISRO to “undertake ... on in-situ resource utilization [and] celestial prospecting,” failure to increase such science and technology outputs would mean that the nation would be unable to sufficiently leverage the accords to help shape our future at the moon.

“The accords could be a sign that India will invest much more in lunar and space exploration,” Schingler adds. “However, it’s the actual outcome that will at least partially determine the weight [India] can pull in space policy matters.”

One thing is clear. The success of ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 moon lander will be critical for anchoring India’s long-term role in lunar exploration and governance.

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In the story of India’s scientific journeys, the Chandrayaan project stands out brightly, showing the nation’s skill and modern technology. As India keeps growing and showing its strengths in different areas, its work in space research stands tall. A big step in this area is the successful Chandrayaan-3 mission. The “Essay on Chandrayaan 3 in English” tells about India’s exciting trip to the moon and how important it is for our country. It is also a way for the country to share its dream of doing more in space.

This “Chandrayaan-3 essay” is written in simple words for children and students. It helps them learn and understand about this big achievement. Whether you’re studying for class, preparing for a school event, or just curious, this essay will take you on a trip to the moon, showing India’s amazing work in space.

Chandrayaan-3 is like a magical story from India about exploring the moon. For our lower elementary or primary young kids who love tales of stars and the moon, here’s a simple way to learn about it. These “10 lines on Chandrayaan-3 in English” are short and easy, crafted especially for their eager little minds. Let’s start with the “10 lines about Chandrayaan-3” and discover this exciting lunar tale!

  • Chandrayaan-3 is the ambitious third lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
  • It was launched on 14 July 2023 from a place called Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
  • This mission has 2 parts: a lander named Vikram, and a rover named Pragyan.
  • The big goal of Chandrayaan-3 is to land safely on a special part of the Moon called the South Pole.
  • The rover, Pragyan, will wander around the Moon, studying its surface and sending information back to us.
  • One exciting thing it’s looking for is water ice on the Moon, as well as learning more about the Moon’s rocks and air.
  • With Chandrayaan-3, India becomes one of the special countries that have sent a rover to the Moon.
  • The whole mission cost about USD 77 million, which is quite a smart way of exploring space without spending too much.
  • After the lessons from Chandrayaan-2, India was determined to make Chandrayaan-3 a big success.
  • We’re all waiting excitedly because Chandrayaan-3 will land on the Moon around 23 August 2023, making it a special day for India!

10 Lines on Chandrayaan 3

For those curious about India’s space journey, here’s a simple “Paragraph on Chandrayaan-3” to enlighten you.

Chandrayaan 3 is one of ISRO’s most celebrated lunar missions. Launched in July 2023, it is the first lunar mission to achieve a soft landing near the lunar south pole. The mission has three main components: an orbiter, a lander called Vikram, and the Pragyan rover. One of its prime goals is to search for water ice on the Moon. Beyond its scientific pursuits, Chandrayaan-3 stands as a testament to India’s determination and capability in space exploration, especially after its experiences with Chandrayaan-2.

Eager to know about India’s lunar journey? Here’s a simple “Chandrayaan 3 Essay in English 100 Words.”

After the successes and challenges of Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2, Chandrayaan-3 embarks as India’s renewed attempt for lunar exploration. Launched on July 14, 2023, this mission reinforces India’s dedication to demonstrating technological prowess in space. Beyond the mere exploration, its state-of-the-art instruments are set to investigate the lunar soil and provide pivotal data. As it ventures for a soft landing, Chandrayaan-3, if successful, will place India alongside global space giants like the US, Russia, and China. Beyond national pride, this mission signifies India’s undying commitment to contributing significantly to the global space community’s advancements.

Interested in India’s journey to the moon? Read on in this “Short Essay on Chandrayaan-3 for children and students in 200 words.”

Chandrayaan-3, India’s progressive lunar mission, is a testament to the nation’s ambition in space exploration, succeeding its predecessors Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2. Engineered by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) , Chandrayaan-3 seeks a coveted soft landing on the Moon’s cradle, with a rover in tow to conduct insightful experiments and glean indispensable data. The focal point of this mission orbits around delving into the Moon’s geology, mineralogy, and exosphere, thereby enriching our comprehension of its genesis and evolution.

Integral to Chandrayaan-3’s mission is its demonstration of a secure and soft lunar landing, emphasizing the rover’s mobility and its capacity for on-site scientific investigations. Facilitating these objectives, the Lander harbors an array of avant-garde technologies, among which are velocimeters, laser and RF-based altimeters, and an intricate propulsion system. Rigorous tests, notably the Integrated Cold Test and Lander Leg Mechanism Performance Test, have been meticulously undertaken to validate these pioneering technologies under Earth’s conditions.

This mission, Chandrayaan-3, symbolizes India’s unwavering commitment to technological and scientific exploration, aspiring to cement its foothold in the elite space community. More than a testament to India’s capabilities, it’s a beacon, igniting the passions of the younger generation to chase dreams in STEM fields.

Below is a perfect essay on Chandrayaan-3 for School Students:

India continues to make giant strides in space exploration with its third lunar mission, Chandrayaan-3. This ambitious venture is aimed at reinforcing India’s position as a significant player in global space endeavors.

The Chandrayaan Legacy “Chandrayaan” translates to “moon vehicle” in Hindi. The legacy began with Chandrayaan-1, India’s first lunar probe, which orbited the moon in 2008, marking India as the fourth nation to touch the moon’s vicinity. It was followed by Chandrayaan-2 in 2019, an ambitious mission with an orbiter, a lander, and a rover. Despite facing challenges with its landing phase, the orbiter continues to send valuable data back to Earth.

The Chandrayaan-3 Mission’s Architecture

Chandrayaan-3’s design builds on previous missions. Unlike Chandrayaan-2, it concentrates on the lander and rover, utilizing the operational Chandrayaan-2 orbiter for efficient communication.    Chandrayaan-3: A New Hope Continuing the series, Chandrayaan-3 is seen as a beacon of hope and a symbol of India’s technological persistence. It is set to further India’s quest to understand the moon, especially the intriguing South Pole region. With an improved lander design and the Pragyan rover, Chandrayaan-3, unlike its predecessor, will not be accompanied by an orbiter. Instead, it will leverage the still-active orbiter of Chandrayaan-2 for communications.

Key Objectives of Chandrayaan-3 

ISRO has outlined three principal objectives for the Chandrayaan-3 mission:

  • Soft and Safe Landing – The paramount objective is to achieve a gentle and secure touchdown on the moon’s terrain, underscoring India’s progress in space technology.
  • Rover Operations – Once on the moon, the Pragyan rover is designed to traverse the challenging terrain, gathering invaluable data about the lunar surface.
  • Scientific Exploration – Beyond the engineering feats, the mission will concentrate on scientific investigations of the Moon’s composition, including the study of soil, water, and other elements.

Scientist Behind Chandrayaan-3 

Several eminent scientists and engineers have been instrumental in the conception and realization of Chandrayaan-3:

  • S Somnath , ISRO Chairman
  • P VeeraMuthuVel, Project Director of Chandrayaan-3
  • S Unnikrishnan Nair, Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
  • A RajaRajan, Chairman of Launch Authorization Board
  • M Sankaran, Director of U R Rao Satellite Centre

Challenges of Chandrayaan-3

  • Soft Landing – Achieving this on the rugged lunar South Pole was challenging.
  • Rover Navigation – Ensuring the Pragyan rover’s efficient navigation was crucial.
  • Space Environment Hazards – Conditions like space weather and micrometeoroid impacts had to be considered.
  • Communication – Establishing robust communication using the older orbiter presented challenges.

Launch and Landing of Chandrayaan 3

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) celebrated a significant achievement with the successful launch of Chandrayaan-3 on 14 July 2023 at 2:35 PM from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre. This mission epitomizes India’s advancements in space exploration, with the primary objective being to demonstrate a soft and safe landing on the lunar surface. The moment of the launch, at 2:35 PM on 14 July 2023, is now an iconic timestamp in India’s space exploration history. Essays chronicling Chandrayaan-3’s journey will undoubtedly highlight this monumental event

After a month-long voyage through space, Chandrayaan-3 accomplished its monumental landing on the moon on 23 August 2023 at 18:04 Hrs. Those who witnessed it will recall the anticipation as the live telecast of the soft landing began at 17:20 hrs Indian Standard Time on the day. This successful landing solidifies India’s position as a formidable player in space technology and exploration and stands as another sterling achievement in the nation’s space odyssey.

India’s Place in Space Exploration

With the Chandrayaan series, India has unequivocally announced its place in space exploration. Demonstrating frugality without compromising on innovation, these missions stand as testaments to India’s capabilities. Chandrayaan-3 is not just a mission; it’s a symbol of India’s aspirations and technical prowess, and a step towards exploring the mysteries of the cosmos.

Discover the interesting “information about Chandrayaan 3”, showcasing India’s ambitious strides in the vast expanse of space. As you continue, the “must-know facts about Chandrayaan 3” will surely captivate your interest, revealing the brilliance of India’s space journey.

  • India’s Unique Imprint – Pragyan, Chandrayaan-3’s rover, will mark the lunar soil with India’s flag and the ISRO emblem, signifying presence on the untouched south pole.
  • Low Budget – Costing ₹650 crores ($75 million), Chandrayaan-3 demonstrates India’s economic efficiency in space endeavors, standing in stark contrast to high-budget films and projects worldwide.
  • South Pole Pioneer – Chandrayaan-3 has crowned India as the first nation to probe the Moon’s south pole and the fourth overall to achieve a lunar landing.
  • Building on Previous Discoveries – Continuing Chandrayaan-1’s legacy, this mission aims to further explore frozen water deposits in the Moon’s colder regions.
  • Lander & Rover Legacy – The mission includes a lander, “Vikram”, and a rover, “Pragyan”, named to honor stalwarts of India’s space journey, especially ISRO’s founder, Vikram Sarabhai.

Diving into the Chandrayaan-3 essay, your child will glean insights into India’s remarkable achievements in space exploration, understand the technological advancements and challenges faced, and cultivate a sense of pride in global scientific endeavors. This journey offers a blend of history, science, and inspiration.

Explore this section for Chandrayaan-3 details and the latest updates directly from the Moon.

December 5, 2023

  • The Chandrayaan-3 propulsion module takes an alternate route.

September 22, 2023

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is currently conducting trials to restore communication with the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover.

September 5, 2023

  • NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft has captured images of the Chandrayaan-3 lander situated on the lunar surface.

September 2, 2023

  • The lander and rover go into sleep mode, expected to wake up around September 22, 2023.

August 31, 2023

  • The Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) records ambient sounds and movements near the landing area, offering a new dimension of lunar exploration.
  • The Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive Ionosphere and Atmosphere – Lunar Plasma Probe (RAMBHA-LP) records measurements of the near-surface plasma content, enriching the mission’s scientific findings.

August 30, 2023

  • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Ch-3 Rover reports the identification of trace elements on the Moon’s surface.

August 29, 2023

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announces the discovery of various elements near the South Pole of the Moon, including but not limited to Sulphur, Aluminium, Calcium, Iron, Chromium, Titanium, Manganese, Silicone, and Oxygen.

August 28, 2023

  • Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) unambiguously confirms the presence of Sulphur on the lunar surface through in-situ measurements.

August 27, 2023

  • Initial data from the Charge Analyzing System in the Time-Resolved Spectrometer (ChaSTE) payload aboard the Vikram Lander is successfully relayed back.

August 26, 2023

  • The touchdown sites for both Chandrayaan 2 and 3 receive names from Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Chandrayaan 3’s site is now known as “Shivshakti,” while Chandrayaan 2’s site will be called “Tiranga Point.”

August 24, 2023

  • Celebrating the phrase “Made in India. Made for the MOON,” the Ch-3 Rover successfully dismounts from the Vikram Lander, marking India’s inaugural steps on the Moon.

August 23, 2023

  • Chandrayaan-3 completes a successful soft landing on the Moon, sending back the jubilant message: “I reached my destination, and you did too!”
  • Prime Minister Modi declares August 23rd as National Space Day, to honor the successful landing of Chandrayaan-3 on the Moon.

If you’re looking for Chandrayaan-3 details to spice up your essay or speech on Chandrayaan-3 in English, you’re in the right place. We’ve gathered all the cool Chandrayaan-3 information you need to know, from what the mission aims to do to the awesome tech it uses. Let’s explore!”

  • Total Propellant Mass – 2145.01 kg, inclusive of all modules
  • Communication Setup – Equipped with an S-Band Transponder (TTC) compatible with the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN)
  • Operational Duration – Designed for a 3 to 6-month mission life, following a launch into an approximate 100 x 100 km lunar orbit.
  • Orientation Sensors – Includes CASS, IRAP, and a Micro Star Sensor for accurate orientation control
  • Engine System – Features a Bi-Propellant Propulsion System using Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON3)
  • Structural Model – Constructed as a modified version of the I-3K spacecraft
  • Mass Without Fuel – Weighs 448.62 kg, which includes the pressurant
  • Electric Power – Generates 738 Watts, optimized for both Summer Solstices and biased conditions
  • Lunar Trajectory – Orbit ranging from 170 x 36500 km in lunar polar regions
  • Mission Life Specifics – Carries a Lander Module & Rover up to approximately 100 x 100 km after launch, with subsequent operation of experimental payloads for 3 to 6 months.

1. When did the launch of Chandrayaan-3 take place?

Chandrayaan-3 embarked on its mission on July 14, 2023, lifting off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre situated in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.

2. Whom are the Chandrayaan-3 lander and rover named after?

The names of the Chandrayaan-3 lander and rover, Vikram and Pragyan, derive their meanings from Sanskrit, with Vikram signifying valour and Pragyan representing wisdom. Notably, the lander’s name pays homage to Vikram Sarabhai, revered as the pioneer of India’s space program.

3. What are the scientific goals of Chandrayaan-3?

Chandrayaan-3 aims to conduct scientific investigations on the Moon, building upon the achievements of its predecessors. Scientific goals include studying lunar topography, mineral composition, and lunar soil. It also involves exploring specific regions or phenomena on the Moon that were not extensively covered by Chandrayaan-2.

In conclusion, the essay on Chandrayaan-3 for kids serves as a testament to India’s formidable strides in space exploration, illuminating young minds about the nation’s lunar missions. Through this journey, we hope to inspire the next generation of space enthusiasts and dreamers.

References/Resources:

Indian Space Research Organisation ( ISRO ): https://www.isro.gov.in/Chandrayaan3.html

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Essay On Chandrayaan-3: India’s Third Lunar Exploration Mission

In the realm of space exploration, India has carved out a distinct niche for itself with its Chandrayaan missions. Among these, Chandrayaan-3 stands out as a testament to India’s technological prowess, scientific curiosity, and unwavering commitment to pushing the boundaries of human knowledge. Launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in July 2023, Chandrayaan-3 marks India’s third lunar endeavor and holds the promise of unlocking new frontiers in lunar exploration.

Short Essay & Paragraph About Chandrayaan-3: India’s Third Lunar Exploration Mission

At the heart of Chandrayaan-3 lies a pioneering objective – achieving a safe and precise soft landing on the lunar surface, particularly on the southern polar region. The significance of this endeavor cannot be overstated. The southern polar region of the Moon presents unique challenges and opportunities. It is a region of great scientific interest, believed to hold water ice in permanently shadowed craters. The successful landing and operation of Chandrayaan-3 on this challenging terrain would represent a monumental achievement, adding to our understanding of the Moon’s geology, its evolution, and potentially even its history of water.

chandriyan 3 essay paragraphs and few lines for students

One of the primary goals of Chandrayaan-3 is to deploy a rover on the lunar surface for in-situ exploration. This rover will be equipped with instruments to analyze the composition of the lunar soil, map its surface, and conduct experiments that could provide crucial insights into the Moon’s formation and geological processes. However, the significance of the rover extends beyond its scientific pursuits. It is also a symbol of India’s capability to develop and execute intricate technologies required for space exploration.

A crucial focus of Chandrayaan-3 is the search for water ice deposits on the Moon. Water is a precious resource in space exploration, with the potential to support future lunar bases or serve as a propellant for deeper space missions. The discovery of water ice would not only mark a scientific breakthrough but could also pave the way for more sustainable and extended human missions to the Moon and beyond.

The architecture of Chandrayaan-3 is a masterpiece of engineering and innovation. It comprises three key components: a lander module, a rover, and a propulsion module. The propulsion module carries both the lander and the rover to lunar orbit. Upon reaching the Moon, the lander and rover separate from the propulsion module. The lander, equipped with advanced navigation and landing systems, will execute a gentle landing on the Moon’s surface. This complex sequence of events underscores India’s capability to design, develop, and orchestrate a mission of such intricacy.

Chandrayaan-3 is not merely a standalone mission; it represents India’s overarching vision for space exploration. It is a manifestation of ISRO’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of space technology and contributing meaningfully to the global pursuit of knowledge. The success of this mission would not only enhance India’s reputation as a formidable spacefaring nation but would also serve as an inspiration to countless young minds aspiring to venture into the cosmos.

The broader implications of Chandrayaan-3 extend beyond the realm of scientific discovery. They encompass economic growth, technological innovation, and international collaboration. The development and execution of complex space missions like Chandrayaan-3 require the mobilization of vast resources, the collaboration of experts from diverse fields, and the cultivation of cutting-edge technology. Such endeavors stimulate advancements in engineering, materials science, telecommunications, and numerous other disciplines, fostering a culture of innovation and pushing the envelope of human achievement.

In the face of its growing influence in space exploration, India continues to uphold its commitment to inclusivity and cooperation. ISRO’s missions often carry a significant international component, involving collaboration with space agencies and scientific institutions from around the world. Chandrayaan-3, in this context, is not just an Indian endeavor; it is a global exploration effort aimed at unraveling the mysteries of the Moon and enriching our understanding of the cosmos.

In conclusion, Chandrayaan-3 stands as a testament to India’s dedication to scientific advancement and exploration. Its objectives of soft landing, rover deployment, and water ice discovery reflect the intricate nature of lunar exploration and the significance of these pursuits for future space endeavors. As the mission unfolds, it captures the essence of India’s space ambitions – to explore, to innovate, and to contribute to the global journey of discovery. Chandrayaan-3 embodies not only the dreams of a nation but the aspirations of humanity to reach beyond the Earth and explore the celestial wonders that await us.

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Chandrayaan 3 Essay in English

an essay on chandrayaan 3

  • Updated on  
  • Jan 23, 2024

Chandrayaan 3 Essay in English

Chandrayaan-3 , India’s ambitious lunar mission, represents the nation’s unyielding commitment to space exploration. Following the successes of Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2, this mission elevated India’s reputation in the global space community with a successful landing on August 24, 2023. 

Chandrayaan-3 aims to build upon the achievements of its predecessors. The primary goal of the mission is to achieve a soft landing on the lunar surface, specifically targeting the south pole region where the presence of water ice has been confirmed. This water resource could potentially revolutionize space travel by providing a critical ingredient for supporting future lunar bases and deep-space exploration.

Master the art of essay writing with our blog on How to Write an Essay in English .

Aim of Chandrayaan-3 

Chandrayaan-3 will improve India’s standing in the international space community if the mission is a success. The younger generation will be motivated by this objective to seek jobs in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. India wants to show off its scientific brilliance, technical capability, and dedication to space exploration with Chandrayaan-3.

Chandrayaan-3 is not only a scientific endeavour but also a testament to India’s technological prowess. The mission showcases the Indian Space Research Organisation’s ( ISRO ) expertise in designing and executing complex space missions on a relatively modest budget. The success of Chandrayaan-2’s orbiter, despite the lander’s unfortunate crash, demonstrates India’s capability to overcome setbacks and still derive valuable scientific findings.

To improve your essay writing skills, here are the top 200+ English Essay Topics for school students.

Also Read: Speech on Republic Day for Class 12th

Mission of Chandrayaan- 3

Chandrayaan-3 symbolizes India’s determination to continue pushing the boundaries of space exploration. Through technological innovation, scientific curiosity, and international collaboration, the mission seeks to unravel the Moon’s mysteries and pave the way for future lunar endeavours. As Chandrayaan-3 sets its sights on a successful lunar landing, it also sets the stage for India to emerge as a prominent player in humanity’s journey to the stars. 

Related Articles

Chandrayaan-3 landed on the Moon’s south polar region which has been never explored before. 

The average budget cost of Chandrayaan-3 is somewhere around INR 615 crores. 

The Chandrayaan-3- 3 successfully landed on the Moon’s surface on August 23, 2023. 

We hope this article is a great help to you. For more such informative content and trendy blogs stay connected with Leverage Edu .

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Essay on Chandrayaan

We all know that India is a developing country and it has been developing in every field. India as a country has always worked hard to show off its huge scientific achievements and progress in space research. One of its most important achievements is the historic Chandrayaan project. It was a big step forward in India’s bold plan to learn more about the moon and advance science. This important accomplishment has given people a strong feeling of national pride. To explore more about this incredible mission, let us discuss Chandrayaan in detail.

Chandrayaan 3 Essay in English

Here, we are presenting long and short essays on Chandrayaan in English for students under word limits of 100 – 150 Words, 200 – 250 words, and 500 – 600 words. This topic is useful for students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in English. These provided essays will also be helpful for students preparing for different competitive exams.

10 Lines Essay on Chandrayaan (100-120 Words)

1) Chandrayaan is the first lunar exploration mission by India.

2) It was launched on October 22, 2008, by the ISRO.

3) The objective of Chandrayaan was to confirm the presence of water ice on the moon.

4) Chandrayaan-1 mission ended due to communication failure in August 2009.

5) Chandrayaan-2, the second lunar exploration mission, was launched on July 22, 2019.

6) Chandrayaan-3 was launched on 14 July 2023.

7)The LVM3 launchedChandrayaan-3 from SDSC SHAR in Sriharikota.

8)On August 23 at 6:04 p.m., the Chandrayaan-3 lander touched down on the moon.

9) India is the first country to softly land Chandrayaan-3 on the South Pole of the Moon.

10) India joined the United States, China, and Russia as the fourth country to set foot on the moon.

Short Essay on Chandrayaan (250 – 300 Words)

Introduction

Chandrayaan, India’s ambitious lunar exploration mission has been a remarkable achievement for the country’s space program. The success of this mission is evidence of India’s commitment to becoming a global leader in space exploration.

Goals of Chandrayaan

ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is responsible for launching Chandrayaan mission. One of the major goals of Chandrayaan was to search for water ice on the Moon. It also aimed to figure out what kinds of things are on the Moon. Chandrayaan’s instruments detected the presence of water molecules on the Moon’s surface, which was a significant finding in the field of lunar exploration.

Chandrayaan: The Series

Chandrayaan-1 was the first mission to the moon. It was launched by ISRO on October 2008. On August 28, 2009, Chandrayaan-1 stopped communicating. Shortly after that, the ISRO announced that the operation was over. On 22 July 2019 the Chandrayaan-2 mission was launched successfully. But the lander crashed when it went off track while trying to land on September 6, 2019.Chandrayaan-3 was launched on 14 July 2023 by ISRO. ISRO’s most powerful rocket, the Launch Vehicle Mark III (LVM3), was used to send Chandrayaan-3 into space from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. On 23 August, at 6:04 PM, the Chandrayaan-3 lander landed on the south pole of the moon successfully. The ISRO said that Chandrayaan 3’s rover “Pragyaan” has finished its work on the Moon’s surface and has been put into sleep mode to make it through the Moon’s night. India is now the forth country to land on moon.

Chandrayaan has been a remarkable achievement for India’s space program. Not only has it contributed to scientific discoveries and advancements in space exploration but it has also served as a source of national pride.

Long Essay on Chandrayaan 3 (500 Words)

The word “Chandrayaan” means “moon vehicle” in Hindi. Chandrayaan is India’s first lunar exploration mission. It was a significant achievement for India as it made it the fourth country to reach the moon after the United States, Russia, and China. This mission showcased India’s prowess in space technology and opened new doors for further space exploration.

The Chandrayaan Mission

Chandrayaan was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 2008. On 22 October, 2008, Chandrayaan-1 was launched from Sriharikota. It has given us spectrum data with a high level of detail about the Moon’s minerals.The mission was finally over on August 29, 2009, almost a year after it started. Chandrayaan ran for 312 days instead of the two years that had been planned, but it was successful because it met 95% of its goals. It was 22 July 2019, when Chandrayaan-2 was launched. The main goal of Chandrayaan 2 was to find out where and how much water there is on the surface of the moon. On 6 September 2019, Chandrayaan-2’s lander and rover crashed on the moon’s surface because problems came up during the last part of the journey. Even though the rover, called Vikram, didn’t land as smoothly as planned, the rest of the mission was a success. Following the previous missions, Chandrayaan-3 is launched on 14 July 2023 from Sriharikota.

Chandrayaan-3: A Glimpse

Chandrayaan-3 is the third lunar exploration mission undertaken by ISRO. It is part of India’s ambitious space program to further explore the mysteries of the Moon. The Launch Vehicle Mark-III (LVM-III) sent the Chandrayaan-3 project into space from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.Chandrayaan-3 has a lander, a rover, and a module for moving forward. The whole weight of the Chandrayaan-3 spaceship is 3,900 kg. According to ISRO, Chandrayaan-3 will have three main goals. One is to show that it is safe and easy to land on the moon’s surface. The second goal is to show how to use rovers on the moon. And the third goal is to do scientific tests on the surface of the moon.

Success of Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 mission is the first to do the soft landing near the moon’s South Pole. The lander touched down on the moon at 6:04 p.m. on August 23.The Vikram lander began the last phase of the mission on August 17 when it detached from the propulsion module. They looked for sulphur and other minor elements, took measurements of the temperature, and watched for movement. Both the Vikram lander and the Pragyan rover were supposed to go to sleep on September 2 and 4, when the sun went down at the landing spot. On September 22, the lander and rover are scheduled to resume operations. Prime Minister Narendra Modi named the Vikram lander’s location as Shiv Shakti. He also declared August 23 as National Space Day.

Chandrayaan-3 is a significant step forward for India’s space exploration program.Chandrayaan’s success is not limited to scientific discoveries but also have socio-economic benefits for the country.Moreover, it will also inspire and motivate the younger generation to take an interest in science and technology.

I hope the above provided essay on Chandrayaan will be helpful for you to know more about the Chandrayaan mission.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Chandrayaan

Ans. India has spent about $75 million (approximately 615 crore) on Chandrayaan-3.

Ans. The Chandrayan 3 project is being led by Ritu Karidhal Shrivastava. Ritu is a scientist at ISRO who hails from Lucknow, UP.

Ans. Indian aerospace expert Sreedhara Panicker Somanath is the chairman of ISRO.

Ans. P Veeramuthuvel is the project director of Chandrayaan-3 and its goal to make a soft landing on the moon. In 2019, he also worked on the Chandrayaan 2 mission.

Ans. Mylswamy Annadurai, who held different positions in ISRO is considered as the “Moon Man of India”.

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Chandrayaan - 3 [Latest Updates for UPSC]

India’s third lunar mission, Chandrayaan – 3 made history on August 23, 2023, by successfully achieving a soft landing on the south pole of the moon. With this, India became the first nation to land on the moon’s south pole and the fourth (after Russia, the US and China) to land successfully on Earth’s only natural satellite. In this article, you will learn all you need to know about the Chandrayaan III mission for the UPSC exam . This topic is important for the science and technology segment of the UPSC syllabus.

Chandrayaan-3 Mission

The Indian Space Research Organisation ( ISRO ) had undertaken two previous missions to the moon, namely, the Chandrayaan I and the Chandrayaan II. Chandrayaan-1 was launched in 2008 and lasted till 2009 after communications to it were lost. The mission, among other things, tested a crash landing on the lunar surface. Chandrayaan-2 , launched in 2019 attempted a soft landing on the moon but failed. The third mission, Chandrayaan-3 took into account the drawbacks and lessons learnt from the second mission and successfully achieved soft landing.

Objectives of Chandrayaan 3 Mission

  • To demonstrate a safe and soft landing on the lunar surface
  • To demonstrate rover roving on the moon
  • To conduct in-situ scientific experiments

Chandrayaan III Features

Chandrayaan 3 Payloads

Chandrayaan 3 mission’s lander is named Vikram and the rover Pragyan, like those of the second mission.

  • The mission consists of a lander module, a propulsion module, and a rover.
  • SHAPE has the objective of exploring exo-planets for habitability by studying reflected light. 
  • Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) to measure the thermal conductivity and temperature
  • Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) for measuring the seismicity around the landing site
  • Langmuir Probe (LP) to estimate the plasma density and its variations
  • A passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA for lunar laser ranging studies
  • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)
  • Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)
  • The advanced technologies present in the payloads help in conducting scientific experiments on the moon.
  • The mission’s life is one lunar day or 14 earth days.
  • The budget of the Chandrayaan-3 mission is Rs 615 crore.

Chandrayaan 3 Mission Timeline

  • Chandrayaan-3 mission took off on July 14, 2023 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) in Sriharikota, A.P.
  • On August 5, the mission entered the lunar orbit.
  • On August 17, the lander module separated from the propulsion module.
  • Deboosting is the slowing down of the spacecraft in an orbit where the Perilune (closest point to the Moon) is 30 km, and the farthest point (the Apolune) is 100 km from the landing site. 
  • This process is necessary for the proper landing of the spacecraft.
  • On August 23, the lander landed at around 69.36°S and 32.34°E (between Manzinus C and Simpelius N craters) on the south pole of the moon.
  • On August 24, the rover Pragyan started its exploration.
  • Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a scientific method using intense laser pulses to analyse material composition.

How is Chandrayaan 3 Different from Chandrayaan 2?

Many changes and improvements were made to the third lunar mission taking into account the lessons learnt from the failed soft landing mission of Chandrayaan-II. Major changes included strengthening the legs of the lander, enhancing fuel reserves and expanding the landing site. Previously, the Vikram lander of Chandrayaan-2 had lost control and communication during descent, which caused it to crash on the moon’s surface. Chandrayaan 3 focused on a failure-based design approach to foresee and prevent potential mishaps.

  • The landing area was expanded giving flexibility to soft-land safely within a larger designated region on the surface of the moon.
  • Vikram was equipped with more fuel enabling it to travel more towards the landing site.
  • Chandrayaan 2 had only two solar panels while Chandrayaan-3 has four.
  • The lander’s speed was continuously monitored by an instrument called Laser Doppler Velocimeter onboard the mission that sent laser beams to the lunar surface to calculate the Lander’s speed.

Significance of Lunar South Pole

Previous lunar missions have focused on the equatorial region of the moon owing to its favourable terrain. The south pole region is more challenging compared to the equatorial region. The lack of enough sunlight and extreme cold conditions (up to -230 degrees C) lead to difficulties in instrument operation and sustainability. The polar regions may contain water according to scientists. Also, experts think that the craters in these regions contain fossil records of the early planetary system.

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100, 200, 300, 350 & 400 Word Essay on Chandrayaan-3 in English & Hindi

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Introduction

Chandrayaan-3 is India’s ambitious lunar mission, following in the footsteps of its predecessors, Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2. Chandrayaan-3 is India’s second attempt to land softly on the Moon. It is a project undertaken by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to land on the moon’s surface and deploy a rover to conduct experiments and gather valuable data. The mission studies the moon’s geology, mineralogy, and exosphere. This will contribute to our understanding of the moon’s origin and evolution. 

250 Words Expository Essay on Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 is the third lunar exploration mission of India’s space program. It is being jointly developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Russian space agency, Roscosmos. The mission was announced in 2020 and is expected to be launched in 2021. The mission’s primary objective is to perform an unmanned soft landing on the Moon.

The mission will be carried out by the GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle and will include an orbiter, a lander, and a rover. The orbiter will map the lunar surface and study its topography, mineralogy, and exosphere. The lander will deploy the rover, which will explore the lunar surface and search for water and other minerals.

The mission will also carry out various experiments, such as a Raman spectrometer to study the lunar surface composition and mineralogy, a mass spectrometer to analyze the atmosphere, and a neutron spectrometer to search for water and ice. In addition, the mission will also conduct a synthetic aperture radar experiment to map the lunar surface and study its composition.

Chandrayaan-3 is expected to provide valuable data for the scientific community. This will help us understand the Moon’s geology, composition, and environment. It will also be used to study the solar system’s evolution and life’s origin.

Chandrayaan-3 is a significant mission, as it marks the first time India has undertaken a Moon mission. This mission will also be a great opportunity for India to demonstrate its space exploration capabilities. The data and information gathered during the mission will also be used to develop new technologies and create new opportunities for space exploration.

300 Words Argumentative Essay on Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 is India’s third lunar exploration mission, currently under planning. It is set to launch in 2021 following Chandrayaan-2’s success. The mission aims to explore the moon’s south polar region, which has never been studied before. By doing so, it could potentially uncover new information about the moon’s composition, origin, and past.

The Chandrayaan-3 mission is an ambitious undertaking and has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the moon. It will be the first mission to explore the moon’s south polar region, which is largely unexplored. This region is believed to contain a wealth of minerals, including water and ice, which could support future human exploration. Additionally, the mission could uncover new information about the moon’s past, providing valuable insight into its formation and evolution.

On the other hand, there are also some potential drawbacks to the mission. First, Chandrayaan-3 is a costly endeavor, and success is not guaranteed. It is also unclear how much enlightening information the mission will uncover, as the south-polar region has never been studied before. Finally, the mission could be dangerous for astronauts if they are sent to the moon’s surface, as the area is largely unexplored and could contain unknown risks.

In conclusion, Chandrayaan-3 is an ambitious mission that could revolutionize our moon understanding. It has the potential to uncover new information about the moon’s composition, origin, and past, as well as to provide valuable insight into its formation and evolution. However, it is also an expensive and potentially dangerous endeavor, and its success is not guaranteed. It is imperative to weigh the pros and cons carefully before deciding whether or not to pursue the mission.

350 Words persuasive Essay on Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3, India’s third moon mission, is an exciting prospect for space exploration. It is a mission that will explore the lunar surface for the first time since the Chandrayaan-2 mission in 2019. This mission is set to launch in 2021 and will be a major milestone in India’s space exploration goals.

Chandrayaan-3 will be an ambitious mission that explores the lunar surface in greater detail than ever before. This mission will be the first to deploy a rover on the moon’s surface to collect samples and conduct experiments. Additionally, the mission will deploy an orbiter and a lander to the moon. The orbiter will be equipped with a high-resolution camera and a spectrometer to map the lunar surface and observe the moon’s environment. The lander will be equipped with seismometers and other instruments to measure the moon’s internal structure.

The mission will also focus on finding water evidence on the moon. This is a major goal of Chandrayaan-3, as water is a vital resource for humans on the moon. The mission will also search for minerals that could be used for resource extraction.

Chandrayaan-3 is a crucial mission for India’s space exploration efforts. It will provide a wealth of data that can further our understanding of the moon and its environment. Additionally, the mission will provide valuable insight into the moon’s potential as a resource for human exploration and colonization.

The mission will also be a significant step in India’s space exploration ambitions. As India’s space exploration capabilities expand, Chandrayaan-3 will be a major milestone in this process. The mission will demonstrate India’s ability to explore space on its own and serve as a stepping stone for future missions.

In conclusion, Chandrayaan-3 is an ambitious mission that will explore the moon’s surface and environment in greater detail than ever before. It will be a major milestone in India’s space exploration ambitions and provide valuable data for future missions. The mission will also be a crucial step in India’s space exploration efforts and will demonstrate India’s capabilities in this area

400 Words Descriptive Essay on Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 is the third mission of India’s lunar exploration program developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The mission is proposed to be launched in 2021 and is expected to land at the Moon’s south pole. This mission is a follow-up mission to Chandrayaan-2 which was launched in July 2019, and will go to the Moon’s surface.

Chandrayaan-3 is designed to land a rover on the lunar surface and explore the region for the mineral and chemical composition of the Moon. The mission will also carry a lander and a rover to the lunar surface. The lander will measure the mineral and chemical composition of the surface. The rover will map the terrain and collect samples for further analysis.

The mission will also be equipped with a variety of instruments and cameras to study the lunar surface and its environment. These instruments will analyze the lunar surface for its composition and characteristics. In addition, they will be used to study the lunar environment and its atmosphere. This data will help us in understanding the origin and evolution of the Moon.

The mission will also carry a variety of payloads including a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), a Lunar Infrared Imaging System (LIRIS), a High-Resolution Camera (HRC), and a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) system. The SAR will be able to study the Moon’s surface in greater detail and detect the presence of water or ice on the surface. LIRIS will be used to measure the lunar surface temperature and the HRC will be utilized to take high-resolution pictures of the surface. LIBS will analyze the composition of rocks and soils on the lunar surface.

The mission will also conduct experiments on the lunar surface. These experiments will include studies of the lunar environment, the measurement of the Moon’s magnetic field, and the study of the Moon’s gravitational field.

Chandrayaan-3 is an ambitious project and is expected to be a major milestone in India’s space exploration program. The mission is expected to provide valuable data to further understand the Moon’s origin and evolution. The mission will also provide critical data to plan future Moon missions.

Bottom line:

An important development in India’s space exploration program is Chandrayaan-3. The success of Chandrayaan extends beyond scientific breakthroughs to include advantages for the nation’s socioeconomic system. Additionally, it will encourage and inspire the next generation to pursue science and technology.

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